*** Translation, Tradducion, Ubersetzung , Chinese ***
HomePage Huns Turks & Uygurs Tibetans Koreans Khitans Manchus Mongols Taiwanese Ryukyu Japanese Vietnamese  
Pre-History Xia-Shang Zhou Qin Han 3 States Jinn 16 Nations South-North Sui-Tang 5 Plus 10 States Soong Liao Xi Xia Jurchen Yuan Ming Qing  
Tragedy Of Chinese Revolution Terrors Wars China: Caste Society Anti-Rightists Cultural Revolution 6-4 Massacre Land Enclosure FaLunGong  

Videos about China's Resistance War: The Battle of Shanghai & Nanking; Bombing of Chungking; The Burma Road (in English)
Videos about China's Resistance War: China's Dunkirk Retreat (in English); 42 Video Series (in Chinese)
Nanchang Mutiny; Canton Commune; Korean/Chinese Communists & the Japanese Invasion of Manchuria; Communist-instigated Fujian Chinese Republic
Communist-instigated Marco Polo Bridge Incident
The Enemy From Within; Huangqiao Battle; N4C Incident
1945-1949 Civil War
Liao-Shen, Xu-Beng, Ping-Jin Yangtze Campaigns
Siege of Taiyuan - w/1000+ Soviet Artillery Pieces (Video)
The Korean War The Vietnam War

*** Related Readings ***:
The Amerasia Case & Cover-up By the U.S. Government
The Legend of Mark Gayn
The Reality of Red Subversion: The Recent Confirmation of Soviet Espionage in America
Notes on Owen Lattimore
Lauchlin Currie / Biography
Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
Solomon Adler the Russian mole "Sachs" & Chi-com's henchman; Frank Coe; Ales
Mme Chiang Kai-shek's Role in the War (Video)
Japanese Ichigo Campaign & Stilwell Incident
Lend-Lease; Yalta Betrayal: At China's Expense
Acheson 2 Billion Crap; Cover-up Of Birch Murder
Marshall's Dupe Mission To China, & Arms Embargo
Chiang Kai-shek's Money Trail
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists. At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking.)
 
Antiquity The Prehistory
Fiery Lord
Chi-you
Yellow Lord
Xia Dynasty 1991-1959 BC 1
2070-1600 BC 2
2207-1766 BC 3
Shang Dynasty 1559-1050 BC 1
1600-1046 BC 2
1765-1122 BC 3
Western Zhou 1050 - 771 BC 1
1046 - 771 BC 2
1121 - 771 BC 3
Eastern Zhou 770-256 BC
770-249 BC 3
Sping & Autumn 722-481 BC
770-476 BC 3
Warring States 403-221 BC
476-221 BC 3
Qin Statelet 900s?-221 BC
Qin Dynasty 221-206 BC
248-207 BC 3
Western Han 206 BC-23 AD
Xin (New) 9-23 AD
Western Han 23-25 AD
Eastern Han 25-220
Three Kingdoms Wei 220-265
Three Kingdoms Shu 221-263
Three Kingdoms Wu 222-280
Western Jinn 265-316
Eastern Jinn 317-420
16 Nations 304-420
Cheng Han Di 301-347
Hun Han (Zhao) Hun 304-329 ss
Anterior Liang Chinese 317-376
Posterior Zhao Jiehu 319-352 ss
Anterior Qin Di 351-394 ss
Anterior Yan Xianbei 337-370
Posterior Yan Xianbei 384-409
Posterior Qin Qiang 384-417 ss
Western Qin ss Xianbei 385-431
Posterior Liang Di 386-403
Southern Liang Xianbei 397-414
Northern Liang Hun 397-439
Southern Yan Xianbei 398-410
Western Liang Chinese 400-421
Hunnic Xia Hun 407-431 ss
Northern Yan Chinese 409-436
North Dynasties 386-581
Northern Wei 386-534
Eastern Wei 534-550
Western Wei 535-557
Northern Qi 550-577
Northern Zhou 557-581
South Dynasties 420-589
Liu Song 420-479
Southern Qi 479-502
Liang 502-557
Chen 557-589
Sui Dynasty 581-618
Tang Dynasty 618-690
Wu Zhou 690-705
Tang Dynasty 705-907
Five Dynasties 907-960
Posterior Liang 907-923
Posterior Tang 923-936
Posterior Jinn 936-946
Posterior Han 947-950
Posterior Zhou 951-960
10 Kingdoms 902-979
Wu 902-937 Nanking
Shu 907-925 Sichuan
Nan-Ping 907-963 Hubei
Wu-Yue 907-978 Zhejiang
Min 907-946 Fukien
Southern Han 907-971 Canton
Chu 927-956 Hunan
Later Shu 934-965 Sichuan
Southern Tang 937-975 Nanking
Northern Han 951-979 Shanxi
Khitan Liao 907-1125
Northern Song 960-1127
Southern Song 1127-1279
Western Xia 1032-1227
Jurchen Jin (Gold) 1115-1234
Mongol Yuan 1279-1368
Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
Manchu Qing 1644-1912
R.O.C. 1912-1949
R.O.C. Taiwan 1949-present
P.R.C. 1949-present

 

 
   

AMERICAN AID TO CHINA ?


Armed Uprisings Against Manchu Qing Dynasty
Song Jiaoren's Death & Second Revolution
The Republic Restoration Wars
The Wars For Protecting 'Interim Agreed-Upon Laws'
Civil Wars Among Northern Warlords
Guangdong-Guangxi War & Sun Yat-sen's Return To Canton
Guangdong-Guangxi War & Li Zongren's Emergence
Li Zongren Quelling Guangxi Prov
Whampoa Academy & Chiang Kai-shek's Wars
Northern Expeditions & Unification Of China
Invasion Of Manchuria, Chaha'er & Jehol 1931-34
Mukden Incident - 9/18/1931 & Battle Of Jiangqiao
Shanghai Provocation - 1/28/1932
Battles of the Great Wall
China In Crises Of Internal Turmoils & Foreign Invasions
Japanese Invasion (1937-1945)
Marco Polo Bridge Incident & Battle of Tianjin-Peking
Campaign Of Nankou & Campaign of Xinkou
Air Battles Directed By Chennault & With Russian Pilots
Battles of Shanghai, Jiangyin, Si'an & Nanking Defence
Rape Of Nanking & The Great Rescue Of 1937
Eight Year Long Resistance War
Mingguang, Linyi-Tengxian, Tai-er-zhuang , & Xuzhou
Battles of Lanfeng, Wuhan, Nanchang, & Sui-Zao,
1st Changsha Battle, Kunlunguan, Wuyuan, & Zao-Yi,
Fatigue Bombing of Chongqing by Japanese
Aggression Against Vietnam & Southeast Asia
Yu-nan & E-bei, Shanggao, & Mt Zhongtiaoshan
2nd Changsha Battle, & Pacific Wars
3rd Changsha Battle, Zhe-Gan, Changde, & E-xi
First, & Second Burma Campaign, & Phase II
[ revolution.htm & tragedy.htm]
Communist Armed Rebellions
Second Northern Expedition
War Of Chiang Kai-shek versus Gui-xi (March 1929)
War Of The Central Plains (May 1930)
Campaigns Against Communist Strongholds
The Long March
Xi'an Incident - Turning Point of Modern History
Demise Of Red Army Western Expedition
[ campaign.htm & terror.htm ] [ default page: war.htm ]

 
Continuing from Tragedy of Chinese Revolution, Campaigns & Civil Wars, & White Terror vs Red Terror:
 

 
 
http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?showtopic=6279&st=15&p=4752617&#entry4752617  
 
After reading through the memoirs by Chiang Kai-shek's attache and secretaries, this webmaster could not explain the riddles about the fast fall of Chiang Kai-shek's regime. Blaming on the corruption by the Kung-Soong families, on the Whampoa lineage generals, on the communist espionage, and on the communist propaganda did not explain the whole issue.
 
One week ago, this webmaster was still hot on Chiang Kai-shek's money trail without deriving any satisfactory explanation. Over the weekend, this webmaster found answers. What this webmaster was surprised about is that someone already saw through the riddles. It is just the cover-up and ignoring by the mainstream academics that buried the gem in the sand.
 
What this webmaster is referring to here is the following writing by some brave woman called Freda Utley.
 
This webmaster's previous doubt about "Acheson's 2 billion aid" was completely answered here. There is no need to find the original crap written by Acheson for comparison. Freda Utley did it for us dozens of years ago. The aid of 2 billion U.S. dollars was a crap. Evidence reinforced this webmaster's conviction that a full house of the Soviet spies, who controlled the U.S. Treasury Department and the State Department, worked to destroy Republican China on behalf of the Soviets. After further reading of Wellington Koo's memoirs, the impression was that George Marshall was the most evil of all, and had NO integrity, and always flip-flopped on the matter of China, and was determined to destroy the R.O.C. at any excuse and on any pretext. Marshall's hands had the blood of millions of Chinese killed in civil wars. G Marshall, as Wedemeyer said, first armed China and then disarmed China. The U.S. arms embargo continued till the China Aid Act of 1948, and ammunition did not get released till Nov of 1948. As disclosed by the documents at the George Marshall foundation, George Marshall, possibly the most hideous agent working on behalf of Stalin and the Soviet Union, saved the ass of the Chinese Communists with a threat to withhold the economic aid that was supposedly coming from the U.S. export-import bank, which never materialized. Marshall, in spring 1946, flew back to China to stop the Chinese army from moving beyond Sungari.

 
Germany was the only country to have given China a loan before the 1937 war outbreak. The term was 100 million German marks. By 1938-1939, the balance of the loan was written off. The exact amount of the German marks allocated was not clear.
 
After the outbreak of the resistance war, from 1937 to 1939, the U.S.S.R., which of course provoked the Sino-Japanese War through repeating G.R.U. operations in China and espionage activities within the Japanese/American governments, gave China three generous loans, with no strings attached, in the amount of 50 million USD, 50 million USD, and 150 million USD. (One minor string attached, it was said, was to have Chiang Kai-shek agree to equip the small communist army as the New Fourth Army [Corps] and the Eighth Route Army plus funding.)
 
The United States did not give an unsecured loan to China till the eve of the Japanese launch of the puppet Nanking regime in Nanking in March 1940, with the only purpose of keeping China in the war with Japan. (In 1931, there was a customs-revenue-securitized loan of 9 million USD dollars to purchase wheat [Young, p. 49]; and in 1933, there was a cotton and wheat loan of US$50 million, actually a credit offered by Americans for boosting the American Agricultural Price, which China had to cut down to 10 million from the original 40 million on the cotton component due to hyper-price set in the unfavorable terms of trade. )
China's Millions Paving the Burma Road (in English)
While China's people, in millions, were paving the Burma Road to barter-trade the mercury, tungsten, pig hair bristles with the "neutrality"-observing U.S., for some meagre credit of 15-25 million US dollars, the Soviet Comintern agents, who surrounded Eleanor Roosevelt as the so-called "China Defense League" front organization, funneled from 1938 to 1941 at least 20 million US dollars to the Chinese Communists in Yenan, who in turn pincer-attacked the R.O.C. government troops and guerrila fighters in synchronization with the Japanese invaders.
The Enemy From Within;
Huangqiao Battle;
Wan-nan Incident.

The lend-lease amounts were merely US$26 million (1941, mostly squandered in Burma in the aftermath of the Japanese invasion), US$100 million (1942), US$49 million (1943), and US$53 million (1944).
 
The Aug 1949, 1000 page U.S. White paper published by D.G. Acheson claimed that the U.S. had given to China US$2 billion. After checking Freda Utley's calculation, we could tell the 2 billion amount consisting of the majority in the form of service(s) during and immediately after the WWII, included the UNRRA goods that was said to be 685M USD by Seagrave and 500M by Kerr. The bulk of 2 billion, i.e., service(s), included the costs in dispatching Chinese troops to the coast and Manchuria as well as repatriating 2 million Japanese to Japan islands. The remnant of Lend-Lease program, e.g., the rotten inventories on Pacific Islands, were probably the only American flow to China after the outbreak of 1945-1950 civil war. Jung Chang, in "Mao: The Unknown Story", repeated the cliché by exaggerating the American aid amount to be 3 billion USD dollars, i.e., one billion more than Acheson's. Her brother, Zhang Pu, lurking on the internet, had found out the loopholes and began to whitewash the number to 1.5 billion financial aid and about 0.8 billion military aid [which were still untrue]. Communist China's Social Academy chief Liu Da’nian acknowledged that Chiang received no more than 0.6 billion in aid. The actual number won't be more than 0.2 to 0.3 billion, including the 0.125B from the 1948 China Aid Act which rolled over to China Area Aid, to be squandered in Indochina, instead.
After General Marshall became Acting Chief of Staff effective 1 July 1939, he wrote to Japanese Army the following: I am "sure that the cordial relations which have existed between the Imperial Japanese Army and the Army of the United States will continue, and I shall look forward to pleasant contacts with you [Japanese general] during your tour of duty in Washington ." (Marshall to Yamauti, July 5, 1939, GCMRL/ G. C . Marshall Papers [Pentagon Office, Congratulations] . ) More, Brigadier General John Magruder, in October of 1941, relayed the fear of Chinese leader [Chiang Kai-shek] that the "Japanese Army was poised to launch a major drive against the southern city of Kunming, aimed at cutting the Burma Road, China's last important supply link with friendly powers. Marshall's reply was "he knew Magruder very well and ... stated that he knew Magruder when he was in China before, and General Marshall was himself in China . When the Japanese were about to advance on Nanking [in 1937], Magruder, from his sympathy with the Chinese and from his viewpoint as gathered by his experience in China, became quite stampeded... and he knew Magruder so well that he, General Marshall, could properly interpret Magruder's messages." That is, China, who cares!
 
The American aid to China was completely sabotaged by i) colonialists and ii) communists inside of the U.S. government. The American Production Mission to China wasn't set up until September '44. Per Edwin Locke, "Well, the problem had just never been attended to before, for one thing; and for another, we were just getting into a position where militarily we could supply a lot more help to China. You see, China was at the end of the line before; she was almost an orphan, and we didn't do very much more than maintain Chennault and his hundred airplanes there in South China, until we began building big bomber bases in China for bombing Japan. China then began to assume a great deal more importance. I think this is your reason..." --The airfields completely bankrupted China's wartime finance and led to spiraling inflation from 1942 to 1945, which replayed again from 1947 to 1949 when George Marshall left China.
Stilwell, the slimy who itched "to throw down ... shovel and get over there and shoulder a rifle with Chu Teh" the communist commander, before his kickout from China, paid a visit to Mme Sun Yat-sen the No. 1 Comintern agent in China. George Marshall quit his job twice, J.I.T (just in time), in anticipation of some pre-arranged phonecalls from Truman to tack on the jobs as 1) first the mediator in the Chinese civil war and ii) second as defense minister for the Korean War, respectively. George Marshall returned Zhou Enlai's address book to Zhou Enlai, sealed, while never alerting Chiang Kai-shek of communist spies like Xiong Xianghui. While Currie stopped German weapons from shipping to China and Truman dumped China's Lend-Lease weapons to the Indian Ocean, Acheson and George Marshall personally pushed for the 1946-47 arms embargo against China and imposed three ceasefire onto the Chinese government, Jan-10-1946, June-6-1946, & Nov-8-1946. Marshall deliberately flew back to China in April 1946 to stop Nationalist troops from chasing communists north of the Sungari River. This is how CHINA WAS LOST.
 
As disclosed by the documents at the George Marshall foundation, George Marshall, possibly the most hideous agent working on behalf of Stalin and the Soviet Union, saved the ass of the Chinese Communists with a threat to withhold the economic aid that was supposedly coming from the U.S. export-import bank, which never materialized. G Marshall, from 1946 to 1948, repeatedly probed numerous Chinese officials and generals as to who could be Chiang's successor. The U.S. Department of State, run by Russian agents, were repeatedly sending out rumors about getting a successor for Chiang. Marshall's hands had the blood of millions of Chinese killed in civil wars. G Marshall, as Wedemeyer said, first armed China and then disarmed China. The U.S. arms embargo continued till the China Aid Act of 1948, and ammunition did not get released till Nov of 1948. After weapons were shipped out, Acheson and the undercover Russian agents further attempted to order the ships to turn around at Guam and Okinawa. In Oct 1949, Acheson pleaded with the British, where the Cambridge Soviet Spy Ring was at work, for recognition of Communist China, which Britain did on Jan 1st, 1950. After that, Acheson declared the Aleutian curvature, which direcly led to the eruption of the Korean War.

* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
* Stay tuned for "Republican China 1911-1955: A Complete Untold History" *

In the past decade, a new generation of academics had emerged on the mainland China and reflected on the communist ascension to power in the 1949, including Yang Kuisong, Gao Hua, Niu Jun, Zhang Baijia, Dai Chaowu, Shen Zhidan & Li Danhui and et als. But none of them wished to become China's Sakhrov as Fang Lizhi had attempted prior to June 4th, 1989 Massacre. We could not put blame on the courage and conscience of people still in China, though; the mere mentioning of their names could give them trouble, and the banning of their personal websites. The conscience of China, meanwhile, had undergone setbacks in the infomation age that would supposedly open up China. Yahoo, for instance, has admitted to sharing the user information for journalist Shi Tao with the Chinese communist authorities earlier this year in a move that landed him a 10-year jail term. In doing so, the firm 'complied with local Chinese law', according to Yahoo spokeswoman Mary Osako. Outside of China, Yu Maochun, as late as in his book "OSS In China", still failed to see through the agenda of Joseph Stilwell, as seen in Foreign Military Aid and Assistance to China. Some overseas dissidents, like Cao Changqing et als, had a blind faith in the so-called "American generosity" and the Republican Party's doctrines of 'democracy, freedom and liberty' as a result of delusion over the intermittent American for-show statements, like the Monroe Doctrine, Wilson's 14 Points, the Hull "ultimatum" of November 26th, 1941, & the American opposition to the British-Franco's colonialist activities in the Middle East, etc. In or outside China, they failed to see the in-depth of the Russian/Comintern conspiracy against China. They have not come to discern the American plays of the Chinese cards, and are still arguing among themselves, blindfolded by the Acheson's 2 Billion Crap aid to Nationalist China and Marshall's Dupe Mission To China & the Arms Embargo, not to mention i) American President Grant's attempt at making Manchu China divide Ryukyu into three parts with Japan, ii) John Watson Foster's collusion with the Japanese in selling the Shimonoseki Treaty, iii) the American navy's sailing gunboats and warships in the Yangtze to protest against the 1911 Xinhai Revolution, iv) the American navy's sailing gunboats and warships into the 'White Swan Pond' of Canton to protest against Sun Yat-sen's customs tax withholding, v) J.P. Morgan and the Wall Street's floating $263 million in loans to the Japanese by 1931 while refusing to aid China on the pretext of isolationism, vi) America's continuing sale of scrap metals and petrol oil after the Japanese sinking of Panay in 1937, and vii) America's selling out China at the Yalta and colluding with the Soviet Russians in subversion of Nationalist China.
 
What the Chinese side did not and does not understand about the Yalta Betrayal & the George Marshal Dupe Mission is that two factions of the Anglo-American interest groups, i.e., the ranks of innate cousins of the British colonialists and the ranks of the American doctrinists with advocacy for the "China containment" [or the containment of the Yellow Peril], had joined hands with the Soviet/Comintern agents in subverting the Republic of China.

 
Videos about China's Resistance War: China's Dunkirk Retreat (in English); 42 Video Series (in Chinese)
Stilwell, the slimy who itched "to throw down ... shovel and get over there and shoulder a rifle with Chu Teh" [i.e., the communist commander-in-chief], before his kickout from China, paid a visit to Mme Sun Yat-sen, the No. 1 Comintern agent in China. George Marshall quit his job twice, J.I.T (just in time), in anticipation of some pre-arranged phonecalls from Truman to tack on the jobs as 1) first the mediator in the Chinese civil war and ii) secondly as defense minister during the Korean War, respectively. George Marshall returned Zhou Enlai's address book to Zhou Enlai, while never alerting Chiang Kai-shek of communist spies like Xiong Xianghui. While Currie stopped German weapons from shipping to China and Truman dumped China's Lend-Lease weapons to Indian Ocean, Acheson and George Marshall personally pushed for the 1946-47 arms embargo against China and imposed three ceasefire onto Chinese government, on Jan-10-1946, June-6-1946, & Nov-8-1946. Marshall deliberately flew back to China in spring 1946 to stop Nationalist troops from chasing communists north of the Sungari River. This is how CHINA WAS LOST.
At this moment, commies had rallied henchmen against Mr Xin Haonian's book Which Is New China by repeatedly citing the writings of John Fairbank and the sort. This webmaster, though not agreeing with the said book on all accounts, does want to point out that
John Fairbank and most of the "Old China Hands", being anti-Chinese-nationalism in nature, were "fellow travellers" of the communists and British colonialists since the OSS/CIA days of 1940-50s. The best argument against the Chi-com would lie in continuing expositions of i) Russian/Comintern conspiracies against China, and ii) century-long American hypocrisy towards China & American manipulations of Chinese politics [e.g., Stilwell's instigating General Bai Chongxi, Stuart's instigating Li Zongren, and McArthur's instigating General Sun Liren].
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists. At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause
The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department) and ii) the communists. At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist "agrarian reformers".
Chinese communist agents on international arena would include Chen Hansheng [i.e., Owen lattimore's assistant]; Mme Sun Yat-sen [who acted as the intermediary between domestic and international communists]; Wu Kejian & Xie Weijing who orchestrated Chinese communist relief to the Spanish Civil War; and Wang Bingnan whose German wife "physically" won over the hearts of above-mentioned Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service. Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai.
After 60 years, the crap about corruption of the Chiang Kai-shek's regime was so deeply rooted in the American academics that even the publication of the VENONA scripts would not make someone to rethink. Some American senator talked about McCarthyism, while McCarthy had been proven to be right in 99% of the cases he prosecuted. Some other U.S. senator talked about "gung ho" recently, while not knowing what "Gung ho" was meant for. Let's be clear here: "gung ho" was not Evan Carlson's commando team in the Pacific Islands but a Comintern scheme to launder money to Yenan, totalling 20 million USD at minimum from Chen Hansheng's operations with the U.S. communist front organizations 1939 to 1941 plus more afterward, as well as a CCP underground tunnel (to use the same word as the American Black slaves' escape route to the north prior to the north-south war), on which road the CCP agents freely travelled around FREE CHINA by riding on the "gung ho" trucks; more, in Jiangxi, the anti-Japanese war base as well as the former Red Army enclave, the "gung ho" gangs were secretly training the cooperative workers to be anti-government insurgents to echo the raging civil wars that were going on along the Yangtze and in North China, which saw the communist Eight Route Army and New Fourth Army slaughtering hundreds of thousands of village elderlies, county magistrates, government guerrilla forces, and patriotic gentry-organized forces.
 
Now all this was done prior to the Pacific War. But due to Stalin's demand for maintaining the CCP-KMT collaboration scheme, Mao and the communists dared not publicly talked about civil wars. Should they secretly took out government guerrillas, they would make sure that no messenger would live to escape from the communist territory to tell the truth. Zhao Tong, and 200+ guerrillas, including his sister and dozens of female fighters, were run down by the communist cavalry, and killed to the last person while travelling towards Jehol. Who was Zhao Tong? He was the son of double-gun Mme Zhao, whom the same Wuhan and Chungking gangs, Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby's predecessors, had interviewed and talked about in the media both in China and over the world, a war hero fighting Japanese in Jehol since 1932-1933, and a Youth party member and later a statist member.
 
After the Pearl Harbor, Stalin no longer cared about China's role in WWII. So the order changed, which was to say that Comintern agents had the free hand to bad-mouth China, with no penalty as imposed before the Dec 1941 Japanese attack at the Pearl Harbor. Hence you see Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby, and the gangs, writing venomous articles against China. Theodore White was one of the top 3-4 playboys in wartime Chungking, and like John Fairbank, enjoyed "stalking" communist mouthpiece Gong Peng, the little black widow and Zhou Enlai's secretary, on the streets of Chungking. And you have Martens, the German communist, who provided one-on-one sexual service to those wartime American bachelors. I read through the craps by Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby just to find out who those guys cohorted with, and how they went around Free China, etc. My findings are the Theodore White gang always lived near the whorehouses, or one storey above the whorehouse, and this guy Theodore White at one time had a rendezvous with some Chinese general's concubine in a vacated hotel while the Japanese planes were dropping bombs over the whole city and people were fleeing to the bunkers. And another gang member was notorious in using the Hostel, a place the KMT government subsidized the international press rascals with a maximum cost of $1 and $3 for meals and lodging daily, as a daily party room to have fun with Chinese women. What you had were passages after passages of writings about the gang's whoring, and that's probably why Miles said he had thousands of pages of details on the gangs' antics and all those materials were locked up in the U.S. Navy's underground confidential room. From Rand's book, you could tell how those guys flew back and forth, between the U.S. and China, had liaison with the Comintern and CPUSA/CCP agents, like Yang Gang and Yang Zao brother and sister, even inviting the CCP "guest" to their home in New England; and of course the gang was responsible for hiring the CCP agents as translators and interpreters to work on the OSS watch and listen posts along the southeastern Chinese coastline. What a deal. Now, more to that. Almost all gang members were reaping profit by smuggling and selling scarce commodities, utilizing the black market rate of 1 USD to 120 CNC. The gangs made a killing and reaped huge profits, smuggling lipsticks for the sing-song women of Guilin, who were known to be Japanese spies. Some gang members purportedly had a "platonic" love club, with one CCP agent joining the drunkards' club to talk about love. While Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby returned to the U.S. to write a best-seller, arguing among themselves about who should put the name on the book and who should take the credit, the other gang members thought about having some fun in the outpost China and flew to the Chinese Turkistan to bad-mouth China which was defending itself against years of harassment wars conducted by Eastern Turkistan rebels and instigated by Stalin after China kicked out the Russians by taking advantage of the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
 
Like to ask you spend sometime on Khan, Rand and White's books, and see how those creeps joined hands with Comintern and CCP agents to sabotage China, and made China what it is today. And of couse read Dorn's book to know Marshall and Stilwell's scheme to assassinate Chiang Kai-shek.
 
American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the White Paper [Modified : Monday, 25-Feb-2013 22:00:00 EST]

* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
* Stay tuned for "Republican China 1911-1955: A Complete Untold History" *

 
The Truman crap cited by Yuanyuan Peng in "The Chinese Banking Industry: Lessons from History for Today's Challenges":
I discovered after some time that Chiang Kaishek and the Madame and their families, the Soong family and the Kungs, were all thieves, every last one of them, the Madame and Him included, And they stole 750 million dollars out of the [US$3.5] billion that were sent to Chiang. They stole it, and it is invested in real estate down in Sao Paulo and some right here in New York. (Miller 1974:289)

 
The Truman crap cited by Harry Gelbe in "The Dragon and the Foreign Devils: China and the World, 1100 B.C. to the Present":
They're all thieves, every damnned one of them. They stole 750 million out of the billions that we sent to China. They stole it, and it's invested in real estate down in SAao Paolo and some right here in New York.
 
Communist China's Social Science Academy chief Liu Da’nian acknowledged that Chiang Kai-shek received no more than 0.6 billion in aid. The actual number won't be more than 0.2 to 0.3 billion, including the 0.125 Billion from the 1948 China Aid Act which rolled over to the "China Area Aid", to be squandered in Indochina in the 1950s and 1960s, instead. After weapons were shipped out, with the first ship leaving Seattle, Acheson and the undercover Russian agents further attempted to order the ships to turn around at Guam and Okinawa. At about the same time the Republican Party forced through the China Aid Act in 1948, Stalin officially stamped a loan for the Chinese communists of equivalent amount allocated by the China Aid Act, with no strings attached.
 
The actual lend-lease amounts were merely:
US$26 million (1941, mostly squandered in Burma in the aftermath of the Japanese invasion),
US$100 million (1942),
US$49 million (1943), and
US$53 million (1944). (Numbers were from Arthur Young, economic adviser to the Republic of China and one of the few Americans who harbored true sympathy with China and the Chinese people.)
 
The American aid to China was completely sabotaged by i) the colonialists and ii) the communists inside of the U.S. government. The American Production Mission to China wasn't set up until September '44. Per Edwin Locke, "Well, the problem had just never been attended to before, for one thing; and for another, we were just getting into a position where militarily we could supply a lot more help to China. You see, China was at the end of the line before; she was almost an orphan, and we didn't do very much more than maintain Chennault and his hundred airplanes there in South China, until we began building big bomber bases in China for bombing Japan. China then began to assume a great deal more importance. I think this is your reason..."
 
Rather receiving any benefits from the lend lease, the Chinese side had spent enormous resource on supporting the American operation. The airfields completely bankrupted China's wartime finance and led to spiraling inflation from 1942 to 1945, which replayed again from 1947 to 1949 when George Marshall left China. Wellington Koo's memoirs often talked about some amount related to the INVERSE LEND LEASE, an amount that the Americans owed to China. Wellington Koo, throughout the late 1940s and early 1950s, were constantly working with the Americans to balance out the dollar amount of aid from the Americans and the the dollar amount of the support that R.O.C. provided to the Americans. (In talks with the U.S. State Department, H H Kung stated: "It cost us something about ninety CNC dollars to feed an American soldier a day...We in China are vegetable eaters...in China your boys need six eggs a day, and now it is cut down to four eggs. But you eat a pound of beef a day. In Kunming alone we are keeping cows and oxen to supply you... 12,000 catties of beef alone every day...in this country you raise animals for the purpose of meat; in China we don’t do that. In order to supply the meat we are feeding our oxen, used for farming purposes." Wesley Marvin Bagby, following the paper trail of the Comintern agents, while acknowledging that "the number of the American troops in China rose from 1,255 at the end of 1942, to 60,369 by August 1945...and that...carnivorous Americans decimated water buffalo, the principal nonhuman energy input into Chinese farming," did not appreciate a thing about China's contribution to the war efforts.)
 
For the year 1945 to the V-J Day: US$642 million.
(This is on basis of Utley's citation of the U.S. number of approximately $870,000,000 up to V-J Day, deducted by Young's numbers of $228 million from 1941 to 1944.)
For the time period from the V-J Day to the end of February 1946: US$600 million (mostly the transportation costs).
(This is on basis of Utley's citation of the U.S. number. Out of the above ambiguous post-1944 U.S. numbers, Utley deducted:
$335.8 million represented by the cost of repatriating the Japanese and accepting their surrender;
$100 million worth of the "surplus" United States stocks sold to China in 1946, 40 per cent consisting of the quartermaster supplies, and only $3 million consisting of the small-arms and ammunition. As pointed out by Utley, the largest single item in Acheson's total of $797.7 million of military aid was the "services and expenses" amounting to $335.8 million, and listed under the heading of "Postwar Lend-Lease.")
 :
This webmaster's conviction is that China's economic woes of 1942-1945 and 1947-1949, psychologically related, both were related to the American sabotage, i.e., alternatively, by what Hurley called the colonialists and communists inside of the the American government. The American aid to wartime China was completely sabotaged by i) the colonialists and ii) the communists inside of the U.S. government. The overwhelming slander against the government of the Republic of China was the consequence of the collusion of the colonialists (i.e., what Roosevelt suspected to be a house of the British hands in the State Department) and the communists (i.e., the undercover Comintern agents) inside of the U.S. government. The unchanging theme of bad-mouthing the R.O.C and eulogizing the Chinese Communists since the 1940s, however, had to do with the underlying logic behind "The China Exception: Russian Communism being wicked, the Chinese are good communists", which is an inherent fear of the Yellow Peril, i.e., the one billion Chinese would actually enjoy real democracy, go to college and develop their intelligence. A communist China, that suppresses its very own people, hence serves the purpose of nipping the Yellow Peril.
 
Before President Roosevelt, there was President Wilson's China policy, which this webmaster referred to as the 100-year American hypocrisy. It was pivoted from the hypocritical nature of America's Open Door Policy for China, which was originally an idea sold to the Americans by the British career customs officer working in Manchu China's customs office. During WWI, President Wilson, who was in the shoes and mindset of the British colonialists, believed that the U.S. had to keep China intact for securing the fate of the white civilization, while during WWII, the British impressed the Americans with the inverse of the former doctrine to state that a victorious Republic of China, which was to emerge from WWII, would pose a threat to the white civilization. The reason that China should remain open to all powers, in the opinion of U.S. president Thomas Woodrow Wilson, was that the 'white civilization' and its domination in the world rested largely on the ability to keep China intact, in the sense that should China fall completely under the Japanese [or the Tsarist Russian or someone else's] influence, then the massive Chinese manpower could be utilized like by Genghis Khan to conquer the world. This was the theme of the Yellow Peril, which was inverse to what the British ambassador claimed to Albert Wedemeyer during WWII that a strong and unified China would pose a threat to the Whitemen’s position in the Far East and immediately throughout the world. So to say that the nation of China should be managed delicately, that is, should not be allowed to grow too powerful to pose a threat to the white civilization, nor should it be allowed to be hijacked by a non-U.S. power since China's immense human labor could be turned against the [Anglo-American{-Jewish}] white civilization.)
 
The American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, the IPR Conspiracy, the Dixie Mission, the Stilwell Incident, the OSS Scheme, the Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper [Modified : Monday, 25-Feb-2013 22:00:00 EST]
 
There are many kinds of Americans, like those sharing the British colonial sentiments, like those who were Soviet spies, like those who unconsciously worked as the communist fellow travelers, and like those [Kerr] who despised Chiang Kai-shek's background and personality. There are last two categories, i.e., missionary Americans and true sympathizers for the Chinese cause, including Chennault who was shouldered to the airport by the Chinese in a jeep, and John Birch who devoted his life to the missionary duty in China. [http://www.thenewamerican.com/tna/2000/04-24-2000/vo16no09_birch.htm] We Chinese need to discern the truth and know who are our friends and who are not. We need to bear the lesson from true and real history, not to be misled by the perjured or fake history. Till we fully appreciate the help of good-hearted and sympathetic Americans such as Paul Reinsch, Arthur Young, Claire Lee Chennault, Milton Miles and Albert Wedemeyer, and build the ever-lasting and eternal monuments in remembrance of them, there would not be another American who would follow their footsteps. Note that Reinsch, after leaving the minister-to-China's post, continued to work on behalf of China and died of illness while working for China. The Chinese should forever pay respect to Reinsch and his descendants. A good Hollywood movie could be shot in regards to the behind-the-enemy-line collaboration efforts by Milton Miles and Dai Li.
 
 
Every righteous Chinese will be indignant about what he is to discover next !!!!!!!!!
 
The China Story by Freda Utley
 
 Chapter 2, Too Little, Too Late --
 The Facts About "Aid to China"
 
 
 
 
 ****
 
 
 
 Summaries from
 The China Story by Freda Utley
 Chapter 2, Too Little, Too Late --
 
 
 
1) Following Japan's surrender, shipments of Lend-Lease supplies to China from India were stopped, and large quantities of munitions and equipment intended for China were destroyed, or thrown into the sea. Smaller caliber ammunition was blown up, and 120,000 tones of larger caliber dumped into the Indian Ocean.2/ This "Operation Destruction" cost the lives of twenty-five Americans and one hundred and twenty-five Indians. Yet, these destroyed munitions are to be found included in the total of "pre-V-J Day Lend-Lease" charged to China's account.
 
2) The standard Chinese Nationalist rifle ammunition was the same as the German 7.92 mm. Had the Administration desired to help create a "strong, independent and friendly China," ample ammunition could therefore have been supplied at no cost to the National Government after Germany's defeat. The supply of German light arms and ammunition to China was urgently recommended by General Wedemeyer following V-E Day, and shipment was approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. A first consignment of twenty thousand rifles had actually left a German port for China, but was stopped en route by an order signed by Lauchlin Currie on White House stationery, forbidding any such aid to China. Ultimately a part of what could so easily have been given to China ended up in Russian hands in East Germany, and the rest was destroyed.
 
3) Lend-lease assistance was extended to China to assist her in fighting the Japanese, and later to fulfill our promise to assist in re-occupying the country from the Japanese. Assistance took the form of goods and equipment and of services. Almost half the total made available to China consisted of services, such as those involved in air and water transportation of troops. According to the latest figures reported, lend-lease assistance to China up to V-J Day totaled approximately $870,000,000. From V-J Day to the end of February [1946], shortly after General Marshall's arrival, the total was approximately $600,000,000 -- mostly its transportation costs.
 
Thus, in our analysis of the actual military aid given to China after Japan's defeat, we must first deduct the $335.8 million represented by the cost of repatriating the Japanese and accepting their surrender. This leaves us with a total of $461.9 million of postwar military aid to China. This figure must be further reduced by eliminating the non-military "surplus war stocks" sold to China in 1946, which Mr. Acheson also includes in his total of "military aid." For as noted in the previous chapter reviewing General Marshall's mission to China, President Truman, in the summer of 1946, expressly prohibited any further acquisition by China of arms or ammunition which could be used to fight the Communists. So the "surplus" United States war stocks sold to China in 1946 included little of any military value to the National Government. Out of the total of $100 million worth of "surplus" United States stocks sold to China in 1946, 40 per cent consisted of quartermaster supplies, and only $3 million consisted of the small-arms and ammunition required in the war against the Communists.
 
It is true that some armaments, such as large-caliber artillery pieces, were included, but these were not of a kind, as I shall show later, which could be used in fighting the Communists. The same can be said of such items as the half-million gas masks, priced at $8 apiece--total $4,000,000--which the Chinese Government presumably bought for the value of the rubber to the civilian economy.
 
Elimination of both the "services" charges and of the $100 million or so of United States non-military "war surplus" stocks sold to China in 1946 reduces the total of postwar "military aid" to China to about $360 million. This total is disputed by the Chinese National Government. According to its calculations, China received $110 million worth of "effective military aid" prior to the 1948 China Aid Act, which, together with the $125 million allocated by that Act, brought the total to $225 million. Whichever figure is correct, the total sum is far less than the "billions" which are popularly assumed to have been squandered to no purpose.
 
4) In a letter to Senator Connally on March 15, 1949, Mr. Aches stated more explicitly that United States aid to China since V-J Day totalled "over $2 billion." He wrote:
 
"Despite the present aid program authorized by the last Congress, together with the very substantial other aid extended by the United States to China since V-J Day, aggregating over $2 billion, the economic and military position of the Chinese Government has deteriorated to the point where the Chinese Communists hold almost all important areas of China from Manchuria to the Yangtze River and have the military ability . . . of eventually dominating South China. . . . The Chinese Government forces have lost no battles during the past year because of lack of ammunition and equipment, while the Chinese Communists have captured the major portion of military supplies, exclusive of ammunition, furnished the Chinese Government by the United States since V-J Day. There is no evidence that the furnishing of additional military materiel would alter the pattern of current developments in China (italics added)."
 
Let us first break down that $2 billion total into its component parts, with a view to ascertaining the actual amounts of military aid given the National Government of China to resist Communist aggression.
 
According to the figures given on pages 1043-44 of the White Paper, Mr. Acheson's over-all figure of $2 billion of postwar aid to China includes a total of $799 million of "economic aid," and $797.7 million of "military aid," which together add up to something over $1.5 billion. The balance of the $2 billion is not itemized, but presumably includes the United States' share of UNRRA aid, which is calculated to have amounted to $474 million.
 
The largest single item in Mr. Acheson's total of $797.7 million of military aid is "services and expenses" amounting to $335.8 million, and listed under the heading "Postwar Lend-Lease." The "services" referred to consisted of the cost of repatriating the million or more Japanese soldiers in China, and of transporting the Chinese Nationalist forces to accept the surrender of the Japanese Army in the liberated territories. According to President Truman, these "services" cannot properly be regarded as "postwar" Lend-Lease, but must be included under the heading of World War II expenditures.
 
5) Before proceeding to an account of the 1948 China Aid Act, it is necessary to examine the consequences of General Marshall's 1946-47 embargo on the shipment of arms or ammunition to China, and President Truman's insistence that no help should be given to the anti-Communist forces in the so-called "civil war."
 
Colonel L. B. Moody, a United States Army Ordinance Corps officer, now retired, who served with the Donald Nelson mission to China, has made an intensive and detailed study of aid to China. In a speech in Washington on April 11, 1950, he said that in China ..."the massive support of artillery, tanks, motor transport and aircraft to which western armies are accustomed is practically non-existent. The side which has the predominating infantry weapons, and especially the ammunition therefore, holds all the aces...It is obvious that "military aid" means to the Chinese infantry weapons and ammunition above all else, and it is precisely these items which the United States action has consistently denied, delayed or limited. Only passing reference will be made to the billions of moldy cigarettes, blown-up guns, junk bombs, and disabled vehicles from the Pacific Islands, which have been totaled up with other real or alleged "aid" in various State Department, Communist, and leftist statements to create the impression that we have furnished the Nationalist Government with hundreds of millions, or even billions, of dollars worth of useful fighting equipment..."
 
From the start of Japanese aggression to this evening the prime need of the Nationalist Armies has been, in the language of Joe Stilwell, "Bullets, D**n it, just bullets."
 
6) Colonel Moody also drew attention to the fact that the Chinese Communist admissions concerning their own casualties disproved the popular assumption that the Nationalist forces lost because of poor morale. For the Chinese Communist command reported that in the three years of civil war from July 1946 to July 1949, the number of their killed and wounded was 1,233,600. This is greater than the total of American casualties in World War II.
 
7) General Marshall's embargo on the sale of American arms and ammunition to the Nationalist forces in China was not lifted until July 1947, when the State Department allowed the Chinese Government to purchase some three weeks' supply of 7.92 mm. ammunition -- 130 million rounds. Chiang Kai-shek had been endeavoring, for a year, to get permission from the State Department to be allowed to acquire this ammunition, which could not be sold to anyone else because it had been made during World War II according to Chinese specifications.
 
One other small boon was vouchsafed to the Nationalists in 1947. The Marines and the Navy, when ordered to leave China, gave them a six days' supply for their .30 caliber weapons.
 
Colonel Moody calculates that in December 1947 at the normal rate of use, the total of ammunition in possession of the Nationalists was sufficient for only twenty-two days in the case of the Chinese 7.92 mm. weapons; and for thirty-six days in the case of the Chinese 7.92 mm. weapons; and for thirty-six days in the case of their .30 caliber-U.S.--guns.
 
8) The White Paper emphasizes the aid that was supplied to China early in 1948 by permitting the National Government to buy, at bargain prices, the stores which had been rotting on Pacific Islands. But it does not mention the fact that the "surplus" ammunition made available to China in January 1948 consisted mainly of types useless to the Chinese Nationalist forces. Colonel Moody’s detailed analysis shows that of the total offered only 3 per cent was of the required groundforce types, and only 2 per cent of useful air-force types, and not all of this was serviceable.
 
Only 52,500 cartridges of the .30 caliber they required for their American rifles and machine gunes were to be found, accounting for one-fortieth of one per cent of the total supplies made available to them. Certain other types of small-arms ammunition they could use brought the total tonnage to sixty-three tons, less than two-thirds of one per cent of the total shipped. This was at a time when the anti-Communist forces in China were going into battle with barely enough ammunition to fill their cartridge belts.
 
The Chinese contracted from their own funds for the 10,000 tons of ammunition that was made available to them at bargain prices early in 1948, because although little of it consisted of what they required, they hoped to make future use of it. For instance, they bought a stock of large-caliber shells in order to extract the explosive for mining and industrial operations, or to use in Chinese arsenals for loading the ammunition they made for themselves. But by making these purchases they enabled the State Department to claim that large supplies of munitions had been made available to fight the Communists, which was not so.
 
In the period December 1947 to November 1948 (when munitions voted in April 1948 in the China Aid Act began to arrive) the total of "surplus" United States ammunition sold to the Chinese provided only a months’s supply for the weapons they had and could use. Chinese production could provide only 7 to 8 per cent of requirements. Colonel Moody therefore calculates that the total of Chinese-produced and American rifle and machine-gun ammunition produced or acquired in 1948 amounted to only some sixty-three days’ supply in active operations.
 
 
9) A couple of months later the Chinese delegate to the United Nations, Dr. T. F. Tsiang, appealed to Secretary of State Marshall in Paris. He asked if anything would induce the United States to help China. He offered to put United States officers in actual command of Chinese troops "under the pretense of acting as advisers." He begged for munitions. And, finally, he asked General Marshall "as to the advisability of Chinese appeal to the United Nations because of Soviet training and equipping of Japanese military and also the Koreans."
 
10) In the fall of 1948, William C. Bullitt, on his return from a visit to China, reported that "the so-called mission sent to aid Chiang" had been instructed "not to advise him" with regard to the operation of his forces.
 
The former Ambassador and confidant of Franklin D. Roosevelt further stated that "nearly half of the 1500-man military "mission" was composed of fellow travellers and Communist sympathizers."
 
 
11) In his report General Barr provides an answer to the charge so assiduously propagated that the Nationalist forces allowed their equipment to be captured by the Communists. In China, ages of lean living developed a capacity to make use in some way or another of what others would regard as refuse; thus the Chinese have acquired what General Barr calls an "inherent" inability to destroy anything of value. General Barr describes their failure to destroy equipment when forced to surrender or retreat as due to this characteristic. It should also be noted here that Mr. Acheson himself in his letter to Senator Connally quoted at the beginning of this chapter admits that ammunition was not captured by the Communists from the National forces. This evidence suggests that the latter surrendered because they ran out of ammunition.
 
 
 
12) Let us now resume our account of the record of "aid to China."
 
General Marshall’s embargo on shipment of aid to the anti-Communist forces was, as we have already seen, lifted in the summer of 1947. The small quantity of munitions which China was then allowed to buy was considered by the Chinese Government as the only effective aid against the Communists which America had permitted them to obtain since General Marshall went to China.
 
Finally, in 1948, the Administratin, as a result of the Republican control of the House of Representatives in the 80th Congress, was compelled to include a grant of $125 million of military aid to China in the China Aid Act, originally presented only as an economic aid program.
 
But the Chinese Government was nevertheless unable to procure the munitions it so desperately needed until nearly the end of the year.
 
On April 5, 1948, the Chinese Ambassador in Washington made his first request for implementation of the Act. Two months went by with the Chinese pleading in vain to be allowed to make their wants known and start procuring supplies with the funds appropriated by Congress for th is purpose. At last, on June 2, President Truman (who had that same day received a strongly worded letter from Senator Bridges, the Chairman of the "Watch Dog" Committee) wrote to Secretary of State Marshall and to the Treasury advising them of the procedures to be followed in permitting China to make use of the sums appropriated. General Marshall waited over three weeks, until June 28, before so advising the Chinese Ambassador.
 
Even then the Chinese could not acquire arms and ammunition because the President had authorized only commercial transactions, and the munitions required could be obtained only from Government stocks. Another month passed before the President issued a directive authorizing United States Government departments and agencies to transfer military materiel from their own stocks, or procure it for the Chinese Government. (A year later the State Department was to point with pride to its "initiative" in having arranged the procedures for China to obtain supplies by July 28--nearly four months after the China Aid Act was passed!)
 
 
 
13 ) As Vice Admiral Russell S. Berkey said on May 15, 1950:
 
The Chinese Reds would still be north of the Great Wall if specific items of arms authorized by Congress two years ago had reached the Nationalist forces in time. For some reason or other it took nine months to get specific items to China. Somewhere in the United States somebody slipped up, bogged down, or was interfered with. It has never been made plain why this material did not arrive in time.
 
Even at the end of July munitions did not start rolling to China. From the State Department the matter went to the Army Department, which siad it could not act, or even specify the prices at which munitions would be sold, until after it had spent several weeks on "availability studies." It was not until late in September that these studies were completed. The Chinese then found that they were to be charged prices five to ten times higher than the thirty-odd other nations permitted to buy United States munitions. This drastic reduction of the total amounts they had expected to obtain under the China Aid Act necessitated the drawing up of new lists. This occasioned another, though only short, delay. The Army Department, however, now informed the Chinese that they could not expect shipment before early 1949.
 
In October, President Truman (influenced perhaps by the fact that the delay in getting arms to China had become an election campaign issue) issued expediting instructions, and the first substantial shipment of arms to China left Seattle on November 9, 1948. By this time the Communists had conquered the greater part of China.
 
The President’s October directive was succeeded by more delays. "Availability studies," priorities, export licenses, and so forth, snarled deliveries once again, so that by April 30, 1949--thirteen months after Congress had voted arms aid for China--nearly a quarter of the supplies to be furnished had not yet been shipped.
 
In addition, the total amount of munitions China was permitted to buy with the $125 million turned out to be only about one-eighth of what had been expected. It had been assumed by Congress and the Chinese Government that the prices charged would be the same as to Greece and Turkey, not to mention the thirty-odd other natons to whom "surplus" munitions were sold at 10 per cent of list price cost. Instead, when at last on August 31, 1948, the Army had progressed far enough in its "availability studies" to give prices on some items of arms and ammunition, the Chinese discovered they would be required to pay more than double published prices, and an average of 50 per cent in excess of current commercial quotations for new manufacturers. There was no possibility of obtaining the arms or ammunition from any private sources. The Army was in fact charging the Chinese a monopoly price.
 
 
 
14) Most of America’s postwar economic aid to China consisted of immediate relief to the homeless and starving. Little was provided to remove the causes of starvation. UNRRA aid, the greater part of which was provided by the United States, consisted mainly of food and clothing. Some undertakings were financed which would have been constructiveif the Communists had been prevented from destroying every dam, railway, mine, or industry reconstructed with UNRRA aid. For instance, Communist guerrillas quickly destroyed the Yellow River flood rehabilitation work of UNRRA engineers, constructed at a cost of millions of dollars. They simarilarly destroyed roads and railways repaired with UNRRA funds. While engaged in this deliberate destruction, they were receiving UNRRA relief supplies. For we insisted that a due proportion of UNRRA aid be furnished to Communist areas.
 
15) The Communists by this time seemed to have been so well supplied with everything they required that they refused UNRRA relief and medical supplies, rather than allow American personnel to enter their territory. According to a New York Times dispatch from Peiping dated June 21, 1947, Cornelius Bodine, of Philadelphia, the UNRRA director for the Changchun area, was twice refused entry to Communist-controlled areas of Manchuria. The Communists evidently desired to prevent at all costs foreign observers from learning how much help Russia was giving them.
 
 
16) According to the Chinese Central News Agency, thirty thousand Japanese "prisoners" and ninety tanks were backing the Communist offensive in Manchuria. Its Mukden correspondent reported early in June that "a special bureau" of "a certain nation" had supplied the Communists with equipment for twenty divisions, and that citizens of that "certain nation"--the usual designation for Russia in the Chinese press--or Japanese were manning the tanks that were spearheading the Communist offensive. The eventuality feared all through the Sino-Japanese War had become a reality; the Communists were fighting together with the Japanese against China under Russia’s orders.
 
In March 1947, Lieutenant General John R. Hodge, a U.S. commander in Korea, stated that Chinese Communist troops were participating in the training of a Korean army of 500,000 in Russian-held North Korea. The Chinese Central News Agency stated in June that more than 100,000 Russian-trained Koreans plus a cavalry division from Outer Mongolia were in action against the Chinese Nationalist forces.
 
As General Pai Chung-hsi, the Minister of Defense, stated on May 1, 1947, the government’s military progresshad been blocked by the truces and peace talks of the preceding year. "Immediately after the recovery of Kalgan (October 1946)," said the Kwangsi general, who is regarded as China’s foremost strategist, "we could have blasted open the whole Peiping-Hankow Railway, but our actions were deferred by intervals of negotiation. The government has suffered from an irresolute policy."
 
By June 1947, when prophecies were already being made in the American press that Manchuria would be lost to China, the National Government at last realized that its long silence concerning Russia’s hostile acts had merely emboldened the Soviet Government to increase its aid to the Chinese Communists, and that United States help was unlikely to be forthcoming until the American people were informed of the true facts of the Far Eastern situation.
 
On June 25, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a communique detailing for the first time the long record of Soviet obstruction to China’s attainment of her rights under the Sino-Soviet Treaty.
 
"Sources close to the Generalissimo" were reported by American correspondents to be saying that Chiang Kai-shek and his advisers were framing a new policy calling for a stronger stand against Russian aggression. The policy of silence and appeasement was being abandoned, but the extent to which China would go toward a diplomatic showdown with Russia would depend upon United States support.
 
General Chen Cheng, the Chinese Chief of Staff, charged on June 24 that at least thirty-one Russian advisers were known to be with the Communist forces fighting at Szepingkai, the important railroad point seventy miles from Mukden.
 
The Chinese Nationalist commander in besieged Szepingkai said that the Communists had battered the city with 100,000 artillery shells and that Russian-trained Koreans manned the Communist guns.
 
Following the lifting of the siege by Nationalist forces at the end of June, the Chinese Central News Agency accused Russia of having shipped 56,635 tons of military supplies to the Chinese Communists in June, twelve Soviet ships having unloaded supplies for them at Dairen, while others ran a shuttle service between the Manchurian part and Chefoo, the Shantung port occupied by the Communists.
 
So in 1946 and in 1947 the Chinese Nationalist commanders found themselves unable to crack the Communist line north to Dairen for fear of encroaching on Russia’s newly established extraterritorial rights on Chinese soil. In the fall of 1946, according to Christopher Rand of the New York Herald Tribune, two Communist regiments had taken refuge at Port Arthur from Nationalist attack, and sheltered there until they emerged in the spring of 1947 to take in the Communists’ greatest offensive.
 
As Tillman Durdin of the New York Times reported in April 1947, the Communist forces were backed up against the Russian "defense zone" running from Port Arthur in back of Dairen, and the Chinese Government feared the "complications" which would arise if the Communists retreated into Russian-occupied territory.
 
On July 4, the National Government, after rallying its forces for a successful counter-offensive in Manchuria, announced its abandonment of all hope for a political solution of the Communist problem and denounced the Communists as "armed rebels" who could be dealt with only by force.
 
Vice President Sun Fo, so long an advocate of Sino-Soviet friendship and collaboration, was reported to be one of the leading advocates of this resolution, which marked the end of China’s "Coue diplomacy" and placed her unequivocally in the world anti-Communist camp.
 
It was at this juncture that the United States Administration relented sufficiently to permit the Chinese Nationalists to buy 130 million rounds of ammunition in the United States. General Marshall, however, denied on July 2, 1947, that America was not supporting the Nationalist Government against the Communists. It was still the proclaimed policy of the United States to deny aid to China until the civil war ended, which meant in effect until Chiang Kai-shek came to terms with Stalin.
 
The Chinese were still hoping that the logic of facts would eventually convince America that there was no sense in stalling Soviet aggression in Europe while leaving our back door on the Pacific undefended. They had resisted Japan for years without our help, hoping that eventually we would become their allies. They hoped to be able to continue resisting Russia as long. But there is a limit to human endurance, and hope constantly deferred maketh the heart sick. By 1949 even inveterate enemies of the Communists saw no further possibility of resistance, in the face of United States’ refusal either of aid or moral support. China went down before the overwhelming might of Soviet Russia’s satellite forces, while the "Voice of America" broadcast praise of the Chinese Communists.
 
 
The China Story by Freda Utley
 
 Chapter 2, Too Little, Too Late --
 The Facts About "Aid to China"
 

 
Written by Ah Xiang
Armed Uprisings Against Manchu Qing Dynasty
Song Jiaoren's Death & Second Revolution
The Republic Restoration Wars
The Wars For Protecting 'Interim Agreed-Upon Laws'
Civil Wars Among Northern Warlords
Guangdong-Guangxi War & Sun Yat-sen's Return To Canton
Guangdong-Guangxi War & Li Zongren's Emergence
Li Zongren Quelling Guangxi Prov
Whampoa Academy & Chiang Kai-shek's Wars
Northern Expeditions & Unification Of China
Invasion Of Manchuria, Chaha'er & Jehol 1931-34
Mukden Incident - 9/18/1931 & Battle Of Jiangqiao
Shanghai Provocation - 1/28/1932
Battles of the Great Wall
China In Crises Of Internal Turmoils & Foreign Invasions
Japanese Invasion (1937-1945)
Marco Polo Bridge Incident & Battle of Tianjin-Peking
Campaign Of Nankou & Campaign of Xinkou
Air Battles Directed By Chennault & With Russian Pilots
Battles of Shanghai, Jiangyin, Si'an & Nanking Defence
Rape Of Nanking & The Great Rescue Of 1937
Eight Year Long Resistance War
Mingguang, Linyi-Tengxian, Tai-er-zhuang , & Xuzhou
Battles of Lanfeng, Wuhan, Nanchang, & Sui-Zao,
1st Changsha Battle, Kunlunguan, Wuyuan, & Zao-Yi,
Fatigue Bombing of Chongqing by Japanese
Aggression Against Vietnam & Southeast Asia
Yu-nan & E-bei, Shanggao, & Mt Zhongtiaoshan
2nd Changsha Battle, & Pacific Wars
3rd Changsha Battle, Zhe-Gan, Changde, & E-xi
First, & Second Burma Campaign, & Phase II
[ revolution.htm & tragedy.htm]
Communist Armed Rebellions
Second Northern Expedition
War Of Chiang Kai-shek versus Gui-xi (March 1929)
War Of The Central Plains (May 1930)
Campaigns Against Communist Strongholds
The Long March
Xi'an Incident - Turning Point of Modern History
Demise Of Red Army Western Expedition
[ campaign.htm & terror.htm ] [ default page: war.htm ]

1945-1949 Civil War
Liao-Shen Campaign
Korean War
Vietnamese War
 


Copyright 1998-2012:
 
This website expresses the personal opinions of the webmaster (webmaster@republicanchina.org, webmaster@imperialchina.org, webmaster@uglychinese.org). In addition to the webmaster's comments, extensive citation and quotes of the ancient Chinese classics (available at http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3) were presented via transcribing and paraphrasing the Classical Chinese language into the English language. Whenever possible, links and URLs are provided to give credit and reference to the ideas borrowed elsewhere. This website may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, with or without the prior written permission, on the pre-condition that an acknowledgement or a reciprocal link is expressively provided. All rights reserved.
WARNING: Some of the pictures, charts and graphs posted on this website came from copyrighted materials. Citation or usage in the print format or for the financial gain could be subject to fine, penalties or sanctions without the original owner's consent.

 
This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of of the years of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into publication soon. The original plan for completion was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of the years of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of the ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese tradition, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of the Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "The Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang's Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generation of the Chinese patriots, including the to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thief Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the good of the country.

Berkshire Profit 64% on Petrochina- Chicom Ultimately to Hold Empty Bag, Plus 200+ Billion Subprime Loss!
ECON 101: US Interest Rate Down = China Exchange Rate Up !

Beliefs Are Tested in Saga Of Sacrifice and Betrayal

REAL STORY: A Study Group Is Crushed in China's Grip
Beliefs Are Tested in Saga Of Sacrifice and Betrayal
Chinese ver

China The Beautiful

Huanghuagang Magazine


Republican China in Blog Format
Republican China in Blog Format
Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],