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1945-1949 Civil War
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*** Related Readings ***:
The Amerasia Case & Cover-up By the U.S. Government
The Legend of Mark Gayn
The Reality of Red Subversion: The Recent Confirmation of Soviet Espionage in America
Notes on Owen Lattimore
Lauchlin Currie / Biography
Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
Solomon Adler the Russian mole "Sachs" & Chi-com's henchman; Frank Coe; Ales
Mme Chiang Kai-shek's Role in the War (Video)
Japanese Ichigo Campaign & Stilwell Incident
Lend-Lease; Yalta Betrayal: At China's Expense
Acheson 2 Billion Crap; Cover-up Of Birch Murder
Marshall's Dupe Mission To China, & Arms Embargo
Chiang Kai-shek's Money Trail
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
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China In Crises Of Internal Turmoils & Foreign Invasions
Japanese Invasion (1937-1945)
Marco Polo Bridge Incident & Battle of Tianjin-Peking
Campaign Of Nankou & Campaign of Xinkou
Air Battles Directed By Chenault & With Russian Pilots
Battles of Shanghai, Jiangyin, Si'an & Nanking Defence
Rape Of Nanking & The Great Rescue Of 1937
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2nd Changsha Battle, & Pacific Wars
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Communist Armed Rebellions
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Campaigns Against Communist Strongholds
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Xi'an Incident - Turning Point of Modern History
Demise Of Red Army Western Expedition
[ campaign.htm & terror.htm ] [ war.htm ]

1945-1949 Civil War


1) World War II, in both the East and the West, was the result of the inducement of the British, American[, and French] interest groups and syndicates, as well as the the result of the scheme by Soviet Russia. First there was the October 1925 Locarno Treaties which, per Jozef Beck, led to the opinion that "Germany was officially asked to attack the east, in return for peace in the west." Then in 1931, President Herbert Hoover gave Japan a free hand in the invasion of Manchuria on the pretext that Japan could not tolerate a half-Bolshevik China. Thereafter the September 1938 Munich Agreement. For what? Britain, France and the United States wanted Hitler to attack the Soviet Union, and wanted Japan to suppress China's nationalist movement and counter the Soviet Union. In both cases, Stalin out-smarted the Anglo-American and the French. Hitler attacked westward instead, and signed a non-aggression pact with Stalin to halve Poland; and Japan attacked Southeast Asia and the Pearl Harbor after China, not the Soviet Union. Half a year before the Russo-Japanese Neutrality Treaty of April 1941 and one year ahead of the Pacific War, Japan already reached a secret deal with the U.S.S.R. to halve China, mapping the "Poland partition" scheme by the U.S.S.R. and Nazi Germany, as evidenced by the clauses of the Dec 1940 negotiation and treaty between Wang Ching-wei's puppet R.O.C. government and Japan in regards to the reserved territories for the Chinese communists and the hinted Western China's boundary between the U.S.S.R. and Japan. (More available at "Changing Alliances On International Arena", "Century-long American hypocrisy towards China", "Anglo-American & Jewish romance with Japanese", "Joe Stilwell's Authorization To Assassinate Chiang Kai-shek", and "What Foreign Powers Did To The Flowery Republic Prior To, During And After The 1911 Revolution".) A rather simple explanation for the ultimate American intervention in China in March 1940, i.e., the Americans' hastily giving Chiang Kai-shek a badly-needed loan, would be to prevent Japan and China from reaching a truce since Chiang Kai-shek deliberately spread a rumor that his Chongqing government could merge with the puppet Nanking government. As Paul Reinsch and Arthur Young repeatedly said, the United States of America could have done just a little to help China in WWI or WWII, but chose to do nothing during WWI other than a Lansing-Ishii Agreement [which was to acknowledge that Japan had its special interests (in the specified areas of China specified by the secret memorandum)], chose to do lip-service to Wu Peifu's ROC government while the Soviets equipped Feng Yuxiang and Sun Yat-sen's military factions with free guns; chose to do nothing after making sure China was to stay in the Second World War by merely granting the currency stabilization loan of 1940; and chose to use the Lend-Lease coercion to force China into throwing the crack troops at northern Burma just prior to the Japanese Ichigo Campaign in 1944.
2) Stalin was the evil genius of the 20th century. Stalin, after the 1929 war against Zhang Xueliang over the Chinese-Eastern Railway [which erupted over the Soviet Russian and Chinese communist agitation in sabotaging Japan's attempt at building five additional railways in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia], quickly divested himself of the railway when Japan invaded Manchuria on Sept 18th, 1931. After initially calling on the world communists to militarily defend the Soviet Union from 1931 to 1933, Stalin subsequently designed the united front and popular front in 1935, and in the time period of 1936-1937 successfully lit the fuse of the Sino-Japanese War by means of repeated G.R.U. operations in northern China and Manchuria. To thwart the Anglo-American attempts at using Japan against the U.S.S.R., Stalin hijacked the American government policies by utilizing agents, saboteurs, provocateurs and sympathizers from the Institute of Pacific Relations. "16 out of 17 of the AMERICANS that were involved in creating the U.N. were later identified, in sworn testimony, as secret communist agents." The whole United States government was in fact taken over by the Comintern agents, including: Alger Hiss; Harry Dexter White; Lauchlin Currie; Laurence Duggan; Frank Coe; Solomon Adler; Klaus Fuchs; and Duncan Lee." John Fairbank and Owen Lattimore, i.e., two "Old China Hands" who were repeatedly cited by the Chi-com for substantiation of the cause and success of the Chinese communist revolution, had merely been the Soviet Russian and/or Chicom tools. (Most of the Comintern spies of European and American background had been recruited during their stay in China during the turbulent 1920s. Owen Lattimore's belief and orientation should have been shaped during his early years in Peking in the 1920s. John King Fairbank, who had done everything Agnes Smedley had asked him to do other than putting his name on the roster of the G.R.U. (Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation), was a member of the Chinese League for the Protection of Civil Rights in late 1932 and early 1933, and further rafted with Comintern agent Harold Isaacs on the Jehol River in 1934 before the latter switched to the Trotskyite path. Working directly under Lattimore would be two Chicom spies called Chi Chao-ting and Chen Han-sheng who designed America's China policies.)
3) It was the century's misfortune for China to have to see the Anglo-American interest groups and Russian/Comintern agents colluding with each other in subverting Nationalist China --
the beacon tower for the independence of the Asian countries and people , colonized or semi-colonized by the West, as "...British Ambassador personally suggested to me [Albert Wedemeyer] that a strong unified China would be dangerous to the world and certainly would jeopardize the white man's position immediately in Far East and ultimately throughout the world." No matter it was the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, or the 1937-1945 Sino-Japanese War, the aforesaid parties, plus the Chinese communist henchmen, were the ONLY people who wanted Japan to invade China, albeit for different reasons and agenda at different stages and times. In another word, the Japanese never realized that they had been brought up and used as a tool since Matthew Perry's timeframe, first as a tool against Russia in 1904-5 and then used by the Soviets as a tool against China. "When other nations tried to bar ... [Japan] progress or slur ... [Japan] reputation," as commented by Count Hayashi: "America always stood for ... [Japan] ...[America's] Stars heralded to the world the rising of ... [Japan] Sun..." The warships and planes built and used against China in 1931/2 were the products of twenty years of military alliance between Britain and Japan, following the American support of the Japanese ventures against Ryukyu and Taiwan in the late 19th century.
4) There is no truth in Stalin and Truman racing against each other as suggested by Tsuyoshi Hasegawa. While Truman was blindfolded as to the making of the Atomic Bomb, the Russians had been receiving ships of the uranium ore throughout the war, which was to make sure that the United States was not to become the nuclear monopoly. Stalin's American proxies already had Truman agree to the terms reached by Roosevelt at Yalta. The United States had utterly no preparation for racing its army to Japan or Korea. "It was after the U.S. dropped two bombs onto Japan, on Aug 6th & 9th, respectively, that Rusk & Bonesteel, drew up the 38th Parallel on the map as an artificial division line separating the U.S. sphere of influence from the U.S.S.R.
5) Japan already explored with the Soviet Russians for surrender. But the Soviets declined it. Otherwise, what's the need to enter Manchuria and Korea? Since the Russians were eager to invade Manchuria & Korea, Japan had to turn around to request with Sweden for relaying a message of surrender. Japan was in self-denial over the prospect of the Russian entry into war. Intelligence already poured into Japan as to the Russian complicity at Yalta. Back on June 9th, 1945, Truman officially told TV Soong (Song Ziwen) that he was to honor the late President's signature on the Yalta Agreement and requested that China dispatch a delegation to Moscow for stamping a Sino-Russian friendship agreement no later than July 1st. The Chinese were busy repairing the damages. Japan knew about it. Japan sent secret negotiators to Chiang Kai-shek multiple times in July-August of 1945 for the peace talks. Looking in hind sight, China, separately, should have struck a partial peace with Japan to ward off the Soviet Russians. (When the Soviet Red Army invaded Manchuria, Japan, who had issued orders to its armies to surrender across the battlefields of China and Southeast Asia, had to make a special order to the Kwangtung Army to resist the Soviet Red Army in Jehol, Manchuria, and the Sakkalin for about 20 days for sake of stopping the Soviets from landing in Hokkaido.)
6) Though, the Japanese emperor played a trick in surrender. He signed a "truce" order to his army and listing Britain, American and China and etc, but when he made the announcement on radio, he changed China to Chungking [Chongqing] the Chinese interim capital. We know Japanese have a problem with saving face. But the truth is known no matter how the professor wanted to discount the atomic bombs and gave weight to the Russian entry into the war. Professor Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, who skipped the name of China in his book title and ignored the death toll of 1 million Japanese on mainland China, should spend more time researching into the fate of more than half of the 500-600,000 Kwantung Army that had perished in Russian Siberia.
(The [Soviet] Russians sorted out at least 30,000 Japanese artillery, medical Kwantung Army staff, a full airforce contingent with generals and crewmen under Hayashi Yayichiro, and no less than two full Korean-ethnic Divisions for deployment by the Chinese communists in the civil war against the Nationalist Chinese Government, not to count the Outer Mongolian Cavalry and 100,000 fully-trained Korean mercenaries sent to China in 1947, with about 60,000-70,000 remnants [out of the total headcount of 250,000 Korean mercenaries ] shipped back to Korea prior to the Korean War of June 1950. According to Kim Il-sun, altogether 250,000 Korean mercenaries took part in the 1945-1950 civil war against the Nationalist Government, with 50-60,000 remnants returning to Korean for the 1950 Korean War.)
7) Stalin and the Soviet Russians were behind each step of Mao in making sure that no peace could have a chance from the day of the Japan's surrender. Cumulatively, the Soviet Russians acknowledged in the 1970s that they had given the Chinese communists 700,000 guns, with North Korea's arsenals open for free pickup throughout the Chinese civil wars. (On the 1947 anniversary date of the Russian Revolution, the Soviet Russians already disclosed that they had given the Chinese communists massive military aid - which the Americans refused to acknowledge.) At about the same time the Republican Party forced through the China Aid Act in 1948, Stalin officially stamped a loan for the Chinese communists of an equivalent amount allocated by the China Aid Act, with no strings attached. Stalin understood that the generations of brave Chinese during first part of the 20th century were the flower that China ever had in the whole history of 5000 years, a force that must be destroyed so that the Soviet Russian scheme at world domination could succeed. Didn't know the Russian cold-bloodedness? Read into the Katyn Murder of 20,000+ Polish officers, and Stalin's plan to shoot 50,000 German officers- which Roosevelt echoed by lessening to 49,500.
As this webmaster had elaborated on the battles and campaigns in Civil Wars section, the Chinese Civil War of 1945-1950 [using the Korean War as a breakpoint rather than the PRC's proclaimed date of founding] is the "Last Duel of the Middle Earth" involving millions of the fighting-to-death Yellow Men, whose outcome was determined on the battlefields by means of a) the military tactics and strategies, b) political conspiracy and plots, c) economic manipulation and sabotage, c) societal disruption and coercion, and d) international alliance and betrayal, never ever the free choice of the Chinese people or the 'Mandate of Heaven' as John Fairbank and Owen Lattimore [and their student-sinologists in the American colleges and universities] wanted you to believe in.

The brave R.O.C. soldiers against the armed-to-the-teeth Japanese Army
After squandering the 1st tier troops of 1st-20th Shidans and 2nd tier troops of 100-120th Shidans in "yocho" action against China, the Japanese sent the demoralized Shidans to the Pacific War graves, to the extent that by the time Japan surrendered, the Japanese homeland soldiers of 1-2 million new recruits possessed bamboo sticks and spears for defense, while the Soviet/Comintern agents inside of the Japanese government/military, in the name of moving the duel battlefield to the mainland, hoarded large cache of weapons in Manchuria/Korea for free pickup by the Soviets and the Chinese/Koreans. Working as a secretary of Konoye Fumimaro the Japanese prime minister as one of five brain trusts, Stalin's spy Ozaki, likening Japanese prime minister Konoe to Karenski (head of the 1917 transitionary Russian government), wanted to turn Japan into a replay of the Soviet revolution. Do you Japanese know that?

The brave and victorious National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China chased the remnant communists to the north bank of the Sungari River.
Americans sold out China in Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam. In late 1944, Leahy was probing China about the Russian demand for Dairen, Port Arthur and the railways. Roosevelt locked up the secret treaties in his drawer till his death. Both Hurley and Leahy merely knew part of the Roosevelt deals with Stalin. Truman pressured China numerous times regarding signing an agreement with Russians no later than July 1st, 1945. Late 1945, George marshall and the Americans continued to sell out China on the matter of the Russian pillage of Manchuria. Marshall, in spring 1946, flew back to China to stop the Chinese army from moving beyond Sungari. As disclosed by the documents at the George Marshall foundation, George Marshall, possibly the most hideous agent working on behalf of Stalin and the Soviet Union, saved the ass of the Chinese Communists with a threat to withhold the economic aid that was supposedly coming from the U.S. export-import bank, which never materialized.  

G Marshall, from 1946 to 1948, repeatedly probed numerous Chinese officials and generals as to who could be Chiang's successor. The U.S. Department of State, run by Russian agents, were repeatedly sending out rumors about getting a succesor for Chiang. Marshall's hands had the blood of millions of Chinese killed in civil wars. G Marshall, as Wedemeyer said, first armed China and then disarmed China. The U.S. arms embargo continued till the China Aid Act of 1948, and ammunition did not get released till Nov of 1948. After weapons were shipped out, Acheson and the undercover Russian agents further attempted to order the ships to turn around at Guam and Okinawa. In Oct 1949, Acheson pleaded with the British, where the Cambridge Soviet Spy Ring was at work, for recognition of Communist China, which Britain did on Jan 1st, 1950. After that, Acheson declared the Aleutian curvature, which directly led to the eruption of the Korean War. Korean War and Vietnamese War, invariably, were the extensions of the Chinese Civil War of 1945-1950.

The Korean War: 6/25/1950 - 7/27/1953
To know what happened to the priority of the Korean Communists' attacks on South Korea and the Chinese Communists' attack at Taiwan, one would still need to go back to the Comintern [Soviet Russian] conspiracy as well as the Communist takeover of the United States government [i.e., a fact that the U.S. is just ashamed of acknowledging]. Historian Shen Yunlong had a writing on Taiwan's sabotage of a Soviet telegraph set in Taipei months before the Korean War eruption. The Taiwan government, after capturing the two agents, deliberately maintained the wireless connection with Chita of the Soviet Far East, continuously broadcasting disinformation, and faking news about the activities of non-existent American planes and American warships in Taiwan. Per Shen Yunlong, Stalin, bedazzled by the espionage reports, decided to take out the easy target, i.e., South Korea. Further corroboration of Stalin's decisions could be found in ROC ambassador Shao Yulin's Memoirs, in which he detailed the defection of a South Korean government official, who had visited Stalin with a claim that about 200,000 underground Korean Communists were ready to echo the communist invasion. The difference between Taiwan and South Korea is that Chiang Kai-shek immediately sealed off the coastline of Taiwan while South Korea and North Korea had uninterrupted traffic prior to the war eruption. Ambassador Shao Yulin, who had engaged himself in the Korean restoration movement since the college days in Tokyo, had played an important role in advising Chiang Kai-shek on the abandonment of the Zhoushan [Chushan] Island for sake of making South Korea the protruding point of the Asian curvature, that was declared by Acheson as the American line of defense against Communist China. Chiang Kai-shek's two separate visits to the Philippines and South Korea had exerted pressure on Stalin, Mao Tse-tung & Kim Il-sung as far as the formation of an anti-communism Asian alliance was concerned, according to Taiwan historians.
Why Mao Tse-tung wanted to aid North Korea? Obligation and secret treaties. China and North Korea signed a secret treaty in the spring of 1949 about mutual aid. During China's 1945-1950 civil wars, the Russians sorted out two Korean-ethnic divisions from 560k-strong Japanese Kwantung Army for the civil war against the Chinese Nationalist Government, not to include at least 30,000 Japanese artillery, medical Kwantung Army staff, a full airforce contingent with generals and crewmen under Hayashi Yayichiro, plus the Outer Mongolia cavalry. (As Freda Utley pointed out, "in March 1947, Lieutenant General John R. Hodge, a U.S. commander in North Korea, stated that Chinese Communist troops were participating in the training of a Korean army of 500,000 in Russian-held North Korea. The Chinese Central News Agency stated in June [1947] that more than 100,000 Russian-trained Koreans plus a cavalry division from Outer Mongolia were in action against the Chinese Nationalist forces".) Kim Il Sung claimed that 200000-300000 Koreans joined the Chinese Communists in the civil war of China, with about 60,000-70,000 remnants [out of the total headcount of 250,000 Korean mercenaries ] shipped back to Korea prior to the Korean War of June 1950.
So, in 1949-1950, Mao sorted out 60-70,000 Korean ethnic PLA soldiers and dispatched to Korea at the request of Kim Il Sung. (Only two Koreans, who were cadets of the Whampoa Academy, followed the communist Long March to Yenan, with one surviving the later wars to go back to North Korea. The hundreds of CCP-controlled Koreans, who returned to Korea in 1945-1946, came from the steering-away of a portion of the Korean Restoration Army that were trained by the Chinese nationalists at the war-time capital Chungking, but were steered away to the communists possibly under a scheme of the American OSS which was hijacked by the Russian spies.) Historians still debated whether the Chinese communists knew in advance about Kim Il Sung's move. It was a dispute between the Russians and Chinese after Stalin's death, with the Russians claiming that the Chinese knew about it but the Chinese communists denied being a part of it. After the Russian declassification of archives, historians continued to look for clues. It is clear that Stalin, Mao Tse-tung and Kim Il Sung all agreed upon one thing, i.e., expanding communism by taking out South Korea and Taiwan [and Vietnam]. The only disagreement was the priority, i.e., Taiwan first or South Korea first. When the Korean-ethnic divisions were shipped out, Mao Tse-tung was already an accomplice. What Stalin, Mao Tse-tung and Kim Il Sung did not anticipate was that South Korea's remnant army, led by a Korean general who was the former chief of staff of the Chinese Youth Army in war-time Republic of China, had sustained the dozens of days in defense, just long enough to be reinforced by McArthur's relief army. Chinese communists' armies, which had already concentrated on the Zhejiang-Fujian coastline, had to relocate to Korea thereafter. Altogether 3 million PLA troops had rotated their duties in North Korea as a coverup for the war casualties. My father, at age a bit over 14 at the time, was almost conscripted. China spent 5-10 years of GDP worthy of money in supporting the war in North Korea. Possibly 700k to 1 million soldiers died. It was a complete disaster for mainland China but life-saving for Taiwan. After the truce in 1953, hundreds of thousands of soldiers, including the brother of my mother's, did FREE coolie work for North Korea till recall in 1958. Out of the expatriated army, 100,000 Chinese officers were expatriated to the Manchurian-Ussuri border for military farming, where my father was sent as a mechanical technician.

Korea After the Japanese Surrender
Right after the U.S. dropped two bombs onto Japan, on Aug 6th & 9th, respectively, two young officers under Truman, i.e., Dean Rusk and Charles Bonesteel, drew up the 38th Parallel on the map as an artificial division line separating the U.S. sphere of influences from the USSR. Seeing that the Russians poured into Manchuria after midnight of Aug 9th and pushed toward South Korea with four divisions, the American military and navy, which were less infiltrated by the Russian agents, wanted a bargain on the 38th parallel with the Russians for fear that its troops in Okinawa would not have time to race to Korea. The Russians took over Xiongji & Luojin on Aug 12th, and Pyongyang on Aug 24th. The Americans did not bother to land in Inchon & Fushan of Korea till after signing the Japan surrender paper on Missouri on Sept 2nd. The Russians, with full acquiesce, pulled back from Inchon & Kaesong (Kaicheng). McArthur, on Sept 7th, issued the order to the Koreans as an occupation commander-in-chief.
China immediately announced the recognition of the interim Korean government headed by Jin Jiu. The Americans raised a protest. Owning to the American objection to Jin Jiu, T V Soong (Song Ziwen) suggested the second option, i.e., dispatching Jin Jiu back to Korea as an individual. On Sept 17th, Chiang Kai-shek offered the interim Korean government 100 million worth of "legalized currency" as well as 200,000 U.S. dollars. The Americans then claimed that Jin Jiu was welcome back in Korea only in the name of an "individual". The U.S. State Department, which was already hijacked by the Comintern agents, intended to make a leftist-leaning Korean, Jin Kuizhi, into a leader. However, an American officer, who privately supported Syngman Rhee's exile activity in the U.S., stealthily circumvented the U.S. State Department and the U.S. occupation commander in sending Syngman Rhee to South Korea. (Jin Jiu and his comrades, who were first shipped to Shanghai by Chiang Kai-shek via two ROC transporters on Nov 5th, 1945, then took ride of the American planes for South Korea on Nov 12-13th. Jin Jiu failed to run his interim government; and on June 26th, 1949, he was assassinated by an military police officer under Syngman Rhee. Over 100,000 Koreans attended Jin Jiu's mourning.)
In Dec 1945, China, the U.S., Britain and the USSR failed to reach consensus in regards to the 'trustee' status for Korea. Back in Nov, the Russians pretentiously proposed to the Americans a mutual withdrawal of troops from Korea. The American State Department as well as the U.S. army [which was controlled by the undercover Comintern agents disguised as "political advisers"] already decided on the path of abandoning South Korea to the Russians. The United Nations passed an act in regards to the Korean independence in Nov 1947. In March 1948, the communist North Korea's Labor Party expressed opposition to a unilateral election in the south. The Americans launched an election for the "National Parliament" on July 12th, 1948. On Aug 15th, 1948, U.S. returnee Syngman Rhee was elected president of the Republic of Korea. On Aug 25th, Kim Il Sung held his "Supreme People's Assembly". Syngman Rhee, for his insubordination to the American "political advisers" and occupation commander, was already targeted for assassination - which only fell off with the outbreak of the Korean War. In the following month, North Korea declared the founding of the People's Democratic Republic. Kim Il Sung assumed the "prime minister" post on Sept 8th. The so-called People's Democratic Republic of Korea was declared the next day.
President Harry Truman, resentful over the purported support by the Republic of China for his political enemy Thomas Dewey, declared a defense curvature excluding Korea & Taiwan in Jan 1950. (Chiang Kai-shek, throughout the Korean War, attempted to explain to Truman that the ROC never meddled into the American domestic politics. Indeed, the first recorded incident would be in 1954, not in the 1940s.) In Feb, Mao & Stalin signed an alliance treaty, with an understanding that the USSR would supply weaponry for 20 divisions should China be required to aid North Korea in its war of 'liberation' against South Korea. At the request of Kim Il Sung, Mao sorted out 60-70,000 Korean-ethnic PLA soldiers and dispatched to Korea in April-May 1950. More troops were sent to North Korea by Mao in Oct 1950, prior to open conflicts between China and the UN forces.
Outbreak Of The Korean War
On June 26th, 1950, at about 4:00 am, Kim Il Sung, with the backing from Joseph Stalin and Mao Tse-tung, launched a sudden offensive at South Korea. The North Korean army of 135,000 (alternatively numbered 223,000) soldiers, headed by Choo Yong Gum, crossed the 38th parallel. The South Korean Army, which was a police-converted force, after a defeat, blew up the bridge south of Seoul to escape south, while refugees were still walking on the bridge. The Korean War, lasting 3 years and 42 days, led to a total casualty of 2,171,875 people, with death toll on the Chinese side no less than 700,000 to one million. The consequence of the Korean War would be the ensuing Cold War between the camps of socialism and capitalism in the international arena, the isolation of [the PR of] China economically and diplomatically, the one-sidedness of the Chinese communist party, and the CCP's schizophrenia in launching various political movements, mass murder and persecution against whoever had the U.S. or KMT connection or implication. The Chinese communists linked up the movement of the "elimination of reactionaries" and "land reform" to the "Korean War" via citation of a trinity movement. Mao claimed that that was a lifetime opportunity to take out the class enemies.
The UN Security Council passed Resolution 82 demanding North Korea's immediate withdrawal. Immediately thereafter, President Truman dispatched the 7th Fleet into the Taiwan Straits, nominally for neutralizing the CCP-KMT conflict but ostensibly for assuring the Chinese Communists that China should have no worry about a "Second Battlefield" other than the Korean War. On the 27th, Resolution 83 passed with a stronger-toned warning against North Korea. On the 28th, Zhou Enlai, i.e., premier of communist China, claimed that China would not stand by in regards to the U.S. invasion of Korea. On the 30th, the American Congress authorized Truman in taking actions against the North Korean aggression. On July 7th, Resolution 84 endorsed the formation of a United Nations Army to be commanded by Douglas MacArthur, with 16 countries contributing a total force of 39,000. The U.S.S.R. representative was deliberately absent for the UN Security Council voting so as to make it a matter-of-fact that the U.S. and China would end up beating up each other. The Russian pretext was that its ambassador, Yakov Aleksandrovich Malik, exited the UN in protest of the UN Security Council's putting off the membership petition for the Communist China to replace Nationalist China.
In China, Zhou Enlai was authorized in passing a resolution entitled the "Decision In Regards To Safeguarding the Northeastern Border". In Aug, Deng Hua, Hong Xuezhi and Han Xianchu were conferred the posts of commander and deputy commanders for the Northeastern Border Patrol Army which was converted from the 13th Conglomerate of the 4th Field Army of the People's Liberation Army (PLA). The headcount totaled about 320,000. In early July, the United States Army sent a Task Force Smith Brigade to impeding the North Koreans. The Smith force was run over by the North Korean tanks. In July, U.S. army commander Walker commanded the 8th Army for relieving the forces in Korea. The U.S. 8th Army, by August, was pinned down along a small strip of land at the southeastern corner of the Korean Peninsula. The U.S. firepower successfully repelled the North Korean penetration of the Natong River. In mid-August, more U.N. forces began to come to Korea via the Pusan port. On September 1st, the North Koreans launched the last futile offensive across the front. On Sept 25th, MacArthur, against objections inside of the U.S. government, successfully landed at Inchon and thoroughly defeated the North Korean army.
In Sept, Lin Biao was called to Peking but he declined the job for entering Korea. Lin Biao claimed that "China already had enough after 10 years of the civil wars, 8 years of the resistance war and 4 years of the liberation wars". At the suggestion of Zhu De, Peng Dehuai was selected for commanding the People's Volunteer Army (PVA), a term construed by a scholar by the name of Huang Yanpei. MacArthur, however, was restrained in his military campaigns as a result of the maneuvers by undercover American & British communists. Truman and Eden agreed to make the Korean War a "limited war". Later, in retirement, McArthur commented to Shao Yulin that he was sacked by the British communists by pointing out how one British diplomatic personnel admonished McArthur as to his job while having a dispute. In light of the "Cambridge Spy Ring", the Anglo-American decision-making on the Korean War was apparent to the Soviets from the hind sight.
The People's Volunteer Army Entering Korea
Even though Truman and Eden had decided on the nature of the Korean War to be something to be fought for with no achievement of victory, the Chinese communists had to exert millions of troops to the "fire hell" with the "human flesh". Mao sent 60%+ of his 5.4 million troops to Korea, in the form of rotation and maintaining about 1.5-2 million men on a constant basis. Historian Liang Jingdun estimated that 700,000 Chinese troops had perished in Korea.
The Chinese troops number at 5.4 million in June 1950. Over half of them did not have a gun. At the time of the communist victory, on Oct 1st, 1949, the Chinese communists had 2 million guns versus 5.4 million men. Even though the Russians promised the equipment for 60 divisions of the Chinese forces, the Russians only supplied 4 division equipment in 1950. The Russian weapons were outdated WWII-era stuff, with some belonging to the American Lend-Lease weapons that Stalin transferred to Mao during the 1945-1949 civil war. The Chinese army officers said to the barehanded soldiers: "We the Chinese people's army always got our weapons from the 'enemies'. Once you arrive at the front, you will have plenty of choice from weapons abandoned by the United Nations forces." (This is a joke. The Russians gave Mao 800,000 rifles in the aftermath of the Japanese surrender, not to mention the continuous supply through 1949.) In 1954, after Stalin's death, all 60 division equipment and weapons were delivered.
Altogether, 66% of the 5 million Chinese army were exerted to Korea, as well as 62% of the artillery troops and 70% of the tank force and airforce. During the three year war, twenty five army groups, 70 artillery divisions, three tank divisions, 12 airforce divisions, 10 railway corps divisions, and 15 engineering divisions were sent to Korea. The fate of Chinese soldiers in North Korea was like two thirds dying from lack of clothing, medicine and food - only one third death related to the battles. With cooked flour and lacking vitamin, they were almost all night-blind, and often died travelling at nights - the only way to move around under the American air bombardment. E.g., by Jan 51, the original Chinese Army Group were replenished by 40,000 soldiers, with 30,000 NEW recruits and 10,000 former army soldiers. Within 15 days of the First Campaign, China lost 40% of 1000 trucks it sent to Korea. Hong Xuezhi said, 40% of the supplies were destroyed by the American airforce.
The Korean War, by 1952, would cost China 100,000,000,000,000 or 100 trillion yuan (equiv to the new currency 10,000,000,000 or 10 billion yuan), while China's 1952 fiscal revenue amounted to no more than 2,300,000,000 or 2.3 billion yuan. Hua Min cited communist financial czar Chen Yun in stating that the KMT government net no more than 0.8 to 0.9 billion yuan, including revenues from Manchuria, prior to 1931. Mao Tse-tung, during debates with agriculturalist Liang Suming, claimed that the CCP's "maximum benevolent governance" would be developing industry and fighting the Korean War instead of "small benevolent governance" such as less taxation on the peasants.
On the other side, the Soviet-spy-infiltrated American government, which had repeatedly advised McArthur to pull back to Japan for preserving the troops, threw in purportedly 73 million tons of war supplies and 83 billion dollars. McArthur signed that Truman's shortsightedness had doomed the Korean War because the North Koreans and the Chinese Communists had no air cover in the initial phase of the war owing to Stalin's cowardice. Stalin did not provide the air cover till 2-3 months after the Chinese Communists' entry into the war. During the Korean War, China purportedly lost 231 planes, with 116 pilots killed; whereas, the Russians sent to Korea and China 13 AIRFORCE DIVISIONS, with a purported deathtoll of 1500 pilots.
Truman and the Soviet spies in the White House and the State Department wanted to sack McArthur right after the Korean War eruption because McArthur visited Taiwan on his own accord, and wanted help from Chiang Kai-shek. Mme Chiang Kai-shek mindlessly betrayed McArthur by writing to George Marshall about the secret agreements and promises made by McArthur. Absent the Inchon landing success, McArthur was to be sacked any minute. The brilliant campaign at Inchon saved McArthur's job for the time being. Though, the Russian spies in the White House and the State Department found another way to make it happen. They first sacked defense minister Johnson, and recalled George Marshall for the transitionary time period, solely for ridding of McArthur. It was purely a miscalculation by Stalin and Mao that they forfeited the chance to end the Korean War in late 1950. The UK, the U.S. and dozens of countries, including India, had put on the United Nations some ballots several times to award the PRC with a UN seat should the Chinese Communists seek for a peaceful settlement. The Korean War, after McArthur's dismissal, would merely become a Chinese communist war to wrestle back the prisoners of war for "saving face".
McArthur visited Korea in early July of 1950 and devised the Inchon plan. The Joint Chief of Staff, Bradley, did not respond to the plan for three weeks. When McArthur requested time and again, the JCS sent two officers to Tokyo. Still, no approval. After McArthur convinced the JCS and Truman, the JCS and Truman changed mind again one week ahead of Sept 15th. McArthur pleaded direct with Truman. Truman gave in and authorized the Inchon Landing. Hence, McArthur, who assembled the troops around Pusan, including the marines, navy and infantry, into a 10th Army Corps, inititated the invasion of Inchon to cut the North Korean Army in the waist. The 10th Army Corps landed at two beaches after the American planes bombed Inchon for about a week. The invasion purportedly cost the United Nations army only twenty casualties. 135 miles to the south, the North Korean Army continued the siege of Pusan for one week without the knowledge of the loss of Inchon. The 10th Corps then crossed the Han [Seoul] River at two places to lay siege of Seoul, taking out the hilltop resistance of the North Korean Army with days of pounding by the planes and tanks.
The North Koreans ignored the warnings and prediction from the Chinese side that a coming Inchon landing would cut off the return path of the North Koreans. Numerous Chinese books talked about the prediction for three possible high-tide days in July, Aug and Sept of 1950, as well as talked about the Chinese notification to Kim Il-sun. Why would the North Koreans ignore it? The only explanation is that the Soviet moles in the U.S./UK governments had passed on Truman's abandonment order to Moscow.
To wrap up the Korean War, it was fought by Kim Il-sung with troops delivered by Mao in July-Aug 1949 and another 48,000 troops around April 1950. It was a war fought with Stalin's auspice after Acheson declared the curvature from the Aleutian to the Philippines islands, excluding Korea and Taiwan. It was already an abandoned war by Truman whose repeated orders to McArthur were passed on to Moscow and Pyongyang, the result of which was that the North Koreans ignored the Inchon landing possibility altogether.
In Nov 1950, the JCS and the National Security Council, after the entry of the Chinese Communists into the war, devised the policy of "limited war". Truman and the British held a meeting about the same stance. The JCS gave an order to McArthur of "fighting and retreating" towards the Jinjiangkou (Hakusonko) rivermouth, and then to Japan. Back and forth, the JCS ordered McArthur to retreat to Japan so that no further loss in manpower and materials were to be incurred. In Jan 1951, Truman further in a personal letter, asked McArthur to withdraw to Japan.
The war should have ended in June 1951 when the Russians first proposed peace. In 1952, Larry Wu-tai Chin, i.e., the top CCP mole inside of the U.S. and the CIA since the 1940s, visited the Korean battleground as a U.S. army faciliator and interpretator in relations with the Chinese prisoners of war. It was said that Larry Wu-tai Chin disclosed the status of anti-communism prisoners of war to China, an event that had prolonged the Korean war till 1953. The war went on for two more years because the Chinese communists wanted the prisoners completely repatriated to China; but Truman, for sake of having the Democrats win the American election against Eisenhower, decided to go against the U.S. Army by adopting the Geneva Convention of repatriation on the voluntary basis - which was the inverse of what the U.S. did to the anti-communist Russian exiles and nationals residing in Germany and Eastern Europe at the time of the German surrender. In the final, Eisenhower's threat to use the Atomic bombs and revoke Truman's "limited war" policy contributed to the truce agreement to end the war.

The Five Korean Campaigns

The Chinese Prisoners of War In Korea
Gao Wenjun, a Whampoa 23rd Session cadet who was sold out by the academy principal to the communist PLA together with 3000 classmates and later was forced into service in the PVA in Korea, recalled his war experiences and his unrelenting struggle for the right to be repatriated to Taiwan in "Recollection Of the Korean War" (Shengzhi Culture Enterprise Publishing House, http://www.ycrc.com.tw, Taipei, Taiwan, July 2000). Out of 21,000 prisoners of war behind the barbed wire in Korea, altogether around 15,000 chose to go to Taiwan. Further, over 73% of those soldiers caught by the United Nations army, including Gao Wenjun and Wang Shunling, had voluntarily sought for defection by crossing the frontline with the "Safe Conduct Pass" in their hands. In Taiwan, 14,343 "anti-communist heroes" received a warm welcome. Later Gao Wenjun took part in a worldwide tour to propagate their aspiration for freedom during the years of custody in Korea.

Some talk points this webmaster made at http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/863-could-an-undivided-china-repel-the-ija/
South Korea had no army till within one year of the withdrawal of the U.S. Army. The United States treated S Korea much worse than what they did to today's Iraqi puppet government. There was no heavy weapon assigned to S Korea's police-converted troops. -Two factions of the Americans at play: one faction intending on colonizing S Korea with an aim of weakening the S Korean military; and the other faction, being undercover Russian agents and of the CPUSA background, overpowered the previous faction by having the U.S. troops officially withdraw from S Korea as an echo of the "Russian withdrawal" from N Korea. North Korea had hundreds of thousands of soliders.
In Korea, there was a similar scam, i.e., the Political Consultative Conference as happened in China. The South Koreans split into two factions, with one group doing the so-called PCC peace talks with N Korea. There was the through traffic between the two sides. N Korea knew exactly how many troops and guns S Korea had. S Korea had survived purely because of a general who previously served as tactician-in-general of the Chinese Youth Army. This general, a Whampoa cadet, was responsible for taking control of about two S Korean Divisions and fought on for two weeks till McArthur sent over reinforcement from Japan.
The Koreans whom Mao sent to Kim in 1949 and 1950 were previously 1) puppets under the Japanese Kwantung Army; and ii) a batch of about 200,000 plus Koreans whom Kim lent to Mao in 1947 for the Chines civil war in Manchuria. Kim Il Sung claimed altogether he sent 250,000 Koreans to Mao for fighting China's civil wars.
The Koreans had a Restoration Army in China since the 1910s. They enrolled in the Whampoa Academy in the 1920s by about 100-200. Very few Koreans joined the Chinese communists. Only two among some dozen Koreans, who enrolled in the Whampoa Academy, survived the communist Red Army's Long March. In the 1930s, the Koreans split into two factions. The KOREAN RESTORATION ARMY, however, continued to operate under Chiang Kai-shek till the early 1940s. Then, Zhou Enlai instructed Sima lu in penetrating the Korean Independence Army's Headquarters in Chongqing (Chungking). About several hundreds of the Korean Restoration Army cadres were steered to the communist camp en route to the north to fight the Japanese. The root cause could still be an OSS covert operation, or put it in that way, a deliberate Soviet spy operation inside of the OSS to steer the Koreans to the communist side on the pretext of helping to equip the Koreans for the war against Japan.
At the time Japan surendered, the Chinese communists sent in some cadres to Manchuria. The Russians, though, had steered majority of the Korean communists from both northern China and from the Russian Far East, to N Korea, straight. Those Koreans, including Kim Il-sung, were among the Far Eastern teaching brigade that was formed in the early 1940s among the remnants of the guerrillas who withdrew from Manchuria on the purported Soviet order that the guerrillas should cease the fighting against Japan [with the apparent Soviet-Japanese Non-aggression Treaty signed] in expectation of changes in the world wide war, i.e., the pending eruption of the Pacific War which the Soviet agents began to foment years before its actual eruption.


The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War should be traced to the Chinese communists as well. During the Korean truce talks in 1952 and 1953, the Americans repeatedly told the Chinese counterparts that China should not reshuffle the troops to the border with Vietnam once the Korean War was to stop. What happened was exactly what the Americans had feared the most: The Chinese communists redirected the troops and military supplies to Vietnam, helping the Vietnamese communists (i.e., Viet Minh) in the counter-attack against the French in Dien Bien Phu in March-May 1954, which effectively led to a thorough defeat of the French army and the subsequent signing of the Geneva peace accord that divided Vietnam into the two parts of North Vietnam and South Vietnam, and allowed the North Vietnamese communists to have a secured staging ground to continue the invasion against South Vietnam.
The Vietnamese communists, who had a wide-range cooperation with American OSS [penetrated by the Comintern agents] during the WWII, were commented by the U.S. State Department to have the least trace of contacts with Moscow among all Southeast Asian communists. Superficially, the American policy towards Vietnam was to prevent the French from re-asserting the colonial rule over Vietnam. Fundamentally, the undercover Russian agents inside of the U.S. State Department hijacked the American foreign policy to lend support to the Communist movement in Vietnam.
The Chinese nationalist government, being anti-British and anti-French, always took into own hands the role of acting as the beacon tower for the liberation and independence of all colonized and semi-colonized contries of Asia. Hence, the Chinese army, which took over the surrender of Japan in North Vietnam, hindered the return of the French troops and indirectly lent support to the small contingent of few thousand men led by the Vietnamese communist leader, Ho Chi Minh. The Chinese army, before pulling out from Vietnam in May of 1946, had supplied Ho's force with the firearms. Ho, like the Chinese communists who intentionally hid their identity and pretended to be a so-called "democratic allied army" upon entry into Manchuria, called themselves by Viet Minh, i.e., the Vietnamese [national] [democratic] alliance. Ho purportedly established some regime right after the Japanese surrender in Aug 1945. However, open confrontation against the French did not start till November of 1946.
Similar to the Korean War, ethnic-Chinese generals had fought the war against the Vietnamese communists. The fallacious read of the Vietnam War was the mistaken belief of the Vietnamese Communists' true abilities at the end of WWII. For five years, from 1945 to 1950, the Vietnamese Communists could not fight the ethnic Chinese militia or the civilian corps in the Chinese-ethnic towns, villages and settlements of North Vietnam. The ethnic Chinese living in North Vietnam, at the time the R.O.C. troops pulled out of Vietnam at the turn of 1945-1946, were given some token numbers of guns for self-defence in the major residential points. Ho controlled merely a tiny area near the Tonkin [eastern capital] Bay.
It would be after the Chinese nationalist government lost the civil war that Ho Chi Minh got in direct contact with the Chinese communists for military supplies. After the fall of China to the Chinese Communists, the Chinese army remnants acted as buffer in the Golden Triangle area at the Burmese-Chinese border and the Thai-Chinese border. In Vietnam, the buffer that could have existed was destroyed by the French themselves. The French, being shortsighted as they were, hoodwinked and disarmed the Chinese Nationalist Army remnants, who retreated into Vietnam under General Huang Jie, the war hero from the 1933 Battle of the Great Wall. Among Huang Jie's remnant troops would be about 400 Henan Province middle school students, i.e., remnants of about 3000-4000 exile students, who tenaciously travelled across the country and walked through the high Shiwan [One Hundred Thousand] Mountains of Southwestern China.
In 1950, Vo Nguyen Giap, a general under Ho, claimed to have 4 divisions of troops. In 1950, France dispatched General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny to Vietnam for leading the French expedition army for the First Indochina War. From 1950 to September 1951, Tassigny commanded the French troops to win three major victories at Vinh Yen, Mao khe (near the port of Haiphong) and Yen Cu Ha (in the Red River Delta), in January 1951, March 1951, and late May 1951.
The Chinese Communists, who had wrapped up the war in Korea in 1953, shifted their weaponry and army southward towards the Vietnam to take the fight against the French, ending in the French debacle at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. The Chinese dispatched Wei Guoqing, a Zhuang-ethnic general, to Ho's camp as the chairman of the Chinese military delegation, for directing the war against the French. Tassigny's successors, Raoul Salan and Henri Navarre, did not fare well. In late 1953, the French conducted a campaign against Dien Bien Phu, a town close to the Laos border. The French sacked the town. The Vietnamese communists, under the support of the Chinese communists, counter-attacked the French. In March-May 1954, after some month-long campaign, the Vietnamese communists thoroughly defeated the French army. The French in July signed the Geneva peace accord that divided Vietnam into the two parts of North Vietnam and South Vietnam, and effectively pulled out of Vietnam. The North Vietnamese communists, who had demanded with the Chinese communists to continue to take the battle to the south, beyond the 16th Parallel, hence blamed the Chinese communists for the betrayal. The North Vietnamese communists, with control of North Vietnam, secured a base to continue the invasion against South Vietnam. Across Southeast Asia, the torrents of communism, which won the Vietnam War with the support of the Soviets and the Chinese Communists, swept their way all over the area.
The American sell-out of the Catholic Vietnamese President
With the French defeat, the power was yieled to the last remaining ruler of the Nguyen dynasty, i.e., Bao-dai. To counter North Vietnam which launched a government, Bao-dai organized his regime in southern Vietnam. Ngo Dinh Diem (Wu Tingyan), at the invitation of the Vietnamese emperor Bao-dai, returned to Vietnam to be prime minister in 1954. In October of 1955, the Vietnamese Republic was launched after Ngo Dinh Diem deposed Emperor Bao-dai to become president. Ngo Dinh Diem, while suppressing the buddhists, was an adamant anti-communist, something with do with Ho Chi Minh's killing his elder brother and father. In 1959, the communist spy returned to the north to suggest to Ho Chi Minh to initiate attack at South Vietnam, with a claim that any further delay could mean the loss of chance of re-uniting Vietnam as Ngo Dinh Diem had developed the economy and society so well that communism would not find favor in South Vietnam. Ngo Dinh Diem allowed the communist fake defectors to work in the South Vietnamese government, including spy Fan Yucao who later worked in the Vietnamese embassy to the United States and spy Fan Chun'an who worked for the TIMES magazine. In 1963, the Americans sold out Ngo Dinh Diem in allowing the younger officers to stage a coup. The pretext was to do with Ngo Dinh Diem's anti-buddhism stance, with the burning buddhists' self-immolation shot into the documentary videos.
To be continued !






Armed Uprisings Against Manchu Qing Dynasty
Song Jiaoren's Death & Second Revolution
The Republic Restoration Wars
The Wars For Protecting 'Interim Agreed-Upon Laws'
Civil Wars Among Northern Warlords
Guangdong-Guangxi War & Sun Yat-sen's Return To Canton
Guangdong-Guangxi War & Li Zongren's Emergence
Li Zongren Quelling Guangxi Prov
Whampoa Academy & Chiang Kai-shek's Wars
Northern Expeditions & Unification Of China
Invasion Of Manchuria, Chaha'er & Jehol 1931-34
Mukden Incident - 9/18/1931 & Battle Of Jiangqiao
Shanghai Provocation - 1/28/1932
Battles of the Great Wall
China In Crises Of Internal Turmoils & Foreign Invasions
Japanese Invasion (1937-1945)
Marco Polo Bridge Incident & Battle of Tianjin-Peking
Campaign Of Nankou & Campaign of Xinkou
Air Battles Directed By Chenault & With Russian Pilots
Battles of Shanghai, Jiangyin, Si'an & Nanking Defence
Rape Of Nanking & The Great Rescue Of 1937
Eight Year Long Resistance War
Mingguang, Linyi-Tengxian, Tai-er-zhuang , & Xuzhou
Battles of Lanfeng, Wuhan, Nanchang, & Sui-Zao,
1st Changsha Battle, Kunlunguan, Wuyuan, & Zao-Yi,
Fatigue Bombing of Chongqing by Japanese
Aggression Against Vietnam & Southeast Asia
Yu-nan & E-bei, Shanggao, & Mt Zhongtiaoshan
2nd Changsha Battle, & Pacific Wars
3rd Changsha Battle, & Zhe-Gan Campaign
Second Burma Campaign, & Phase II
[ revolution.htm & tragedy.htm]
Communist Armed Rebellions
Second Northern Expedition
War Of Chiang Kai-shek versus Gui-xi (March 1929)
War Of The Central Plains (May 1930)
Campaigns Against Communist Strongholds
The Long March
Xi'an Incident - Turning Point of Modern History
Demise Of Red Army Western Expedition
[ campaign.htm & terror.htm ] [ war.htm ]

1945-1949 Civil War

Written by Ah Xiang

Copyright 1998-2012:
This website expresses the personal opinions of the webmaster (webmaster@republicanchina.org, webmaster@imperialchina.org, webmaster@uglychinese.org). In addition to the webmaster's comments, extensive citation and quotes of the ancient Chinese classics (available at http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3) were presented via transcribing and paraphrasing the Classical Chinese language into the English language. Whenever possible, links and URLs are provided to give credit and reference to the ideas borrowed elsewhere. This website may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, with or without the prior written permission, on the pre-condition that an acknowledgement or a reciprocal link is expressively provided. All rights reserved.
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This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of of the years of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into publication soon. The original plan for completion was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of the years of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of the ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese tradition, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of the Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "The Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang's Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generation of the Chinese patriots, including the to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thief Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the good of the country.

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REAL STORY: A Study Group Is Crushed in China's Grip
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Republican China in Blog Format
Republican China in Blog Format
Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],