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The National Humiliation - Peking
The Boxers & the Invasion by the Eight Allied Nations
In the Hollywood entertainment area, there existed the movie entitled "Fifty Five Days In Peking" starring by Charlton Heston. Recently, Jack Chan's new movie "Shanghai Knights", in the trite style of exhibiting the skills of martial arts, crookedly assigned a contingent of boxers as assassins of the British royal house under the Big Ben. Jack Chan, in the name of patriotism, had only served the interests of the Hollywood by villifying the boxers. More ludicrous would be Huayi Brothers's 45 million US dollars shot of "The Legend of Sai Jinhua [Choi Gum Fa]" to praise the slut as show of a so-called "patriotic act".
Quite a few people had recently re-examined the Boxers' Movement of 1900 and the subsequent invasion by the 'Eight Allied Nations'. A noteworthy scholar would be Bei Ming of 'Radio Free Asia'. The main spirits of this kind of research would be to point out that the United States had acted fairly before, during and after the crackdown on the Boxers. Further, it was said, the United States, in 1908, had acted as the most altruistic of all in voluntarily refunding the overcharged 'war compensations' from damages caused by the Boxers, in the form of scholarships for supporting talented Chinese' overseas studies in America. Bei Ming, in description of the boxers' arson of the adjacent Imperial Library and the British Legation, unscrupulously commented that the British prized Chinese classics books more than the Chinese the same way as today's foreigners giving more love to tens of thousands of baby girls whom the Chinese government sell to the west for an adoption fee of US$5,000 to $20,000. (Increasing interest in Chinese baby girls had encouraged a new form of human smuggling business in China, with a Chinese news report of an interception of a truck carrying 28 baby girls wrapped up in cloth. Note that in US, revenue services would offer as much as $10k as annual adoption tax exemption.)
Per Ding Zhongjiang, Zhou Ziqi, a graduate of Beijing's "Tong Wen Guan"" interpreter school and later a Manchu Qing emissary to US, had been responsible for negotiating with US in regards to refunding the 12,000,000 U.S. dollars. It was never a spontaneous act of the U.S. to offer the refund. (Japan, out of the boxer indemnity, established an annual sole-quota scholarship for the Chinese on the precondition that the recipient swore allegiance or express gratitude to Hirohito. In late 1920s, Hu Qiuyuan yielded the Japanese Imperial Scholarship in preference for a Hubei Provincial scholarship for attending Waseda University. Later in 1932, Mussolini offered to pay Italian advisers with money from overcharged boxer-related war damages in exchange for China's purchasing Italian airplanes in the amount of several million of US dollars. [The Italians, taking advantage of the delayed declaration of war on Germany and Austria by China during WWI, had confiscated quite some money that Germany and Austria were supposed to surrender to China.]) The U.S. government, often cited as a 'friend' of Manchu China, actually pushed the anti-China agenda one step further: after acquiring Hawaii in summer of 1898 and the Philippines in Dec 1898, the Amercians applied the "Chinese Exclusion Act" to the Chinese on the two islands, and further, President Theodore Roosevelt signed into law to have the "Chinese Exclusion Act" applied throughout US-controlled islands and territories over the world. (Also see century-long American hypocrisy towards China & American manipulations of Chinese politics [e.g., Stilwell's instigating General Bai Chongxi, Stuart's instigating Li Zongren, and McArthur's instigating General Sun Liren].)
Empress Dowager Cixi placed puppet Emperor Guangxu under the house arrest after the crackdown on the 'Hundred Day Reformation'. Manchu "zhong tang" Rong-lu instigated Yang Chongyi in petitioning for Empress Dowager Cixi's return to politics and governance. Though Emperor Guangxu was deprived of his rights, Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu did attend the daily imperial sessions together still. Cixi intended to replace Emperor Guangxu with a Manchu prince called Fu-juan (the great grandson of Emperor Daoguang and the son of King Ruijun-wang Zai-yi). Zai-yi asked Chongqigong, some ministers (da xueshi" Xu Tong and "shang shu" Qi-Xiu) and his wife to maneuver about erecting a new emperor. Qi-Xiu went to see Rong-lu (zhong tang" or prime minister) for assisting Zai-yi in the enthronement of the new emperor, and Qi-Xiu hinted at the consequence of the rise of dethroned Emperor Guangxu should Cixi pass away. Rong-lu declined Qi-Xiu's request and refused to see Qi-xiu and Chongqigong again. Qi-xiu et al submitted a petition to Empress Dowager Cixi in regards to erecting a new emperor. Cixi asked her ministers whether she could change the emperor via citation of Ming Emperor Jingtai-di's return of throne to his brother. Xu Tong concurred by saying that Emperor Guangxu could be downgraded to Duke Hunde-gong (duke who lost virtues) via citation of the Jurchens' downgrade of the Song Dynasty emperor. Sun Jia'nai, "da xueshi" and "junji dachen", objected to the sudden change, claiming that it might stir up trouble in southeastern China. Cixi got enraged, saying the change of emperor was her familial matter, nothing to do with Han-ethnic ministers. Cixi spread a rumor about Emperor Guangxu getting seriously ill. Foreign embassies expressed their opposition to Cixi's intention to dethrone Emperor Guangxu. When the news spread that Emperor Guangxu was ill, foreign legation ministers jointly went to see Yi-kuang for inquiring about the emperor's health. The British minister sent a French doctor to see Guangxu, and French doctor's health report enraged Cixi. Further enraging Cixi would be the asylum for Kang You-wei, that was granted by Britain and the asylum for Liang Qi-chao, that was granted by Japan.
At the advice of Rong-lu, Cixi decided to change the throne via two steps and asked Emperor Guangxu decree that Prince Fu-juan be conferred the title of crown prince ("da a ge" or elder brother) for inheriting the line of Qing Emperor Tongzhi (Qing Muzong, r. 1862-1874). (Emperor Guangxu, before enthronement at 1875, had agreed to erect his to-be-born son as heir of Emperor Tongzhi should he bear a son.) Prince Fu-juan was assigned the Palace of Hongde-dian inside of the Forbidden City.
In Shanghai, Jing Yuanshan and Cai Yuanbei submitted a letter with 2000 signatures against the crown prince erection. King Ruijun-wang and Empress Dowager Cixi held a celebration party, with invitation extended to the wives of foreign minister-envoys, but foreign embassies did not show any appreciation. Cixi was recorded to have thrown her jade tea pot to the floor when a Manchu official sent in a letter claiming that the British intended to send in forces to help return power to Emperor Guangxi. Empress Dowager Cixi hence secretly supported the Boxers in their attacks on the foreigners and embassies in and around Beijing, leading to the 1900 invasion by 'Eight Allied Nations'.
The Foreign Partition Scheme Engendering the Boxer Movement
The Russians, after extracting the Amur-Ussuri territories from China and the southern Sakhalin Island [which belonged to Manchu China] from Japan, continued the course of expansion in Asia and embarked on building the Trans-Siberian Railway in 1891. Manchu China, after the debacle in the 1894-5 Sino-Japanese War, wrongly looked to the Russians as the balance of power against the Japanese instead of self-reflection and conducting reform. In March of 1896, Li Hongzhang was invited to St. Petersburg for attending Nicholas II's coronation. To counter the Japanese threat, Li Hongzhang, Manchu China’s viceroy (Senior Grand Secretary of State), was induced into striking a deal with Russian foreign minister Alexey Lobanov-Rostovsky and finance minister Sergey Witte on June 3, 1896 in Moscow to build the Chinese Eastern Railway, a purportedly defensive alliance treaty that pledged mutual support in case of a Japanese attack. The railway allows the Russians to extend the Siberian Railway to Vladivostok [Haishenwai] via the Chinese northeatern provinces of Heilongjiang & Jilin and to moor the warships in all Chinese ports.
In late 1897, the Russians, having engendered the German occupation of Jiaozhou-wan Bay with its 1896 treaty with China, further attempted to swindle the port of Luuda [i.e., Luushun] by playing the card of mediating over the German aggression against China. The subsequent Russian gunboat diplomacy, with demand of the Liaodong Peninsula through demonstration of force via a naval fleet in December 1897, resulted in the signing of the March 1898 Treaty on the Lyuishun Lease, followed by the May 1898 Supplementary Treaty on the Lyuishun Lease and the July 1898 "Sino-Russian follow-through contract on the railway company of Northeatern Provinces", which gave the Russians permission to build a southbound branch railway extending to Dalnii (Dalian or Dairen) and Lyuishun (Port Arthur) on top of the west-to-east Manzhouli-Harbin-Suifenhe trunk line. The 1898 treaties, with extracted privileges greatly exceeding the 1896 limitatation on China’s right to rebuy the railway no earlier than 1932, granted the Russians a lease of Luda (Lushunkou) for 25 years, where the Russian naval base Port Arthur (a natural ice-free port) was to be built, and the right of operation of the Chinese Eastern Railway for 80 years. The Russians, other than swallowing up Manchu China’s railway investment at the Russo-Chinese Bank that could total 5 million teals of silver, encroached on China’s sovereignty with extraction of right of deployment of an Independent Border Guard Corps that later expanded to 15-30,000 men along the railway stations. This in turn led to a chain effect of various powers grabbing Kiaochow Bay, Kwang-Chou-Wan Bay, and Weihaiwei from China. As George Kennan stated, "at the end of 1897 and the beginning of 1898 there was a real and justifiable fear that China would be partitioned."
German Invasion & Robbery on the Shandong Peninsula
In Shandong, the Vatican in 1891 assigned the Germans the task of protecting the Catholic churches and clergymen in the area, i.e., that of Societas Verbi Divini [Divine Word Missionaries]. Several religious disputes occurred between the Chinese and the German clergymen, including the Caozhou Incident of 1897 and the Juye Incident. In October 1898, German warships docked at Shijiu-shuo (i.e., former stone [rice] grinding garrsion from Ming Dynasty), on the Rizhao [sunshine shower] coastline of Shandong, and threatened the local Chinese government and people with force. On November 9, the Rizhao Priest Incident occurred when some German clergymen were caught by the locals. Lv Bingyuan, the county magistrate, intervened to get the Germans released and escorted to Qingdao, and settled the matter with compensation of 25,000 taels of silver and construction of church buildings. In 1899, the German minister sent memorandum to the Qing government for cracking down on the Broad Sword Society activities in Rizhao and Juzhou area. On February 19, 1899, John Baptist Anzer successfuly instigated the German governor for Qingdao and the German minister to China for taking military action against China. From December to March, Anzer continuously instigated the German Army in attacking Rizhao County and Yizhou-fu Prefecture. In late March of 1899, a German reconnaisance team, being encircled by the Chinese en route to Yizhou-fu Prefecture, opened fire and killed numerous Chinese. The German government subsequently approved the military campaign against Shandong. For two months of April and May, German soldiers occupied Rizhao County, with one incident of killing a Chinese called Yu Wende who attempted to protect a woman of their family from being raped by a German soldier. The Germans occupied the magistrate office, and displayed terror throughout the villages around Rizhao, and on the coast, the German marines took over Andongwei and Shijiushuo etc. The Germans withdrew the troops after the Manchu government settled the loan matter on the Tientsin-Pukow Railway on May 25, 1989. In June, Anzer released the Chinese hostage and concluded the Rizhao Incident after China agreed to a compensation of additional 80,000 taels of silver.
The Germans looted China's treasures prior to evacuation, including, among others, three ancient stone monuments at the coastal Mt Tiantaishan in Rizhao County, i) the Ju-guo ancestral reverence monument at the Wangxianjian (fairy seeking) Creek (possibly erected by the sun-worshipping Ju-guo people from the Shang-Zhou dynasty time period), ii) the reconstruction monument for the Shifeng-shi (stone phoenix) Monastery of Tanggu (spring valley), which was first built by Monk Huishen as Tiantai-min-shi [pity of the heavenly terrace] Monastery in the mid-5th century prior to his overseas trip to Fu-sang (?ancient Mexico), was rebuilt a second time by Silla monk Zhi-yin as the Silla Monastery in early Tang Dynasty, and was revamped by the Qin Dynasty descendants as Shi-feng-shi Monastery during Ming Dynasty; and iii) the stone monument bearing three characters of "Ri Zhao Xian" (Rizhao County) that was erected by Korean confucian Zheng Mengzhou when visiting the Silla settlement on the Shandong coast in First Ming Dynasty Emperor Hongwu's era.
Origin of the Boxer Movement
The Boxers, i.e., Yihe-quan (righteous and harmonious fists [boxing]) in Chinese, also named Meihua-quan [plum blossom fist], originated in Shandong (Shantung) in 1898 as a secret society. The names before Yihe-quan would be 'yi shi dang' (the temple of righteous warriors) and 'da dao hui' (big blade [broad sword] society) of 1897. Governor Li Bingheng was deprived of his post when 'da dao hui' killed two German missionaries in Oct 1897. Succeeding governor (Yu-xian) would rename Yihe-quan to Yihe-tuan. Foreign embassies protested the atrocious acts of the boxers. Cai Dongfan claimed that Yihe-quan was an off-shoot of the White Lotus Society; Ding Zhongjiang claimed it was an off-shoot of the ancient 'Ba Gua Jiao' (i.e., milfoil divination religion of eight trigrams). In 1899, famine erupted over northern China. The Boxers first propogated the idea of 'destroying foreigners' (i.e., Mie Yang) by utilizing the masses' anti-foreign fermentation as a result of foreign invasion and exploitation as well as the bullying from Christian converts [i.e., rice Christians] or broker-dealers associated with foreign merchants or Christian/Catholic churches. (It was recorded that priests, for sake of expanding membership, had offered 'Thanksgiving-day' kind of free meals and fringe benefits to street rascals, and those rascal-turned Christian converts were often resented by peasants.) The Boxers termed foreigners as 'da mao zi' (big hairy son) and termed the Chinese Christian followers as 'Er Mao Zi' (secondary hairy son). For sake of obtaining the Manchu support, the Boxers proclaimed the idea of 'sustaining Manchu Dynasty' (i.e., Fu Qing).
The Boxers claimed that they had the protection of divine spirits, practiced an animistic magic of rituals and spells, and believed they were impervious to bullets, swords and firearms. The Boxers grew in strength in Shandong with the acquiesce of Governor Li Bingheng and Governor Yu-xian, consecutively. The male boxers practiced a karate-kind of fist arts (shadow boxing) called Jinzhongzhao (golden bell protection), and the women practiced the art of Hongdengzhao (red lantern shining). Governor Yu-xian, a disciple of King Ruijun-wang Zai-yi, praised the skills of the boxers to Zai-yi and suggested that the boxers could be sent to the Forbidden City to protect the new crown prince. Zai-yi recommended the boxers to Cixi, and when Cixi expressed doubts about the boxers' divine powers, Zai-yi suggested that Governor-general Yu-lu for Zhili (Beijing) Prov and Governor Yu-xian for Shandong Prov send in some boxers to the capital for demonstration of magic. Yu-lu and Yu-xian approved of the establishment of Tuan-lian-ju (i.e., 'boxer training centers'), with the flag carrying the three characters of 'Yi (righteous) He (harmonious) Tuan (civilian brigade)'. Empress Dowager was also credited with reviving the Peking Opera which based most of the dramas on ancient divine stories like "Feng Shen Bang" (The List of Conferred Gods) etc. Empress Dowager, with the surname of Yehe-Nala-shi, liked to be called "Lao Fu Ye" (i.e., the Elderly Buddha Ancestress). Impressed by the superman capabilities of drama characters in the Peking Opera, Empress Dowager hence believed that the anti-foreign sentiment among the boxers could be utilized and that this secret society, with its divine spirits, could be the vanguard in expelling the Europeans (nicknamed the 'foreign devils').
'Yi He Tuan' swooned to 100,000 in membership, with such masters as Wang Decheng, Cao Futian and Zhang Decheng, in the order of brothers as depicted by the novel "Water Margin". A street woman would be made into the chieftan in charge of women's Hongdengzhao branch. The Boxers' movement spread to neighboring provinces of Shandong-Hebei-Shanxi, with burning of churches and killing of Christians everywhere.
The Boxer chieftans, in the name of boxing training, took over Hongdengzhao women as their concubines without regard for laws. The Boxers took over various monasteries as their camps and forced every household into setting up the boxing altars. Tientsin boxers gradually spread out. Several times, Rong-lu failed to disuade Cixi from being intoxicated by the magic of the boxers. Cixi ordered that King Ruijun-wang and Qi-xiu be in charge of the foreign affairs office (i.e., "zongli yamen") and that King Zhuang-wang Zai-xun and Gang-yi be in charge of leading the boxers for an oncoming fight with foreigners. The Boxers flocked to the capital thereafter.
The Boxers Entering Peking the Capital
In Oct of 1899, Rong-lu dispatched Yuan Shi-kai's "wuwei you jun" (i.e., 'martial defending rightside army') to Shandong for restoring order. Yuan Shi-kai was assigned the post of backup governor-general in Nov and took over the post of governor-general in Feb of 1900. Around this timeframe, Anglican missionary S. M. Brooks was slain by the 'Big Blade Society' in Shandong. Yuan Shi-kai's crackdown on the boxers caused the mobsters to flee to Hebei and Shanxi provinces. Foreign embassies sent letters to the Manchu foreign affairs' office demanding the suppression of the Boxers and threatening with invasion should the Manchu court fail to quell the boxers within two months.
Around the capital, the imperial guarding forces were composed of four columns (equiv to brigades) led by Song Qing, Nie Shicheng, Ma Yuekun and Dong Fuxiang, respectively. (Dong Fuxiang, previously a Gansu Province bandit, was pacified by General Zuo Zongtang, was later assigned the post of a general in Gansu, and was relocated to Jizhou, near Peking the capital.) At the order of King Ruijun-wang, Dong Fuxiang led his Gansu bandit-converted army to City-gate Zhengyang-men of the capital and surrounded foreign embassies in the Dongjiaominxiang area.
The Boxers and soldiers, together, destroyed the railroads, cut the telephone lines, and burnt down foreign residences. By mid-April of 1900, the boxers of Lai-shui County burnt down the Baoding Railroad. At Laishui County, some villager, hating the Christians, invited the boxers for an attack at the church. Church followers contacted the county magistrate for protection. Magistrate Zhu Fei reported to the province but was asked not to crack down on the boxers. When some priest contacted the foreign consulate for assistance, the Manchu provincial army, under deputy general Yang Futong, was sent to Laishui. Before Yang Futong (Yang Sitong?) arrived, boxers already sacked the church, killed all Christians and burnt down the building. Yang Futong fought with the boxers and later died in the hands of the boxers. Governor-general Yu-lu for Zhili Prov then dispatched "da xueshi" (grand scholar) Gang-yi and "fu yi" Zhao Shuqiao for Shuntian-fu Prefecture (Zhuozhou area) on a pacification mission. Gang-yi and Zhao Shuqiao colluded with the boxers and then petitioned with Cixi for using the boxers against the foreigners. Chief Eunuch Li Lianying also praised the boxers in front of Cixi.
By May of 1900, large crowds of Boxers entered Peking, and foreigners retreated into the legations. Thousands of homes in the embassy area were burnt. It was claimed that the Boxers, in Peking, killed over 300 converts. Foreign embassies sent urgent messages to the Manchu foreign affairs' office, but King Ruijun-wang ignored them all. navyandmarine.org/ondeck/1900boxerrebellionmarines.htm stated that "on 30 May (solar calendar) ... Chinese authorities allowed the Americans, British, French, Italians, Japanese, and Russians to augment their embassy guard forces. The next day, 337 men arrived from foreign naval ships anchored off Taku (Dagu). Included in the contingent were 50 U.S. Marines, led by Captains John Myers and Newt Hall. Over the next few days ...foreign ministers called for additional reinforcements."
Seymour Forcing His Way To Peking
By this time, the Eight Allied Nations decided to intervene for protecting their embassies and staff as well as the missionaries and the Christian followers. The allied forces, under British General Xi-mo-er (Sir Edward Hobart Seymour [1840-1929]), reached the Dagu-kou Battery. Governor-general Yu-lu for Zhili reported to King Ruijun-wang about the allied attacks. At Dugu-kou (Taku), "ti du" or general Luo Rongguang was defeated by the Eight Allied Nations and he fled to Tientsin. navyandmarine.org/ondeck/1900boxerrebellionmarines.htm further stated "at Taku, Vice Adm. Sir Edward H. Seymour formed an international rescue force of 2,056 troops, including 112 U.S. Marines, to move inland by train on 10-11 June (solar calendar). However, the relief column met heavy resistance from the Boxers northwest of Tientsin (Tientsin)." From Dagukou to Tientsin and Beijing, the boxers, including those expelled from Shandong by Yuan Shi-kai, were everywhere. In Tientsin, the boxers looted the Zizhulin extraterritorial area.
On May 8th, the boxers burnt down the railroads at Yangchun Village. Governor-general Yu-lu dispatched two battalions of Nie Shicheng's "wu-wei (martial defence) zuo (leftside) jun (army)" to the Zhuozhou area. When Nie Shicheng tried to protect the railroad, the boxers attacked Nie Shicheng and injured over a dozen soldiers. Nie Shicheng cracked down on the boxers. Cixi asked Rong-lu write to Nie Shicheng for sake of stopping Nie from fighting the boxers. Nie Shicheng stubbornly insisted on quelling the boxer mobsters and stationed his army at Yangchun Village for defence against the boxers. On one occasion, Nie Shicheng personally shot a boxer chief who climbed on top of a telephone pole to instruct the destruction of railroad in the Lutai area, chased the fallen boxer chief on horseback, attacked the boxer chief with the blade, and decapitated the boxer chief. Nie Shicheng's army killed several hundred boxers and became feuds with each other.
On May 14th, British General Xi-mo-er (Seymour) departed for Beijing with 2000 men as the forerunner column. On May 15th (solar calendar June 11), Seymour's train could not go on as a result of boxers' sabotage. General Seymour retreated after a firce fight with Nie Shicheng's army. Cixi mistook this victory as boxers' contribution.
The Boxers continued attacking the embassies, but they failed to take over those buildings. The Manchu court sent over praises about the boxer attacks. On May 15th of 1900 (June 11th solar calendar), Dong Fuxiang's Gansu Prov soldiers killed a Japanese embassy secretary (Shanshan Bin in Chinese) near City-gate Yongding-men and dismembered him. On May 20th, the Boxers burnt down Zhengyang-men city-gate.
Empress Dowager Cixi Declaring War On Twelve Nations
On May 20th, Empress Dowager Cixi, at the Yiluan-dian Palace, convened an imperial meeting attended by the full house of ministers. During the meeting, Emperor Guangxu rebuked the ministers for failing to quell the boxers' rebellion. Liu Yongheng from the Imperial Library kneeled and moved forward to report that he met General Dong Fuxiang en route and that Dong requested for an imperial decree to quell the boxers. King Ruijun-wang (Zai-yi) shouted at Liu Yongheng, "Good ! This is the No. 1 approach to lose the heart of the people." Yuan Chang shouted to the front rows that the boxers' witch-craft could not be relied upon. Empress Dowager rebuked Yuan Chang, saying that the boxers' heart could be used even though their witch-craft might be useless. The meeting ended with no result as to crackdown on or support for the boxers, and Cixi decreed that Na-tong and Xu Jingcheng be dispatched to the embassies for stopping the dispatchment of Western forces to their rescue. After the meeting, Zeng Guanghan, Zhang Hengjia, Yun Yuding and Zhu Zumou stayed on to express opposition to Cixi's reliance on the boxers and Dong Fuxiang's army for countering the foreigners. Cixi got so enraged that she stared at the ministers even after Rong-lu mediated over the matter.
King Ruijun-wang asked Qi-xiu to forge an embassy corps' letter which demanded that i) Cixi return the regency to Emperor Guangxu; ii) the Eight Allied Nations bring in 10,000 soldiers to the capital for restoring the order. Historian Tang Degang and historian Fan Wenlan both stated that it was Luo Jiajie's son who sent in a report to Rong-lu about imperialist powers' intent to return power to Emperor Guangxu. Tang Degang stated that Luo Jiajie, a Manchu official in charge of the grain supply in Shanghai, had obtained a report from a Chinese clerk who worked for a British newspaper in Shanghai, "Bei Hua Jie Bao" (i.e., North China Express). The newspaper's editorial on June 19th, 1900, mentioned that the allied powers intended to topple the empress dowager.
On May 20th, Nie Shicheng was ordered to attack Tientsin's foreign settlements; Nie Shicheng fought a heated war for eight straight days. On May 21st (solar calendar June 17), the Dagukou Battery fell.
On May 21th of 1900, Empress Dowager Cixi convened another imperial meeting for deciding whether to declare a war on Twelve Nations, and the meeting was attended by Manchu "junji dachen" Shi-duo, Rong-lu, Gang-yi, Wang Wenzhao, Qi-xiu and Zhao Shuqiao. Liu Yongheng and Zai-yi had another dispute in regards to declaration of war. Rong-lu objected to the war declaration, stating that none of the wars in the past were initiated by China and that a war with twelve nations could mean a self-destruction. Cixi rebuked Rong-lu. Qi-xiu submitted a war declaration to Cixi for review. Few hours later, Cixi called on various kings, princes and brothers, all "junji dachen" (ministers in charge of military affairs), ministry level "shang shu" (secretaries) and "qiu qing", internal affairs minister, banner army generals, plus Emperor Guangxu, to a meeting in the Qinzheng-dian Palace for a final decision. Cixi read parts of the forged foreign embassy corps' letter (omitting the fourth clause in regards to return of power to Emperor Guangxu) and said to the audience that the foreign embassy corps' letter was an intervention in Manchu China's internal affairs, that the invasion by the Eight Allied Nations was an insult to Manchu China, and that she intended to declare war on eight nations. When asked of his opinions, Emperor Guangxu, who was a raely wise Manchu man, first stated that the boxers had better stop attacking embassies and the Manchu government should escort foreigners to Tientsin (Tianjin); after Cixi showed madness, he backed down, saying Cixi, not him, should make a decision on this kind of matter. Various dukes and kings, under the pressure of King Ruijun-wang, dared not express opposition. Manchu ministers, Xu Yongyi (military ministry), Li-Shan (household ministry), Xu Jingcheng (leftside "shi lang" from Bureaucrat Ministry), Lian Yuan (xue shi" from "nei ge" or inner cabinet) and Yuan Chang (qing" from Taichangshi department) expressed worries about fighting eight nations. Yuan Chang stated that the embassy corps letter might not be authentic. King Ruijun-wang rebuked Yuan Chang as a traitor.
Cixi made a decision for war, and said to her ministers that they should not blame her for causing the Manchu dynastic demise should the war be lost. Cixi asked Xu Yongyi, Li-shan and Lian Yuan to relay a message to various minister-envoys stating that should their countries plan to fight China, they should leave for Tientsin. Xu Yongyi and Yuan Chang, together, submitted another request for avoiding the declaration of war. Li-shan claimed that relaying message to embassies should not be his job, and Emperor Guangxu rediculed him by pointing out that Li-shan had received foreign minister-envoys at the Yi-he-yuan Garden one year ago. Cixi asked Rong-lu to send army to have the three ministers protected from a distance.
On May 22nd, Cixi convened a meeting for war preparations. Zai-yi proposed to attack the embassies, and Cixi concurred. Lian Yuan opposed this idea. Zai-lian asked Cixi to have Lian Yuan executed, and King Zhuangqin-wang (Zai-xun) rescued Lian Yuan. Wang Wenshao also opposed the attack on embassies. Cixi ridiculed Wang Wenshao by daring him to promise that he could stop the foreign armies from invading Peking. Emperor Guangxu took Xu Jingcheng's hands into his hands and cried. The next day, at noon, Cixi decided to issue the war declaration. Cixi asked Xu Jingcheng to send a message to various minister-envoys stating that they should leave China within 24 hours and that the Manchu could dispatch armies for protecting their safety of passage. Emperor Guangxu took Xu Jingcheng's hands and asked whether there could be further discussions. Cixi shouted at Emperor Guangxu and asked him to release Xu Jingheng's hands. Lian Yuan kneed down and stated that the Manchu Qing government should declare war on France alone for the French's propagating the alien religions, but not the other countries.
On May 22th (solar calendar June 18), Seymour's soliders met resistance from Dong Fuxiang's Gansu army at Langfang, near Tientsin. Seymour defeated Dong Fuxiang's Gansu army (Gan-jun) with a casualty of 54 men.
On May 23rd (June 20 solar calendar), the same day, the Boxers killed the German minister-envoy (Baron von Ketleler [i.e., Ke-lin-de]) who was on his way to the foreign affairs' office (i.e., "zong shu") from his embassy. (Ding Zhongjiang stated that he was shot by the Manchu "shen-ji-ying" soldiers under Zai-lan.) Baron Ketleler learnt the Chinese language while being a youth, was assigned an interpreter's job at the Canton consulate, received a medal from the German emperor for protecting German citizens in 1888, worked as minister to Mexico in 1896, and transferred to China thereafter.
On May 23rd, in the early morning, Cixi convened again at the Yiluan-dian Palace. Rong-lu, with tears, pleaded with Cixi for avoiding the attack on embassies. After a morning tea at the suggestion of eunuch Li Lianying, Cixi explained why she wanted to declare war on eight nations, mentioning that she had been restraining herself for 40 years. Zhao Shuqiao, upgraded to the title of "shang shu" for the justice ministry, suggested that an imperial decree be dispatched to inner provinces to have all foreigners executed for sake of preventing them from acting as spies. Li-shan, Xu Jingcheng, Yuan Chang, with tears, again pleaded with Cixi for recalling the war decision.
On May 25th, Cixi ordered that Lian Wenchong from the military affairs' office draft the war declaration, and that the war declaration be officially issued. After the war delaration, Cixi fetched 100,000 taels of silver for funds to be used by the boxers in attacking the Tientsin settlements and Peking embassies. Governor for Shanxi Prov, Yu-xian, who had relocated there from Shandong, ordered all foreigners and missioneries to be arrested and executed. Yu-xian had 15 foreign men, 20 foreign women and 11 of their children stripped of their clothes and executed in front of his governor's office. Speculation put the total death toll at over 250 foreigners in Shanxi. H.H. Kun, in Shanxi, purportedly rescused some foreigners, for which he was later sponsored for studies in America by the missionaries.
In the foreign embassy district, foreigners flocked to the strong-walled British legation for protection. Earlier, 337 sailors (or 430 sailors and marines per http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq86-1.htm, including fifty-six Americans from USS Oregon and USS Newark), with the approval of Manchu government, had arrived in the embassy as guards on solar calendar May 31st & June 4th [sc]. The British embassy was renowned for its large capacity, solid walls with a depth of eight Chinese feet and a height of 20 Chinese feet (3 Chinese feet=3.281 British feet), and the adjacency to the Imperial Library (Han Lin Yuan" which the foreigners looked to as a safety shield. Embassy officials paid high prize for a messenger to be sent to Tientsin for relief. http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq86-1.htm stated that boxers begant to attack embassies on June 9th [sc], and "Great Britain's Sir Claude MacDonald, requested a sizable relief force just before the telegraph lines were cut". Soon, the Italian embassy, Austrian embassy, Belgian embassy, Dutch embassy, Portuguese embassy and Russian embassy were all burnt. The Customs' Office, churches, and priests' residencies were attacked and destroyed. He-de, a taxes and duty officer in charge of the customs' office, paid messengers 100-500 taels to have the relief request letters sent to Tientsin's settlements. http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq86-1.htm stated that "over 2,100 men ... from Great Britain, Germany, Russia, France, the United States, Japan, Italy, and Austria... departed the city of Tientsin on 10 June, under the command of British Admiral Sir Edward Seymour. However, strong Boxer and Imperial Chinese opposition forced Seymour to return his battered column to Tientsin on 22 June." On June 17th [sc], the allied invasion forces sacked Dagukou Battery on the coastline.
On basis of the solar calendar, about one month ahead of the lunar calendar, the Manchu government declared war on the foreign countries, i.e., on June 21st, and the boxers and Dong Fuxiang's army began to lay siege of embassies. (Alternative records showed that the siege of the Legations began one day before the war declaration.) On June 22nd (Solar calendar), the Manchu Qing army destroyed civilian residencies to the southeast of the British embassy. On June 23rd (Solar calendar), Dong Fuxiang's army set fire on the trees of the adjacent Imperial Library which housed Ming Dynasty's encyclopedia "Yong Le Da Dian" and Qing Dynasty's encyclopedia "Si Ku Quan Shu". Various witness account, by Gilbert Reid, Monsieur Pichon, Lizzer Martin, Putnam Weale, Lewis C. Arlington, William Lewisohn, Lancelot Giles, and Mary E. Andrews, stated that the Manchu soldiers jumped into the Imperial Library, sprayed kerosene onto the trees by the Embassy wall, and lit the fire. British minister-envoy Claude M. McDonald purportedly ordered his sailors go inside of the library to rescue the books from the fire and moreover telephoned the Manchu foreign affairs office of the arson. The British customs officer, Putnam Wale, recorded in his diary the next day that some of the foreigners secretly hid away the classics books. However, records also showed that both the Westerners and Manchu soldiers had used the classics books for stuffing their trenches and positions.
Cixi also ordered that Zai-xun and Gang-yi be in charge of the boxers. Cixi, personally, also had boxers' altar set up in her bedroom and recited the boxers' spell scripts 70 times per day. (Eunuch Lian Lianying would shout, 'Another foreign devil is killed' whenever Cixi finished her daily recital of scripts.) Crown Prince Fu-juan dared to bully Emperor Guangxu by calling the derogatory name of 'Er Mao Zi'. After Cixi ordered 20 whips of Fu-juan for the rudeness to the emperor, King Ruijun-wang (Zai-yi) led a column of the boxers to the palace to bully Emperor Guangxu, too. Cixi was outraged, rebuked Zai-yi, and ordered Rong-lu to have those intruding boxers executed at Dong'an-men city-gate. Zai-xun, who was a feud of Li-shan for favor of a 'woman entertainer' as well as Li-shan's refusal in lending funds, would accuse Li-shan of collusion with the foreigners and church. (Later, Li-shan, Xu Jingcheng and Yuan Chang were all arrested and executed as 'traitors'.)
Various governors also wired in to express their opposition to the war on the western powers, including Governor Yuan Shi-kai of Shandong Prov (who quelled the boxers in Shandong already), Governor-general Li Hongzhang for Liang-guang (Guangdong and Guangxi), Governor-general Zhang Zhidong, and Governor-general Liu Kunyi for Liang-jiang (Jiangsu and Jiangxi). Li Bingheng, who was former governor-general for Sichuan prov, also wired in objection. These regional governors and governor-generals ignored Empress Dowager's instructions and protected foreigners in their domains. The Manchu government wired over rebuking statements to the four governor-generals and requested for supplying soldiers and funds. Liu Kunyi, after consulting with the rest of Southeastern governor-generals, reached an agreement with the foreign consuls of eight nations to have neutrality declared in Southeast China. The commander of the allied forces, British General Xi-mo-er (Seymour), agreed to the neutrality in Southeastern China after he had suffered earlier setback at Yangchun, Langfang and elsewhere from June 10th [sc] to June 22nd [sc].
Nie Shicheng Fighting the Eight Allied Powers To Death
On May 25th (solar calendar June 21), Seymour fought with Nie Shicheng at Beicang, and occupied Beicang with a casualty of 150 men. On May 26th (solar calendar June 22), Seymour, with another 140 casualties, took over Xiguwu from Nie Shicheng. Seymour, after a defeat in Langfang near Tientsin, was said to have retreated back to Tientsin on June 22nd [sc]. On May 27th (solar calendar June 23), reinforcements from Dagukou combined forces with Seymour. Seymour was deprived of his commander post by the allied forces. With the British and the Russians entangled over control of leadership, Germany pretended itself to be a dialectical solution. Later in August, German Emperor proposed to have Alfred Graf von Waldersee [Wa-de-xi 1832-1904] travel to China to be the new commander.
By May 28th [June 24th sc], the allied forces reached the outskirts of Tientsin, and Nie Shicheng's army retreated to the outskirts of Tientsin. On one night, Nie Shicheng ordered a full crack-down on the boxers before engaging in further fights with the foreign invasion forces. Nie Shicheng's army destroyed over one thousand boxers on that night. The next day, when Nie was fighting the allied forces, the boxers raided Nie Shicheng's residence and abducted Nie Shicheng's family members. When Nie Shicheng led his forces in search of his family members, the boxers claimed that Nie Shicheng had rebelled. The Manchu soldiers at the hind line shooted at Nie Shicheng's army. On June 4th [lc], General Ma Yukun and General Song Qing came to Nie Shicheng's relief. The two generals fought another ten days in the Tientsin area. On June 13th [July 9th sc], Governor-general Yu-lu recalled Nie Shicheng to his office; Nie Shicheng entered the governor-general office via a side door; Yu-lu displayed a wire from Peking stating that Nie Shicheng killed 'patriotic' boxers and Nie Shicheng be executed; Nie Shicheng kneeled down to accept the execution order; Yu-lu comforted Nie Shicheng in saying that he could petition for mercy should Nie Shicheng have a victory over the foreign forces. Nie Shicheng then left for the Balitai area, southside of Tientsin, to fight the allied forces, with empty stomach for the whole morning and still wearing officer's civil clothes, while the boxers harassed Nie Shicheng's hind position. The allied forces, checking out the position of Nie Shicheng (who already was shot in the face) with telescope, bombarded Nie Shicheng to death, with his intestines exposed to the ground. Nie Shicheng's subordinate officers, generals like Zhou Yueru and Yao Liangcai and captains like Xu Zhaode and Song Desheng, all died in this battle. (Cai Dongfan stated Seymour allowed Nie Shicheng's soldiers come to fetch Nie's body and furthermore drove off the boxers who intended to slice Nie Shicheng's body.) After the boxer rebellion's crackdown, Nie Shicheng was later restored reputation by Yuan Shi-kai who was to take over the post of governor-general for Zhili Prov.
The Battle of Tientsin
On June 15th [July 11th sc], Ma Yukun attacked the Laolongdou Train Station of Tientsin for sake of cutting off the supply of the allied forces. The allied forces drove off Ma Yukun after a casualty of 150 men. The allied forces got a new reinforcement of 4000 men. General Ma Yukun, while fighting the allied invasion forces, had to engage with the boxers on a second front. The Boxers accused Ma Yukun of wearing the traitor-style (i.e., imported) straw-hats and pressured the governor-general into ordering that Ma Yukun's army threw away the straw-hats. During a rain-storm, Ma's army was defeated by Seymour. General Song Qing relayed a message to have General Ma Yukun retreat to Beicang.
On June 18th [July 14th sc], the Japanese army intruded into Tientsin after three days' fierce fighting, and Luo Yong-guang committed suicide. On July 17th [sc], the allied invasion forces sacked Tientsin with a combined force of about 20,000 men. The Tientsin warfare, lasting through June 17th (solar cal) to July 17th (solar cal), extracted about 2000 casualties from the allied invasion forces. In Tientsin, the Russian, French and German soldiers committed atrocities. On June 23rd lunar calendar [July 19th sc], the allied forces convened in Tientsin and then marched on Beijing along the two banks of the Canal. Among the allied forces, the Russians numbered 10,000, the Japanese 9,000, the British 6,000, the French 2,600, the American 2,500, the German 4,000, the Austrian 150, and the Italian 150. (Separately, the Russians, numbering over 100,000, intruded into Manchuria in mid-July of 1900, occupying the territory till the pullout after a defeat in the 1904-5 Russo-Japanese War.) In Tientsin, the allied forces compromised by agreeing to German General Alfred Graf von Waldersee [Wa-de-xi] as the new commander-in-chief. The French abstained from its objection, while the Russians and the British compromised by giving up leadership over each other. (The German reinforcements of 7000 Germans would arrive in China three days after taking over Peking in mid-Aug [sc], by which time Alfred Graf von Waldersee still failed to depart Germany yet. The Japanese, to extract more territories from China, mounted a short-duration invasion of Amoy on the southeastern Chinese coast.) navyandmarine.org/ondeck/1900boxerrebellionmarines.htm stated that "a larger second expedition, including the U.S. Army’s 9th Infantry Regiment, had rescued the Seymour expedition and secured Tientsin as a logistical base for a move on Peking. Further reinforcements, including the Army’s 14th Regiment, then arrived. On 5 August (solar calendar), a multinational force of over 14,000 troops began moving up the Pei Ho River." http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq86-1.htm stated that "The allied powers worked to assemble a stronger force, and on 5 August 1900, it departed Tientsin with 20,000 men, including 2,000 Americans (over 500 of these were U.S. Navy Sailors and Marines). After fighting two major battles against huge Chinese forces, the relief force reached the foreign legations at Peking on 14 August".
In Peking, one month earlier, a truce had ensued between the Manchu and the foreign legations, lasting from July 15th (solar calendar) to July 28th (solar calendar). Cixi rebuked General Dong Fuxiang for offending Rong-lu on the matter of borrowing Germany-made cannons for attacks on the British embassy. Dong Fuxiang had only so-called 'tu pao' or 'raw cannons' at his disposal. Rong-lu secretly instructed a cannon officer to bombard the empty yard at the back of the British embassy. Cixi, possibly to leave some leeway for future compromise with the powers, secretly ordered Rong-lu to prepare gifts for the embassies and relayed a message to King Ruijun-wang to console the minister-envoys. Rong-lu had been sending fruits, vegetables and ammunition to the embassy whenever there was a ceasefire. Cixi also decreed that senior Manchu official, Li Hongzhang, be conferred the post of governor-general for Zhili for sake of peace talks with the eight allied nations. King Ruijun-wang, hearing of Cixi's change of attitude, instructed Li Bingheng in spreading vilification in front of Cixi that Xu Jingcheng and Yuan Chang had revised Cixi's decrees. Xu Jingcheng and Yuan Chang, who had sent in three petitions to Cixi for stopping attacks on the embassy as well as advocating for crackdown on the boxers, would be ordered to be executed as traitor. (Cai Dongfan carried a full third petition by the two gentlemen in chapter 94 of his book, Qing Shi Yan-yi and commented that it was the best admonition article ever written in the Chinese history.) Moreover, King Ruijun-wang and Zai-lan ordered that Manchu official Li-shan and Han ethnic officials (Xu Yongyi and Lian Yuan) be executed for sympathy with the foreigners.
North of Tientsin, the allied forces encountered Li Bingheng's Manchu soldiers at Beicang and Yangchun. The Japanese took charge in taking over Beicang. The Allied Forces then attacked Yangchun with three columns and took over it within half a day. Governor-general Yu-lu committed suicide. Li Bingheng committed suicide at Hexiwu after losing the fight.
The Eight Allied Powers Attacking Peking
On July 2nd [lc], allied army's generals convened at Yangchun and decided to rest for mere one day in the hope of taking over Peking (Beijing) before the Manchu relief army came to the capital.
On July 17th [lc], the allied forces sacked Zhangjiawan. On July 18th [lc] (i.e., Aug 13th [sc]), the allied forces passed Tongzhou. By the evening, the Japanese attacked Chaoyangmen gate; and the Russians attacked Dongzhimen [Dongbianmen?] City Gate. Manchu General Dong Fuxiang resisted the allied forces (the Japanese) on July 19th at Guangqu-men City-gate. (Dong Fuxiang had led his army in attacking the British embassy for well over a month and he had earlier requested with Rong-lu for lending him the Manchu cannons for bombarding the embassy. Rong-lu refused to lend the cannons. Dong Fuxiang requested for help with Cixi, but Cixi rebuked Dong Fuxiang as a bandit-turned servant.)
On basis of the solar calendar, the allied forces launched a general attack at Beijing on the early morning of August 14th. While the Japanese attacked Chaoyangmen gate and the Russians attacked Dongzhimen City Gate, the Americans attacked Dongbianmen and penetrated the lower-height citywall at around 11:00 am, per http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/4/8/14/70203.html. (Dongbianmen city wall was about 10 meteres tall, while Chaoyangmen and Dongzhimen were 20 meters tall.) navyandmarine.org claimed that "the 14th Infantry Regiment broke through to lift the siege. Later, 21 of the Marine defenders, including Daly, were awarded the Medal of Honor." Around noon, on Aug 14th [sc], the British arrived at Peking and penetrated the Guangqumen gate at about 2:00 pm. The Russian and Japanese armies penetrated into the inner city wall as well by 9:00 pm. For the whoel day, the Russian and Japanese incurred a loss of about 100 soldiers trying to crack the city gates.
By daybreak of July 20th (i.e., Aug 15th [sc]), the allied forces entered the city-gates of Guangqu-men, Chaoyang-men and Dongbian-men for the inner city and the forbidden city. Dong Fuxiang fled from the Zhuangyi-men city-gate. At 7:30 am, the Americans mounted four cannons against the inner city and the forbidden city on top of the Qianmen citywall. Empress Dowager Cixi held several 5 ministerial meetings with no consequence. By early morning of July 21st [lc] (i.e., Aug 15th [sc]), Empress Dowager Cixi, with 1000 entourage, fled towards the Xizhimen City Gate to the west after she was disuaded from committing suicide. Empress Dowager Cixi, before fleeing the Forbidden City, ordered that Emperor Guangxu's favourite concubine, Zhen-fei, be pushed into a well for her bad influence over the emperor. After a strenuous trek, Ci-xi arrived at Xi'an of Shenxi Province where she would stay till Oct 6th, 1901.
The allied forces, after breaching the Tian'anmen [heavenly peace] City Gate, encountered fierce resistance from the Manchu garrison troops at the second gate of the forbidden city. By dead of night, the Manchu troops retreated inside of Wu-men City Gate and defended Mt Jingshan and the Hou-men [hind gate] areas. By early morning of July 21st (i.e., Aug 16th [sc]), the fire power of the allied forces destroyed the Hind City Gate. Hearing of the defeat at the forbidden city, General Yan-mao [from Jilin of Manchuria] abandoned Anding-men City Gate, hence losing all nine gates to the allied forces. The Manchu forces and the boxers continued the fightings with the allied forces lan eby lane for one whole day. Gradually, the Manchu troops were pushed to the north and west. The Americans continued to attack the South City Gates of the forbidden city. The French and Japanese went to rescue the missionaries and converts. The British occupied the Heaven Temple. By the night of Aug 15th [sc], the majority of Peking fell into the allied forces.
Three Days of open ransacking and pillaging ensued. Fire and arson went on for three days, destroying the districts to the south of the Dian-men Bridge, Xi-si to Xi-dan area, and the Chaoyang-men Rostrum, and the Qian-men Rostrum. The Imperial Library, where the books were treasured by the British more than by the Chinese as writer Bei-ming stated, would be looted by the allied forces. The Japanese were said to have looted 3 million taels of silver from the Manchu "household ministry". (Don't propagate thee myth that the Japanese soldiers had fared the best in 1900 in military disciple as a constrast with the barbarity exhibited during the 15-year war of 1931 to 1945.) The Allied Forces burnt down all houses with boxer altars, shot the Chinese wherever spotted, raped women and imposed incest among the Chinese family members, ransacked palaces and buildings, and burnt down the treasures that could not be transported out of China. The Manchu coffer incurred a total loss of 60 million taels of silver. (Stupid Empress Ci-xi never made a contingent plan of evacuation as Emperor Xian-feng did during the Second Opium War.) Residencies of Manchu kings were ransacked by the French, the Japanese and the allied forces as well, including 2 million taels from King Li-wang, 3 million tale worth of treasures from Li-shan, and 0.3 million taels of silver from Bao-jun's residency. The Chinese loss was estimated to be around 100 million taels of silver and more.
War Not Over With the Fall Of Peking
Ransacking and pillaging never stopped till the evacuation of the allied forces in the second year. Both legation officers and the allied forces participated in the "massacre contest" [as the Japanese did during the Nanking Rape]. http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/4/8/14/70203.html pointed out i) that the allied forces killed 1700 "boxers" at King Zhuang-wang Residency; ii) that the French had driven a crowd of Chinese into an alley where they shot to kill for 15 continuous minutes; and iii) that the allied forces massacred the Chinese who were hired to bury the dead bodies. (Should not be a surprise at all to find such evil human nature among the allied forces, since wars are always a cruel killing game.)
In Peking, the allied forces swelled to a total of 100,000 as a result of the arrival of German reinforcements. German Emperor [Kaizer] Wilhelm II and Alfred Graf von Waldersee, in order to loot China further, declared that the war was not over with the fall of Peking. On Aug 19th, 1900 [sc], Alfred Graf von Waldersee departed Berlin, on Sept 18th [sc], arrived in HK, and on Oct 17th [sc], Alfred Graf von Waldersee entered Peking with a grand ceremony held by the allied force. Days earlier, while in Tientsin, Alfred Graf von Waldersee refused to see Manchu minister Li Hongzhang for the truce talks.
German Commander Alfred Graf von Waldersee, who was said by the Chinese lackey to have restrained the German army's pillage as a result of sleeping with 'distinguished prostitute' Sai Jinhua [Choi Gum Fa], organized sweeping campaigns throughout the Peking outskirts, reaching as far as the Shanhaiguan (Mountain and Sea) Pass and Qinhuangdao to the northeast, Baoding & Zhengding areas to the south, and the Shanxi Province border areas to the west. On Sept 30th, 1900 [sc], Alfred Graf von Waldersee led the allied forces, mostly from his 20000 German soldiers, to Shanhaiguan Pass and Qinhuangdao for sake of frustrating the Russian ambition as well as securing the coastal city as a logistics center. Near the Shanhaiguan Pass, the Germans and the Japanese were shot into photos in their executions of the Chinese "boxers". In Tientsin, on Oct 12th [sc], Alfred Graf von Waldersee mobilized the French, the British and the Italian armies for a campaign against Baoding to the south, and occupied Baoding 10 days later. Alfred Graf von Waldersee ordered ransacking throughout the Baoding city, with pillaging extended to Zhengding, Wanxian, Yongqing, Laishui and Yizhou counties. To the north, Alfred Graf von Waldersee organized the Austrian and Italian armies in campaigning against Zhangjiakou (Kalgan in today's Inner Mongolia), pillaging Zhangjiakou and through the counties of Changping, Huailai, Yan'qing, and Xuanhua for over 20 days. To the west, Alfred Graf von Waldersee mounted a campaign against Shanxi Prov in Jan-April [sc] of 1901. With the French participating, Alfred Graf von Waldersee attacked Guangchang, Wutai, Niangziguan and took over the two passes of Niangziguan and Gu'guan.
The Russian Invasion of Manchuria
Meanwhile, the Russians dispatched six columns of cavalry troops through Manchuria since July, after the ethnic cleasing of sixty-four Chinese settlements to the north of the Amur River. Ethnic cleansing continued against the Chinese throughout the Russian Far East. Alfred Graf von Waldersee, after weighing the Russian ambition for Manchuria, objected to the water-melon partitioning scheme as well as called off Kaiser Wilhelm II's original plan for securing coastal Yantai as the German sphere of influence. German commander Alfred Graf von Waldersee was said to have quit the idea of conquering China after measuring the size of Chinese males going through a city gate to derive a conclusion that still too many physically-fit Chinese were available to cause trouble for the invasion forces. Chinese lackies and traitors still cited prostitute Sai Jinhua [Choi Gum Fa] as a "patriotic" woman who disuaded the German from partitioning China - without understanding the behind-the-back workings of the British career customs officers who recommended to the British and American government the policy of safeguarding the Open Door Policy, a policy that the new Japanese prime minister adopted in September 1900 -- which subsequently aborted the American secretary of state's order to have the Americans grab a port in Fujian as part of the planned partitioning scheme. What is ludicrous will be the following: http://email@example.com reported that Chinese film maker, Huayi Brothers, planned to shoot "The Legend of Sai Jinhua" at a cost of 45 million US dollars.)
Li Hongzhang relied upon the Russians in exerting pressure on the Germans. On the night of April 17th [sc], Alfred Graf von Waldersee and prostitute Sai Jinhua were said to have jumped out of their bed when a fire broke out in the Yiluandian Palace inside of the Forbidden City. Alfred Graf von Waldersee's attache tactician died inside of the asbestos-made mosquito tent during the fire per Cai Dongfan. Alternatively speaking, the Germans ransacked the palace and set it on fire to cover up the notoriety. In May [sc], Alfred Graf von Waldersee reported to Germany for a termination of the "allied force command center" as well as evacuation of the "German Relief Expedition Force". Alfred Graf von Waldersee left Peking on June 3rd [sc] and later died in Honover three years later.
The Boxers' turmoil, concluded by the 'Xin Chou Treaty' or the 'Boxer Protocol of 1901' on Sept 7th of 1901 (solar calendar) with 11 (not 8) countries, would cause China a loss of 450,000,000 taels of silver which was to accrue to 982,000,000 taels with interests included throughout the scheduled installments for 39 years. (In 1943, the 'Boxer Protocol' was nullified after a total payment of 670 million taels of silver.) The damages to China's spirits unsurpassed in history, the Chineses people had to endure 39 years of hardship and disasters, only to sustain another round of sufferings during the 1937-1945 Japanese Invasion.
The 'Boxer Protocol of 1901' also spelled out the terms of i) allowing foreign military forces to be stationed in the capital and the coastal area; ii) prosecuting the Manchu government officials for their role in the boxer rebellion; iii) suspending the arms imports into the country for two years; iv) dismantling batteries at the Dagukou fort and the fortifications along the Tientsin-Peking line; v) suspending the imperial examinations for implicated ministries for five years; vi) dispatching special emissaries to Japan and Germany for condoling on the deaths of legation personnel; vii) rebuilding the foreigners' tombs; viii) decreeing that no anti-foreign acts or speech be allowed. The figure of 450,000,000 taels of silver was imposed on China by the allied powers to mean an insult: every one single Chinese, as a member of the 450,000,000 population, must pay one tael or ounce of silver.
Written by Ah Xiang
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