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Videos about China's Resistance War: The Battle of Shanghai & Nanking; Bombing of Chungking; The Burma Road (in English)
Videos about China's Resistance War: China's Dunkirk Retreat (in English); 42 Video Series (in Chinese)
Nanchang Mutiny; Canton Commune; Korean/Chinese Communists & the Japanese Invasion of Manchuria; Communist-instigated Fujian Chinese Republic
Communist-instigated Marco Polo Bridge Incident
The Enemy From Within; Huangqiao Battle; N4C Incident
1945-1949 Civil War
Liao-Shen, Xu-Beng, Ping-Jin Yangtze Campaigns
Siege of Taiyuan - w/1000+ Soviet Artillery Pieces (Video)
The Korean War The Vietnam War

*** Related Readings ***:
The Amerasia Case & Cover-up By the U.S. Government
The Legend of Mark Gayn
The Reality of Red Subversion: The Recent Confirmation of Soviet Espionage in America
Notes on Owen Lattimore
Lauchlin Currie / Biography
Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
Solomon Adler the Russian mole "Sachs" & Chi-com's henchman; Frank Coe; Ales
Mme Chiang Kai-shek's Role in the War (Video)
Japanese Ichigo Campaign & Stilwell Incident
Lend-Lease; Yalta Betrayal: At China's Expense
Acheson 2 Billion Crap; Cover-up Of Birch Murder
Marshall's Dupe Mission To China, & Arms Embargo
Chiang Kai-shek's Money Trail
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
 
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CIVIL WARS


 
Armed Uprisings Against Manchu Qing Dynasty
Song Jiaoren's Death & the Second Revolution
The Republic Restoration Wars
The Wars For Protecting the 'Interim Agreed-Upon Laws'
Civil Wars Among the Northern Warlords
The Guangdong-Guangxi War & Sun Yat-sen's Return To Canton
The Guangdong-Guangxi War & Li Zongren's Emergence
Li Zongren Quelling Guangxi Prov
The Whampoa Academy & Chiang Kai-shek's Wars
The Northern Expeditions & Unification Of China
The Japanese Invasion Of Manchuria, Chaha'er & Jehol 1931-34
The Mukden Incident - 9/18/1931 & Battle Of Jiangqiao
The Shanghai Provocation - 1/28/1932
The Battles of the Great Wall
China In Crises Of Internal Turmoils & Foreign Invasions
The Japanese Invasion (1937-1945)
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident & The Battle of Tianjin-Peking
The Campaign Of Nankou & The Campaign of Xinkou
Air Battles Directed By Chenault & With Russian Pilots
The Battles of Shanghai, Jiangyin, Si'an & Nanking Defence
The Rape Of Nanking & The Great Rescue Of 1937
The Eight Year Long Resistance War
The Battles of Lanfeng, Wuhan, Nanchang, & Sui-Zao,
The 1st Changsha Battle, Kunlunguan, Wuyuan, & Zao-Yi,
Saturation Bombing of Chongqing by the Japanese
The Aggression Against Vietnam & Southeast Asia
Yu-nan & E-bei, Shanggao, & Mt Zhongtiaoshan
The 2nd Changsha Battle, & Pacific Wars
The 3rd Changsha Battle, Zhe-Gan, Changde, & E-xi
The Second Burma Campaign, & Phase II
[ revolution.htm & tragedy.htm]
The Communist Armed Rebellions
The Second Northern Expedition
War Of Chiang Kai-shek versus Gui-xi (March 1929)
War Of The Central Plains (May 1930)
Campaigns Against Communist Strongholds
The Long March
Xi'an Incident - the Turning Point of Modern History
Demise Of the Red Army Western Expedition
[ campaign.htm & terror.htm ] [ default page: war.htm ]

1945-1949 Civil War
The Liao-Shen Campaign
The Korean War
The Vietnam War
 
Continuing from Tragedy of Chinese Revolution, Campaigns & Civil Wars, White Terror vs Red Terror, & Resistance Wars:
 
1) World War II, in both the East and the West, was the result of the inducement of the British, American[, and French] interest groups and syndicates, as well as the the result of the scheme by Soviet Russia. First there was the October 1925 Locarno Treaties which, per Jozef Beck, led to the opinion that "Germany was officially asked to attack the east, in return for peace in the west." Then in 1931, President Herbert Hoover gave Japan a free hand in the invasion of Manchuria on the pretext that Japan could not tolerate a half-Bolshevik China. Thereafter the September 1938 Munich Agreement. For what? Britain, France and the United States wanted Hitler to attack the Soviet Union, and wanted Japan to suppress China's nationalist movement and counter the Soviet Union. In both cases, Stalin out-smarted the Anglo-American and the French. Hitler attacked westward instead, and signed a non-aggression pact with Stalin to halve Poland; and Japan attacked Southeast Asia and Pearl Harbor after China, not the Soviet Union. Half a year before the Russo-Japanese Neutrality Treaty of April 1941 and one year ahead of the Pacific War, Japan already reached a secret deal with the USSR to halve China, as evidenced by clauses of the Dec 1940 negotiations and treaty between Wang Ching-wei and Japan. (More available at "Changing Alliances On International Arena", "Century-long American hypocrisy towards China", "Anglo-American & Jewish romance with Japanese", "Joe Stilwell's Authorization To Assassinate Chiang Kai-shek", and "What Foreign Powers Did To The Flowery Republic Prior To, During And After The 1911 Revolution".) A rather simple explanation for the ultimate American intervention in China in March 1940, i.e., Americans' hastily giving Chiang Kai-shek a badly-needed loan, would be to prevent Japan and China from reaching a truce since Chiang Kai-shek deliberately spread a rumor that his Chongqing government could merge with the puppet Nanking government. As Paul Reinsch and Arthur Young repeatedly said, the United States of America could have done just a little to help China, but chose to do nothing during WWI other than a Lansing-Ishii Agreement [which was to acknowledge that Japan had special interests (in the specified areas of China specified by the secret memorandum)], chose to do lip-service to Wu Peifu's ROC government while Russians equipped Feng Yuxiang and Sun Yat-sen's military factions with free guns; chose to do nothing after making sure China was to stay in the Second World War by merely granting the currency stabilization loan of 1940; and chose to use the Lend-Lease coercion to force China into throwing the crack troops at northern Burma just prior to the Japanese Ichigo Campaign in 1944.
 
2) Stalin was the evil genius of the 20th century. Stalin, after the 1929 war against Zhang Xueliang over the Chinese-Eastern Railway [which erupted over Russian and Chinese communist agitation in sabotaging Japan's attempt at building five additional railways in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia], quickly divested himself of the railway when Japan invaded Manchuria on Sept 18th, 1931. After initially calling on world communists to militarily defend the Soviet Union from 1931 to 1933, Stalin subsequently designed the united front and popular front in 1935, and in the time period of 1936-1937 successfully lit the fuse of the Sino-Japanese War by means of repeated G.R.U. operations in northern China and Manchuria. To thwart Anglo-American attempts at using Japan against USSR, Stalin hijacked the American government policies by utilizing agents, saboteurs, provocateurs and sympathizers from the Institute of Pacific Relations. "16 out of 17 of the AMERICANS that were involved in creating the U.N. were later identified, in sworn testimony, as secret communist agents." The whole United States government was in fact taken over by the Comintern agents, including: Alger Hiss; Harry Dexter White; Lauchlin Currie; Laurence Duggan; Frank Coe; Solomon Adler; Klaus Fuchs; and Duncan Lee." John Fairbank and Owen Lattimore, i.e., two "Old China Hands" who were repeatedly cited by the Chi-com for substantiation of the cause and success of the Chinese communist revolution, had merely been Soviet Russian and/or Chicom tools. (Most of the Comintern spies of European and American background had been recruited during their stay in China during the turbulent 1920s. Lattimore's belief and orientation should have been shaped during his early years in Peking in 1920s. Fairbank, who had done everything Agnes Smedley had asked him to do other than putting his name on the roster of the G.R.U. (Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation), was a member of the Chinese League for the Protection of Civil Rights in late 1932 and early 1933, and further rafted with Comintern agent Harold Isaacs on the Jehol River in 1934 before the latter switched to the Trotskyite path. Working directly under Lattimore would be two Chicom spies called Chi Chao-ting and Chen Han-sheng who designed America's China policies.)
 
3) It was the century's misfortune for China to have to see that the Anglo-American interest groups and Russian/Comintern agents colluded with each other in subverting Nationalist China --
the beacon tower for the independence of the Asian countries and people , colonized or semi-colonized by the West, as "...British Ambassador personally suggested to me [Albert Wedemeyer] that a strong unified China would be dangerous to the world and certainly would jeopardize the white man's position immediately in Far East and ultimately throughout the world." No matter it was the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, or the 1937-1945 Sino-Japanese War, the aforesaid parties, plus the Chinese communist henchmen, were the ONLY people who wanted Japan to invade China, albeit for different reasons and agenda at different stages and times. In another word, the Japanese never realized that they had been brought up and used as a tool since Matthew Perry's timeframe, first as a tool against Russia in 1904-5 and then used by the Soviets as a tool against China. "When other nations tried to bar ... [Japan] progress or slur ... [Japan] reputation," as commented by Count Hayashi: "America always stood for ... [Japan] ...[America's] Stars heralded to the world the rising of ... [Japan] Sun..." The warships and planes built and used against China in 1931/2 were the products of twenty years of military alliance between Britain and Japan, following the American support of the Japanese ventures against Ryukyu and Taiwan in the late 19th century.
 
4) There is no truth in Stalin and Truman racing against each other as suggested by Tsuyoshi Hasegawa. While Truman was blindfolded as to the making of the Atomic Bomb, the Russians had been receiving ships of uranium ore throughout the war, which was to make sure that the United States was not to become the nuclear monopoly. Stalin's American proxies already had Truman agree to the terms reached by Roosevelt at Yalta. United States had utterly no preparation for racing its army to Japan or Korea. "It was after US dropped two bombs onto Japan, on Aug 6th & 9th, respectively, that Rusk & Bonesteel, drew up the 38th Parallel on the map as an artificial division line separating the US sphere of influences from the USSR.
 
5) Japan already explored with the Soviet Russians for surrender. But the Soviets declined it. Otherwise, what's the need to enter Manchuria and Korea? Since the Russians were eager to invade Manchuria & Korea, Japan had to turn around to request with Sweden for relaying a message of surrender. Japan was in self-denial over the prospect of the Russian entry into war. Intelligence already poured into Japan as to the Russian complicity at Yalta. Back on June 9th, 1945, Truman officially told TV Soong (Song Ziwen) that he was to honor the late President's signature on the Yalta Agreement and requested that China dispatch a delegation to Moscow for stamping a Sino-Russian friendship agreement no later than July 1st. Chinese were busy repairing the damages. Japan knew about it. Japan sent secret negotiators to Chiang Kai-shek multiple times in July-August of 1945 for peace talks. Looking in hind sight, China, separately, should have struck a partial peace with Japan to ward off the Russians.
 
6) Though, the Japanese emperor played a trick in surrender. He signed a "truce" order to his army and listing Britain, American and China and etc, but when he made the announcement on radio, he changed China to Chungking [Chongqing] the Chinese interim capital. We know Japanese have a problem with saving face. But the truth is known no matter how the professor wanted to discount the atomic bombs and gave weight to the Russian entry into the war. Professor Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, who skipped the name of China in his book title and ignored the death toll of 1 million Japanese on mainland China, should spend more time researching into the fate of more than half of the 500-600,000 Kwantung Army that had perished in Russian Siberia.
(Russians sorted out from Japanese Kwantung Army at least 30,000 Japanese cannons and medical staff and no less than two full Korean-ethnic Divisions for deployment by Chinese communists, not to count the Outer Mongolian Cavalry and 100,000 fully-trained Korean mercenaries sent to China in 1947, with about 60,000-70,000 remnants shipped back to Korea prior to the Korean War of June 1950. According to Kim Il-sun, altogether 250,000 Korean mercenaries took part in the 1945-1950 civil war against the Nationalist Government, with 50-60,000 remnants returning to Korean for the 1950 Korean War.)
 
7) Stalin and the Russians were behind each step of Mao in making sure that no peace could have a chance from the day of the Japan surrender. Cumulatively, Russians acknowledged in 1970s that they had given the Chinese communists 700,000 guns, with North Korea's arsenals open for free pickup throughout the Chinese civil wars. (On the 1947 anniversary date of the Russian Revolution, Russians already disclosed that they had given Chinese communists massive military aid - which the Americans refused to acknowledge.) At about the same time the Republican Party forced through the China Aid Act in 1948, Stalin officially stamped a loan for the Chinese communists of equivalent amount allocated by the China Aid Act, with no strings attached. Stalin understood that the generation of brave Chinese during first part of 20th century was the flower that China ever had in the whole history of 5000 years, a force that must be destroyed so that the Russian scheme at world domination could succeed. Didn't know the Russian cold-bloodedness? Read into Katyn Murder of 20,000+ Polish officers, and Stalin's plan to shoot 50,000 German officers- which Roosevelt echoed by lessening to 49,500.
 
As this webmaster had elaborated on the battles and campaigns in Civil Wars section, the Chinese Civil War of 1945-1950 [using Korean War as a breakpoint rather than PRC's proclaimed date of founding] is the "Last Duel of the Middle Earth" involving millions of fighting-to-death Yellow Men, whose outcome was determined on the battlefields by means of a) military tactics and strategies, b) political conspiracies and plots, c) economic manipulations and sabotage, c) societal disruption and coercion, and d) international alliance and betrayals, never ever the free choice of the Chinese people or the 'Mandate of Heaven' as John Fairbank and Owen Lattimore [and their student-sinologists in American colleges and universities] wanted you to believe in.

 
The brave R.O.C. soldiers against the armed-to-the-teeth Japanese Army
After squandering the 1st tier troops of 1st-20th Shidans and 2nd tier troops of 100-120th Shidans in "yocho" action against China, the Japanese sent the demoralized Shidans to the Pacific War graves, to the extent that by the time Japan surrendered, the Japanese homeland soldiers of 1-2 million new recruits possessed bamboo sticks and spears for defense, while the Soviet/Comintern agents inside of the Japanese government/military, in the name of moving the duel battlefield to the mainland, hoarded large cache of weapons in Manchuria/Korea for free pickup by the Soviets and the Chinese/Koreans. Working as a secretary of Konoye Fumimaro the Japanese prime minister as one of five brain trusts, Stalin's spy Ozaki, likening Japanese prime minister Konoe to Karenski (head of the 1917 transitionary Russian government), wanted to turn Japan into a replay of the Soviet revolution. Do you Japanese know that?
 


The brave and victorious National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China chased the remnant communists to the north bank of the Sungari River.
Americans sold out China in Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam. In late 1944, Leahy was probing China about the Russian demand for Dairen, Port Arthur and the railways. Roosevelt locked up the secret treaties in his drawer till his death. Both Hurley and Leahy merely knew part of the Roosevelt deals with Stalin. Truman pressured China numerous times regarding signing an agreement with Russians no later than July 1st, 1945. Late 1945, George marshall and the Americans continued to sell out China on the matter of the Russian pillage of Manchuria. Marshall, in spring 1946, flew back to China to stop the Chinese army from moving beyond Sungari. As disclosed by the documents at the George Marshall foundation, George Marshall, possibly the most hideous agent working on behalf of Stalin and the Soviet Union, saved the ass of the Chinese Communists with a threat to withhold the economic aid that was supposedly coming from the U.S. export-import bank, which never materialized.  

G Marshall, from 1946 to 1948, repeatedly probed numerous Chinese officials and generals as to who could be Chiang's successor. The U.S. Department of State, run by Russian agents, were repeatedly sending out rumors about getting a successor for Chiang. Marshall's hands had the blood of millions of Chinese killed in civil wars. G Marshall, as Wedemeyer said, first armed China and then disarmed China. The U.S. arms embargo continued till the China Aid Act of 1948, and ammunition did not get released till November of 1948. After weapons were shipped out, Acheson and the undercover Russian agents further attempted to order the ships to turn around at Guam and Okinawa. In Oct 1949, Acheson pleaded with the British, where the Cambridge Soviet Spy Ring was at work, for recognition of Communist China, which Britain did on Jan 1st, 1950. After that, Acheson declared the Aleutian curvature, which directly led to the eruption of the Korean War. Korean War and Vietnamese War, invariably, were the extensions of the Chinese Civil War of 1945-1950.

 
 
1945-1949 Civil War
 
At the Potsdam Conference (July 17-Aug 2 1945), President Truman, without consultation with the Republic Of China and without respect for the will of the Korean people, offered the U.S.S.R. the right of occupying Manchuria & Northern Korea in exchange for the Soviet declaration of war against Japan. Back on June 9th, 1945, Truman officially told Song Ziwen (T V Soong) that he was to honor the late President's signature on the Yalta Agreement and requested that China dispatch a delegation to Moscow for stamping a Sino-Russian friendship agreement no later than July 1st. Earlier, in Feb 1945, at the Yalta Conference, President Roosevelt seemingly underestimated the height of the American military might and had offered the USSR their former interests in the Chinese Eastern Railroad as well as the Sakhalin Island. (Roosevlt, who was like working for a few hours a week, was surrounded by 'eunuch' Harry Hopkins and the Soviet spies who made the call as to who could get to see Roosevelt.) Ignoring the hypocrisy-based Hull "ultimatum" of Nov 26th, 1941, Roosevelt signed off to the Russians, on behalf of China, the lease of Luushun [Port Arthur], the internationalization of Dalian [Dairen], the Manchurian Railways and the Chinese "pre-eminent rights". Even earlier, in Nov 1943, U.S. President Roosevelt, prior to the trip to the Tehran Meeting, claimed that should he give Stalin what he wanted [i.e., Manchuria, Korea & Sakhalin], then the USSR would not grab other parts of the world.
 
Li Ao cited George Creel in stating that Chiang Kai-shek did not get to know that China was betrayed by Roosevelt & Churchill till June 1945. Song Ziwen & Wang Shijie were sent to Moscow for repairing the damages. After the Russians intruded into Manchuria, Chiang Kai-shek agreed to give up Outer Mongolia on the precondition that a referendum be held by the Mongolian people and that the USSR guarantee China's territorial integrity as to Manchuria and withhold support for the CCP. Chiang Kai-shek hence took for granted the Soviet pledge that the USSR would "render to China moral support and aid in military supplies and other material resources, such support and aid to be given entirely to the National Government as the Central Government of China" [page 6, Freda Utley's The China Story]. To Li Ao's dismay, Historian Xu Zhuoyun praised Wang Shijie's withstanding the national humiliation. This treaty, per Li Ao, was a betrayal to 31 May 1924 Sino-Soviet Treaty signed by the Northern Warlord Government in regards to rescinding the unequal treaties imposed by Czarist Russia. What the Chinese side did not and does not understand about the Yalta Betrayal is that two factions of the Anglo-American interest groups, i.e., the ranks of innate cousins of British colonialists and the ranks of American doctrinists with advocacy for the "China containment", had joined hands with the Russian/Comintern agents in subverting China. In another sense, the invisible hands in the Far Eastern Division of the U.S. State Department had found an alternative way to advance the agenda of strengthening the Chinese Communists and weakening the Chinese Nationalists after what Freda Utley called a "temporary setback" ensuing from the recall of Joseph Stilwell in Nov of 1944. (More available at Century-long American hypocrisy towards China, Anglo-American & Jewish romance with Japanese, and What Foreign Powers Did To The Flowery Republic Prior To, During And After The 1911 Revolution.)
 
During WWI, President Wilson, who was in the shoes and mindset of the British colonialists, believed that the U.S. had to keep China intact for securing the fate of the white civilization, while during WWII, the British impressed the Americans with the inverse of the former doctrine to state that a victorious Republic of China, which was to emerge from WWII, would pose a threat to the white civilization. President Wilson's China policy was what this webmaster referred to as the 100-year American hypocrisy. It was pivoted from the hypocritical nature of America's Open Door Policy for China, which was originally an idea sold to the Americans by the British career customs' officers working in Manchu China's customs offices. The reason that China should remain open to all powers, in the opinion of the U.S. president Thomas Woodrow Wilson, was that the 'white civilization' and its domination in the world rested largely on the ability to keep China intact, in the sense that should China fall completely under the Japanese [or the Tsarist Russian or someone else's] influence, then the massive Chinese manpower could be utilized like by Genghis Khan to conquer the world. This was the theme of the Yellow Peril, which was inverse to what the British ambassador claimed to Albert Wedemeyer during WWII that a strong and unified China would pose a threat to the Whitemen’s position in the Far East and immediately throughout the world. So to say that the nation of China should be managed delicately, that is, should not be allowed to grow too powerful to pose a threat to the white civilization, nor should it be allowed to be hijacked by a non-U.S. power since China's immense human labor could be turned against the white civilization. (During WWII, the Japanese, who were brought up by the Americans and the British, never realized that they could at most conquer half of China, not as a whole.)
 
Videos about China's Resistance War: China's Dunkirk Retreat (in English); 42 Video Series (in Chinese)
Stilwell, the slimy who itched "to throw down ... shovel and get over there and shoulder a rifle with Chu Teh" [i.e., the communist commander-in-chief], before his kickout from China, paid a visit to Mme Sun Yat-sen, the No. 1 Comintern agent in China. George Marshall quit his job twice, J.I.T (just in time), in anticipation of some pre-arranged phonecalls from Truman to tack on the jobs as 1) first the mediator in the Chinese civil war and ii) secondly as defense minister during the Korean War, respectively. George Marshall returned Zhou Enlai's address book to Zhou Enlai, while never alerting Chiang Kai-shek of communist spies like Xiong Xianghui. While Currie stopped German weapons from shipping to China and Truman dumped China's Lend-Lease weapons to Indian Ocean, Acheson and George Marshall personally pushed for the 1946-47 arms embargo against China and imposed three ceasefire onto Chinese government, on Jan-10-1946, June-6-1946, & Nov-8-1946. Marshall deliberately flew back to China in spring 1946 to stop Nationalist troops from chasing communists north of the Sungari River. This is how CHINA WAS LOST.
At this moment, commies had rallied henchmen against Mr Xin Haonian's book Which Is New China by repeatedly citing the writings of John Fairbank and the sort. This webmaster, though not agreeing with the said book on all accounts, does want to point out that
John Fairbank and most of the "Old China Hands", being anti-Chinese-nationalism in nature, were "fellow travellers" of the communists and British colonialists since the OSS/CIA days of 1940-50s. The best argument against the Chi-com would lie in continuing expositions of i) Russian/Comintern conspiracies against China, and ii) century-long American hypocrisy towards China & American manipulations of Chinese politics [e.g., Stilwell's instigating General Bai Chongxi, Stuart's instigating Li Zongren, and McArthur's instigating General Sun Liren].
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists. At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause
The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department) and ii) the communists. At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist "agrarian reformers".
Chinese communist agents on international arena would include Chen Hansheng [i.e., Owen lattimore's assistant]; Mme Sun Yat-sen [who acted as the intermediary between domestic and international communists]; Wu Kejian & Xie Weijing who orchestrated Chinese communist relief to the Spanish Civil War; and Wang Bingnan whose German wife "physically" won over the hearts of above-mentioned Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service. Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai.
After 60 years, the crap about corruption of the Chiang Kai-shek's regime was so deeply rooted in the American academics that even the publication of the VENONA scripts would not make someone to rethink. Some American senator talked about McCarthyism, while McCarthy had been proven to be right in 99% of the cases he prosecuted. Some other U.S. senator talked about "gung ho" recently, while not knowing what "Gung ho" was meant for. Let's be clear here: "gung ho" was not Evan Carlson's commando team in the Pacific Islands but a Comintern scheme to launder money to Yenan, totalling 20 million USD at minimum from Chen Hansheng's operations with the U.S. communist front organizations 1939 to 1941 plus more afterward, as well as a CCP underground tunnel (to use the same word as the American Black slaves' escape route to the north prior to the north-south war), on which road the CCP agents freely travelled around FREE CHINA by riding on the "gung ho" trucks; more, in Jiangxi, the anti-Japanese war base as well as the former Red Army enclave, the "gung ho" gangs were secretly training the cooperative workers to be anti-government insurgents to echo the raging civil wars that were going on along the Yangtze and in North China, which saw the communist Eight Route Army and New Fourth Army slaughtering hundreds of thousands of village elderlies, county magistrates, government guerrilla forces, and patriotic gentry-organized forces.
 
Now all this was done prior to the Pacific War. But due to Stalin's demand for maintaining the CCP-KMT collaboration scheme, Mao and the communists dared not publicly talked about civil wars. Should they secretly took out government guerrillas, they would make sure that no messenger would live to escape from the communist territory to tell the truth. Zhao Tong, and 200+ guerrillas, including his sister and dozens of female fighters, were run down by the communist cavalry, and killed to the last person while travelling towards Jehol. Who was Zhao Tong? He was the son of double-gun Mme Zhao, whom the same Wuhan and Chungking gangs, Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby's predecessors, had interviewed and talked about in the media both in China and over the world, a war hero fighting Japanese in Jehol since 1932-1933, and a Youth party member and later a statist member.
 
After the Pearl Harbor, Stalin no longer cared about China's role in WWII. So the order changed, which was to say that Comintern agents had the free hand to bad-mouth China, with no penalty as imposed before the Dec 1941 Japanese attack at the Pearl Harbor. Hence you see Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby, and the gangs, writing venomous articles against China. Theodore White was one of the top 3-4 playboys in wartime Chungking, and like John Fairbank, enjoyed "stalking" communist mouthpiece Gong Peng, the little black widow and Zhou Enlai's secretary, on the streets of Chungking. And you have Martens, the German communist, who provided one-on-one sexual service to those wartime American bachelors. I read through the craps by Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby just to find out who those guys cohorted with, and how they went around Free China, etc. My findings are the Theodore White gang always lived near the whorehouses, or one storey above the whorehouse, and this guy Theodore White at one time had a rendezvous with some Chinese general's concubine in a vacated hotel while the Japanese planes were dropping bombs over the whole city and people were fleeing to the bunkers. And another gang member was notorious in using the Hostel, a place the KMT government subsidized the international press rascals with a maximum cost of $1 and $3 for meals and lodging daily, as a daily party room to have fun with Chinese women. What you had were passages after passages of writings about the gang's whoring, and that's probably why Miles said he had thousands of pages of details on the gangs' antics and all those materials were locked up in the U.S. Navy's underground confidential room. From Rand's book, you could tell how those guys flew back and forth, between the U.S. and China, had liaison with the Comintern and CPUSA/CCP agents, like Yang Gang and Yang Zao brother and sister, even inviting the CCP "guest" to their home in New England; and of course the gang was responsible for hiring the CCP agents as translators and interpreters to work on the OSS watch and listen posts along the southeastern Chinese coastline. What a deal. Now, more to that. Almost all gang members were reaping profit by smuggling and selling scarce commodities, utilizing the black market rate of 1 USD to 120 CNC. The gangs made a killing and reaped huge profits, smuggling lipsticks for the sing-song women of Guilin, who were known to be Japanese spies. Some gang members purportedly had a "platonic" love club, with one CCP agent joining the drunkards' club to talk about love. While Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby returned to the U.S. to write a best-seller, arguing among themselves about who should put the name on the book and who should take the credit, the other gang members thought about having some fun in the outpost China and flew to the Chinese Turkistan to bad-mouth China which was defending itself against years of harassment wars conducted by Eastern Turkistan rebels and instigated by Stalin after China kicked out the Russians by taking advantage of the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
 
Like to ask you spend sometime on Khan, Rand and White's books, and see how those creeps joined hands with Comintern and CCP agents to sabotage China, and made China what it is today. And of couse read Dorn's book to know Marshall and Stilwell's scheme to assassinate Chiang Kai-shek.
 
American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the White Paper [Modified : Monday, 25-Feb-2013 22:00:00 EST]

* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
* Stay tuned for "Republican China 1911-1955: A Complete Untold History" *

 
Around the turn of 1944-1945, Li Zongren sent two memos to Hurley and Wedemeyer, advising against the Russian participation in war against Japan. Li Zongren, after noticing the encirclement of Berlin by the allied troops, had called upon Chiang Kai-shek and Wedemeyer in devising a plan of setting up a Sino-American training center in the Philippines for possibly delivering the Chinese troops to southern Manchuria so as to segregate the Russians from the Chinese Communists. Li Zongren of course did not know a thing about the Yalta betrayal, nor the truth that the Soviet agents had hijacked the American government. On Aug 10th, 1945, Li Zongren was in mixed thoughts when delegations and organizations visited him in Hanzhong's Military HQ with congratulations on the final victory over Japan. Li Zongren mentioned that with dozens of millions of casualties, including millions in his 5th War Zone, China and the Chinese people then entered the stage of uncertainty. (After the loss of China, Li Zongren blamed Chiang Kai-shek for not adopting his advice in dispatching miscellaneous provincial armies to the Japanese-occupied territories: Li Zongren suggested that Huang Shaohong or some prestigious general of Manchuria nativity be dispatched to Manchuria; however, Chiang Kai-shek selected a 'Political Studies Clique' leader called Xiong Shihui for the job. Further, Li Zongren blamed Chen Cheng for issuing the order in i) having the Japanese troops concentrate onto big cities or designated sites for surrender & ii) dismissing all puppet troops [as well as locally-organized anti-Japan resistance forces]: Li Zongren suggested retaining the Japanese and puppet troops as the policing forces in various towns and counties to safeguard against the Communist infiltration. - Li Zongren's viewpoints were partially correct. Nationalist China secured the Northern China as a result of Xiong Bin's relentless behind-the-enemy-line instigations against majority generals of the puppet Whang Jingwei government, to the extent that Sun Liangcheng's puppet troops were shipped to Nanking in early 1945 after bribing the Japanese occupation commander. The debacle in Manchuria was more to do with the Russian scheme in splitting up Manchuria as its spheres of influence, as well as the communist scheme to cause instability via dismissal of the puppet troops and de-drafting of the government troops ensuing from collusion between George Marshall and the Chinese Communists.)
 

Li Zongren unwittingly was used by the Soviet-hijacked U.S. State Department as the so-called 'democratic' force to replace Chiang Kai-shek. For the root cause of the loss of China to the blood-thirsty Soviet proxies, see this webmaster's notes on the "criticisms of Li Zongren's criticisms of Chiang Kai-shek" for sake of historical clarification. (If you had come to this website in search of the 'white terror', please look no further than the 'red terror' conducted by Comintern agent Yang Xiufeng who in 1947/1948 ran the communist People's University to vivisect live R.O.C. government army captives [including one young Burma battle veteran who walked to the west from coastal Zhejiang as a teenager during the 1937 China's Dunkirk Retreat and did not return home to see his mother for next 12 years] .)
 
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the R.O.C. Entering H.K. (left below)
The brave and victorious National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China, the flower China ever had in the whole history of 5,000 years, entered Hong Kong amid the applause from the H.K. Chinese residents who, after a short respite of freedom, were to revert back to living under the British colonialist rule. The cunning British, from 1942 to 1943, repeatedly lobbied with Chiang Kai-shek for sake of retaining the H.K. colony, to the extent of dispatching large embassies to China to extract a deal in having China put aside the H.K. matter till after WWII, and threatening to derail the joint Sino-British and Sino-American proclamations in regards to nullifying the unequal treaties and the "Chinese Exclusion Act", while conspiring with Stalin of the Soviet Union to sell out China through the stipulations of the Yalta Treaty. Further, to delay the H.K. matter further, Britain in 1945 bribed the Republic of China with transfer of dozens of warships while at the same time, the Comintern and Soviet spies in the United States state department and United States treasury department choked the Republic of China by imposing the 1946-1948 arms embargo, including the bullets that R.O.C. had ordered prior to the Japanese surrender, as well as stalling on the post-war rehabilitation loans.

The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) Chasing the Communists to North Bank of the Sungari River (right above)
The brave and victorious National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China, after routing the communist crack forces of the New 4th Corps and the 8th Route Army at Sipingjie, chased the remnant communists to the north bank of the Sungari River, where Sun Liren left a battalion of soldiers to guard the beachhead for 2.5 years, till late 1948. There were rumors saying that N1C commander Sun Liren liked to go to Harbin but regional commander Du Yuming restrained the action out of jealousy. Wellington Koo's memoirs, however, showed that Du Yuming had a plan to push to Qiqihar, and Chiang Kai-shek was planning to retain the defeated communist army within the border with the Soviet Union but beyond the Qiqihar. George Marshall stopped Chiang Kai-shek from pushing further north on the pretext that the Soviets might intervene. Wellington Koo visited Du Yuming in Changchun, where Du Yuming explained his plan to push the troops to Qiqihar to the northwest and Dairen to the south. At a news conference, Du Yuming said his worry was a ceasefire to be coming from George Marshall, which did come days later. (Li Zongren, in his memoirs, accused Chiang Kai-shek of letting go Lin Biao's communist army because it was Bai Chongxi who proposed to chase the communists to the end. Li Zongren, knowing nothing about George Marshall's trickery, was used by the Chinese Communists and pro-communist Americans as the so-called 'democratic' force to replace Chiang Kai-shek.)
 
Americans sold out China in Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam. In late 1944, Leahy was probing China about the Russian demand for Dairen, Port Arthur and the railways. Roosevelt locked up the secret treaties in his drawer till his death. Both Hurley and Leahy merely knew part of the Roosevelt deals with Stalin. Truman pressured China numerous times regarding signing an agreement with Russians no later than July 1st, 1945. Late 1945, George marshall and the Americans continued to sell out China on the matter of the Russian pillage of Manchuria. Marshall's treachery then followed.
 
As disclosed by the documents at the George Marshall foundation, George Marshall, possibly the most hideous agent working on behalf of Stalin and the Soviet Union, saved the ass of the Chinese Communists with a threat to withhold the economic aid that was supposedly coming from the U.S. export-import bank, which never materialized. Lin Biao, after rebuilding his army with new supplies from the Soviet-controlled depots in North Korea, mounted the so-called "Three Attacks to the South of Sungari", "Four Campaigns to Linjiang from the Sino-Korean Border", and "Two Sieges of Sipingjie". Scared of the blood-bath from the sieges of Sipingjie, Lin Biao loitered for half year of 1948 between Sipingjie and Jingzhou till 900+ Soviet artillery pieces were shipped over via railway tracks constructed by the Soviet Army Corps. (In 1950, Lin Biao again showed his cowardice in declining the job to go to Korea.) Meanwhile, George Marshall, from 1946 to 1948, repeatedly probed numerous Chinese officials and generals as to who could be Chiang's successor. The U.S. Department of State, run by Russian agents, were repeatedly sending out rumors about getting a succesor for Chiang. Marshall's hands had the blood of millions of Chinese killed in civil wars. G Marshall, as Wedemeyer said, first armed China and then disarmed China. The U.S. arms embargo continued till the China Aid Act of 1948, and ammunition did not get released till Nov of 1948. After weapons were shipped out, Acheson and the undercover Russian agents further attempted to order the ships to turn around at Guam and Okinawa. In Oct 1949, Acheson pleaded with the British, where the Cambridge Soviet Spy Ring was at work, for recognition of Communist China, which Britain did on Jan 1st, 1950. After that, Acheson declared the Aleutian curvature, which direcly led to the eruption of the Korean War.
Republican China in Blog Format

 
 
The Soviet Entry Into Manchuria
 
Two days after the U.S. dropped A-bomb onto Japan, i.e., Aug 8th, the USSR declared war on Japan. The next day, over 1.5 million Russian soldiers poured into Manchuria from three directions. The Japanese, with 700,000 Kwantung army (actual number much lower due to relocation of the core Japanese troops to China proper and the Pacific islands) and 300,000 puppet Manchukuo army, retreated without putting up a fight. In face of the Russians, the Japanese buried evidence of germ warfare and poisonous weapons and quickly retreated towards Korea where their guinea pig and germ experts were offered sanctuary by the American occupation forces.
 
The Chinese Communist guerrilla remnants, who had been forced by the Japanese into seeking asylum inside of the USSR, came back wearing the Russian military uniforms. The Chinese Communist guerrillas in Manchuria, having no consistent contact with either Ruijin's Chinese Soviet or Yenan and being always in subordination to Moscow and the Comintern direct from 1932 to 1942, had apparently ceased hostility against Japan in observance of the April 1941 Russo-Japanese Neutrality Treaty. Prior to 1943, the Russians had already taken custody of the remnants of the "Northeast Allied Army For Resisting the Japanese Invasion" [i.e., the Northeast Anti-Japanese Coalition Army - the successor of the Youth-Party-dominated "Northeastern Volunteer Righteous & Brave Fighters" & the "People's Revolutionary Army Of Northeast China" ensuing from the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria], including Kim Il Sung, and re-organized it into the so-called "Russian Field-battle Teaching Brigade".
http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/opinion/200406/kt2004060817432954140.htm pointed out that Kim Il-sung, from 1942 onward, then "a Soviet captain and battalion commander, was stationed in Viatsk where he served in the Soviet 88th Brigade, the personnel of which consisted of Chinese and Korean guerrillas." At Viatsk, Kim Jong-il, called Yuri, was born instead of fabricated birthdate and birthplace of Feb. 15, 1942 in a guerrilla camp on Paektu Mountain.
 
Zhou Baozhong & Li Zhaolin, i.e., brigade chief and deputy brigade chief respectively, returned to Manchuria with the Russians via train. A top CCP cadre, Lu Dongsheng, came back to Manchuria in Sept to assume the post of deputy commander for the CCP Song-jiang River military district. Kim Il-sung left for Pyongyang in September.
 
Back On Aug 14th, 1945, Foreign Minister Wang Shijie was pressured into signing the "Sino-Soviet Friendship & Alliance Treaty", a treaty to be rescinded by Taiwan after Eisenhower requested with the U.S. Congress for rescinding the secret treaties with the Soviets on Feb 20th, 1953. Originally, the Sino-Soviet agreement called for the Russian occupation of Manchuria for three months, but later China requested for a delay of the Russian withdrawal twice, which gave the Russian a pretext for procrastination till 8 months long.
 
In Manchuria, the Russians dismantled 5 billion worth of industrial equipment and shipped back to the USSR. Li Ao claimed that the USSR had robbed resources and materials equivalent to over 8 billion U.S. dollars. Freda Utley, endorsing the number of 8 billion, pointed out that the Russians had pillaged Manchuria after the Republic of China refused to sign a comprehensive agreement to develop Manchurian mines and industries jointly. Chinese foreign minister Wang Shijie declined Freda Utley's suggestion to publicize the Russian demands, incidentally. Li Shenzhi recalled a massive nationwide protest movement against the USSR in early 1946 over the Russian [in fact, the Chinese Communists'] killing of Chinese engineer Zhang Xinfu in Manchuria. Per Gao Wenjun's eyewitness statement, during their eight month stay, the Russian Red Army soldiers, nicknamed 'lao [old] mao[hairy] zi[son]' or 'da [big] bi [nose] zi [son]', had taken in the stranded Japanese women as 'comfort women' as well as openly raped the Chinese women on the streets, to the extent that the Chinese women could not escape from the Russians by disguising as men due to the Russians groping breasts. On Dec 14th, 1945, Communist cadre Lu Dongsheng, who ordered a Russian soldier to stop robbing him in the Russian language, was shot to death in the back.

 
"Time Magazine", at http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0%2C10987%2C934539%2C00.html, reported on the rampage by "Big Noses", as follows:
    Jun. 2, 1947
    The Nanking Government, always ready to take a poke at its enemies, the Chinese Communists, is more cautious about provoking the big Communist bear to the north. Last week the bonds of caution snapped.
    Before the People's Political Council, advisory body to Chiang Kai-shek's Government, impetuous, energetic Pan Chaoying, director of the influential Catholic Social Welfare newspaper chain in China, let out an anti-Russian blast. Thundered Pan: "According to the Sino-Soviet Treaty of 1945, China and Russia should respect each other's sovereignty and territory. But Russia hasn't kept her word. . . .
    "Responsible authorities [in Manchuria] say that Soviet pilots and artillerymen have been in action with Chinese Communist troops . . . Russian soldiers of occupation have been guilty of terror and rape—more than can be told. The Manchuria lao pai hsing [common people] told me: 'Everything lao pai hsing won't do, the Russian ta pi tzu [big noses] have done.'
    "I urge the Government: 1) to take action for the quick recovery of Dairen and Port Arthur; 2) to petition U.N. for the return of Russian loot from Manchuria; and 3) to declare null & void the Sino-Soviet treaty."
    Yeh Shu-tang from Szechwan chimed in: "We must be strong, not weak. If someone offers us a friendly hand, we should clasp it warmly. But if someone slaps us, we should slap back twice."
    The watchful Russian Embassy, near Nanking's Drum Tower, heard the hot words and the enthusiastic applause. An Embassy subscriber visited Pan's Social Welfare Daily, asked for five copies of the issue carrying Pan's speech. Asked why he wanted so many, the Russian replied: "Oh, for our public libraries."
(The Russian Red Army soldiers did the same to the German women.)

 
By the end of 8-month Russian occupation, the Chinese Communists would absorb 300,000 puppet Manchukuo army and develop into half million strong force from the original contingent of less than 20,000. Li Zongren memoirs stated that Xiong Shihui, per Chen Cheng's order, had dismissed 400,000 Manchukuo puppet army which then turned to the Communist camp. Wang Tiehan rebutted the popular claim as to the number of 400k by pointing out that the puppet troops, after the Russians came, had been ordered to hide in the mountains by the puppet Manchukuo minister, with portion of them to escape the Communist Military for service under the Nationalist Government. (Sounds similar to George W Bush's dismissing Saddam's army in May 2003 after the Iraqi Invasion? You got it.)
 
Xiong Shihui arrived in Changchun with about 100 entourage on Oct 2nd, 1945, but he was basically restrained in office by the Russians who guarded his office. Li Zongren memoirs claimed that Xiong Shihui dared not even receive the delegates of patriotic people of Manchuria, which encouraged the Russians in hindering the KMT government from taking over Manchuria. Per ZZR's citation of the CCP 16 Sept 1945 briefing, Zeng Kelin's forerunner Communist force developed into 4000 soldiers from four companies in a matter of one week after arrival at the Shenyang city, and moreover, absorbed over 10,000 puppet constabulary forces; about 10000-20000 coolies, who were formerly captives from the Chinese Armies, were organized into guerrilla columns for entry into the Changchun city; in Shenyang, Zeng Kelin reported that weapon depots were packed with 100,000 guns and thousands of cannons; and the puppet Manchukuo forces were in waiting mode for re-organization. Jung Chang's "Wild Swans" stated that her father, Zhang Shouyu, resorted to the puppet army and puppet police for staffing and equipping his guerrilla force after yielding Chaoyang to the Nationalist army on Jan 14th, 1946.
 
Confrontations Between the Russians (i.e., the Soviets) and the Nationalist Chinese Government
Li Zongren memoirs stated that Xiong Shihui had asked the Russians to delay evacuation twice. Li Zongren said that Xiong Shihui had dereliction of duty as director for the "Northeast Military Office" because Xiong Shihui had fully observed the Russian request to stay inside of his office which was guarded by the Russian patrols all the time: Xiong Shihui dared not even receive the delegates of patriotic people of Manchuria, which encouraged the Russians in hindering the Nationalist government from taking over Manchuria. However, Xiong Shihui should not take the full blame. China had shown its weak position to the Americans who passed on the signal to Moscow. On April 13th, 1945, the second day after Roosevelt passed away, Gu Weijun reported that American Navy General Li-hai [Admiral William Leahy] had tested his response in regards to China's possible reaction to the Russian grabbing Dalian and Luushun [Port Arthur] ports. Gu Weijun's response was that i) China would seek a peaceful solution in dealing with the possible Russian takeover of two ports and ii) the Russians could have better find a non-frozen port inside of Korea.
 
More available at Russians-in-Manchuria-v0.pdf (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
* Stay tuned for "Republican China 1911-1955: A Complete Untold History" *

The Communist Absorption of Two Ethnic-Korean Divisions under the Japanese Kwantung Army
In Manchuria, the Communists forces retained at least two Korean ethnic divisions of the Japanese Kwantung Army, in addition to hordes of Japanese soldiers, air force generals and crewmen under Hayashi Yayichiro, artillery soldiers and military doctors and nurses. Though, tens of thousands of Japanese troops, who were retained by the communists at Tonghua for special operations, rebelled against the communist rule in early February of 1946 under the command of Fujita Sarehiko, ending in the communist massacre of the city of Tonghua which was far worse than the so-called 1937 Tongzhou Masscare that the Japanese ultranationalists cited as the cause of deepening of the Sino-Japanese war and conflicts. It was reported that the Japanese doctor and nurses conducted a mass-kill of the communist wounded at the hospital of Tonghua during the rebellion.
 
During the initial 4-5 campaigns against the Communist troops, General Sun Liren's army constantly engaged with the Koreans and the Japanese. Don't forget Sun Liren's herald troops also killed lots of stranded Russians who were busy rampaging than catching up with the retreating Russian army.
 
In 1947, during the peak of the Eastern Manchurian Campaign, the Russians dispatched another 100,000 Koreans to China to assist with Xiao Hua's Communist 3rd & 4th "zong dui" as well as the Li-Hongguang [Korean] Detachment. Meanwhile, the Chinese Communists moved their women and wounded to Korea for asylum, for which Mao Tse-tung, in 1950, adamantly insisted on sending the Chinese armies to the Korean War as a show of requital. In Kim Il-sun's opinions, Mao Tse-tung was obliged to help him out for the hundreds of thousands of Koreans sent to the Chinese civil war. Kim Il-sun claimed that altogether 250,000 Koreans joined the Chinese Communists in the civil war.
 
The Koreans did not die away. They were sorted out in 1950, about 3-4 months ahead of the eruption of the Korean War. Those who fought in Korea comprised of the bulk of the Korean troops under the Japanese Kwantung Army, not the Koreans who fought the guerrilla war against the Japanese under the CCP.
 
Chiang Kai-shek's Futile Attempt At Restraining the CCP
On Aug 15th, 1945, at 9:00 am, Chiang Kai-shek made a 15-minute radio speech about "pardoning the enemies [Japanese]" in Chongqing of China. On the 16th, Shao Yulin flew back to the Jiulongpo Airport of Chongqing from a visit to the U.S. Zhang Ling'ao was ordered to pick up Shao Yulin who was anxious about the Japan surrender matter. The next day, at 9:00, Zhou Hongtao made a call for Shao to see Chiang Kai-shek. Shao Yulin, i.e., an expert on the Japan matter like Gao Zongwu & Dong Daoning, was sent to Heh Yingqin's office in Zhijiang in the name of lieutenant general counselor of the ROC infantry command center. At Zhijiang, Shao Yulin met with Xiao Yishu & Leng Xin through Heh Yingqin's introduction. At Shao's suggestion, over 20 officers fluent in Japanese were fetched over from Chongqing. On the 21st, Japanese deputy tactician-in-general Imai Takai [Jinjing Wufu] flew over to Zhijiang from Nanking. Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist government, in its race against the Communist for control of China, issued an order that was delivered on Aug 21st by Xiao Yishu to the Japanese forces, demanding that the Japanese army should not surrender to anybody else other than the Nationalist government troops. On the 22nd, the Japanese flew back to Nanking where they still possessed an army of 70,000. On the 27th, Leng Xin and Shao Yulin flew to Nanking for talks on taking over Nanking. At the airport, the Japanese disclosed that Okamura Yasuji could commit suicide at any time. Shao Yulin countered by saying that this was not a time to talk about suicide. At the meeting, Shao pointed out that Okamura Yasuji should bear responsibility for doing the good deeds to pay back crimes against China and the Chinese people rather than thinking about suicide. Shao relayed Chiang's instructions as to the Japanese surrendering to the Government troops, only. On Aug 30th & 31st, Shao and Okamura Yasuji held more talks. In late August of 1945, the Japanese forces in Tianjin resisted the Communist forces at the request of Heh Yingqin. On Sept 8th, Okamura Yasuji officially signed the surrender paper, and later recalled in memoirs that it was a magic moment to have surrendered the Japanese army to Heh Yingqin, i.e., a good friend of his as well as a pro-Japan Chinese official. Ceremony was held on Sept 9th. Zhang Ling'ao blasted Heh Yingqin for paying back a bow courtesy when Okamura Yasuji surrendered. (Heh later corrected the popular accusation by pointing out that the table separating the two was so wide that he had to lean forward to accept the Japanese surrender paper.) In the diary, Okamura Yasuji recalled that what Heh Yingqin had displayed was an "Oriental Virtue".
 
At this time, China possessed only a company of soldiers under Liao Yaoxiang, that was ready for deployment in Nanking per ZLA. However, 400000-500000 best trained troops were just returning to southern China from the mountains of, Vietnam, Burma and Yunnan Prov at the time of the 1945 Japanese surrender. Chiang Kai-shek was accused by Li Zongren of refusing to allow the miscellaneous provincial armies to march northward to Northern China and Manchuria for accepting the Japanese surrender. Li Zongren's accusation could be wrong as we saw that the communist army, whose commanders flew to various districts on the Dixie Mission planes, began to attack the government troops immediately, including the attack on Sun Lianzhong's army which was to take the surrender in Peking. Sun Lianzhong's army, as was the case with most of the group armies reorganized in the early 1940s, had been deliberately padded together, with the group army commander controlling the former direct-subordinate provincial troops as well as the central government troops. This deliberate attempt at disrupting the former provincial army chain of commmand could be a ploy that was recommended to Chiang Kai-shek by the undercover communist agent working in the military commission. (However, Chiang Kai-shek did disarm some provincial army, i.e., Du Yuming's surrounding Long Yun's Yunnan Prov army at Mt Wuhuashan with the Burma expedition army, which forced Long Yun into resignation of the governorship. Though, Long Yun was implicated in Stilwell, American and Chinese Communist' conspiracy to overthrow Chiang Kai-shek's rule in 1944.)
 
After Chiang Kai-shek, per Li Ao, gave up the idea of using the Japanese against the Communist as suggested by the Japanese military commander & rebutted by the U.S. allies, the Nationalist government had mobilized thousands of ships, equiv to 300,000 tons, for dispatching well over 2 million Japanese occupation forces and their families to Japan within ten months (i.e., Nov 1945-July 1946). The Japanese prisoners, called the "barehanded soldiers", were even allowed to carry some light weapon for self-protection prior to boarding the ships. In late 1940s, China's 10 local military courts sentenced a total of 145 Japanese war criminals to death, including four Taiwanese Japanese war criminals. Okamura Yasuji returned to Japan with about 259 war criminals via an American ship John Vicks on Jan 30th, 1949. Well over 2000 Japanese war criminals being set free, including all of the 1,000+ war criminals who were handed over to the Chinese Communists by the Soviets in the 1950s, and set free by the Chinese communists. (Japan occupation commander-in-chief Okamura Yasuji, renamed the "liaison commander" for the "Remaining Problem Liaison Center of the Japanese in the China Battlefield", reached a deal with the Chinese government to get spared the trial of war crimes. Note that Okamura Yasuji, acquitted on Jan 16th, 1949, was responsible for i) provoking the Sept 18th 1931 Incident in Manchuria [Mukden Incident] and ii) orchestrating the 22 Jan 1945 'continental order' for invading Sichuan Prov, and he later sent in gifts to Chiang Kai-shek for help in petitioning with MacArthur for the U.S. acquittal of his war crimes. In Oct and Dec 1945, Heh Yingqin and Chiang Kai-shek had accorded a private meeting with Okamura Yasuji, respectively. To protect Okamura Yasuji from extradition to the American war criminal courts, Okamura Yasuji was allowed to stay on in China till Jan 1949, with a farce trial conducted in Aug 1948. After Li Zongren took over the proxy president post, Per LK, Tang Enbo secretly released Okamura Yasuji on Jan 26th, 1949, against the noise from the Li Zongren presidency and the communist propaganda. Later, in 1956, Heh Yingqin paid a visit to Okamura Yasuji while visiting in Japan, emphasizing his amiability relationship with the Japanese guy, as shown in the 1933 negotiations of the Tang-Gu Truce Agreement and in the Nov 1935 invitation for a private dinner in his Nanking home, and Okamura Yasuji was said to have appreciated Heh Yingqin's 1933 foresight into the CCP's ascension to power and Japan/China's demise should Japan continue its invasion agenda.)
 
After the Japanese surrender on Aug 15th, Mao Tse-tung issued 7 orders to the Communist-controlled forces in the race against the government for control of China. Zhang Zhenglong pointed out that the CCP Central issued the order the second day after the Russian entry into Manchuria, and by the 3rd day, the CCP Central had issued the 7th order. Though, those so-called orders could be later fabrications. The communist policy to relocate the forces northward district by district was a decision taken by Liu Shoqi in mao's absence: the Communist guerrilla forces south of the Yangtze River were to retreat to Jiangsu Prov, Chen Yi's New Fourth Army was to enter Shandong Prov, Shandong's Eight Route Army was to enter Hebei Prov, and Hebei's New Fourth Army was to enter Manchuria. --This northern approach was in fact a myth as it was Liu Shaoqi who reversed the communist "southern excursion" order in the absence of Mao who was forced to go to Chungking to talk peace after Stalin sent over a wire about the support for the Chinese national government in the aftermath of China's being coerced into signing a Sino-Soviet frienship treaty. As Vladimirov disclosed, Mao and the communists were shocked by the Japanese surrender and could not come to senses for days, and even after the Soviets invaded Manchuria, Mao and the communists were accusing the Soviets of failure to invade Inner Mongolia, which the Soviets did undertake. Vladimirov further disclosed that Mao and the communists in mid-August were busy contacting the Japanese military in Nanking in the attempt of staging an "uprising" to take over Shanghai and Nanking. After the communists reversed the direction to go north, the communists were just one step ahead in secretly instructing the Communist guerrillas of Zhejiang Prov in crossing the Yangtze to the north, including a contingent which was sent across the Yangtze to the south earlier for the Nanking-Shanghai "uprising". The Communist guerrillas of Zhejiang, in a hurry, crossed the Hangzhou Bay by boats before the Government troops could attempt to block the way, and shocked the innocent peasants by walking through the countryside of Shanghai for the Yangtze river bank.
 
Earlier, in mid-1944, Mao Tse-tung, who had struck a secret agreement with the Japanese, had ordered Wang Zheng's communist brigade to penetrate to Guangdong Province in the footsteps of the Japanese Ichigo Campaign. Mao interrupted the Yenan Rectification Movement by ordering the second-tier commanders, like Pi Dingjun, Wang Shusheng and et al., to terminate the brainwashing meetings and lead the communist forces into the Funiushan Mountain to establish an enclave by taking advantage of the Japanese Ichigo attacks. Communist general Peng Xuefeng, from the Jiangsu-Anhui border, was ordered to attack the government troops in the wake of the Ichigo Campaign. It would be in spring 1945, after the government troops repelled the Japanese campaign against Xixiakou, that the government troops counterattacked the communist army. The sudden Japanese surrender and the Soviet entry in Manchuria dramatically altered Mao's southern advance strategy. With the help of the Soviet-hijacked American agencies in China, the communist generals, riding on the American planes, flew to various points across North China and Manchuria to direct the civil wars. (Service, before he was recalled to the U.S. and fired by Hurley in spring 1945, had purportedly submitted a report to the U.S. command in China, stating that Chen Yi, a communist N4A general, had told him that the communists had a contingency plan for Manchuria. The staff at the U.S. military in China, who were pro-communist, had scraped Service's report, which made Service unable to prove his 'patriotism' to the loyalty [inquisition] board of the 1950s. Nonetheless, the communist strategy for Manchuria was not the only blueprint as Mao was more interested in going south, as he did in the 1944 Ichigo campaign, to pick fights with the national government troops than anything else.)

 
 
The First Shot Of the 1945-1949 Civil War & Peace Talks
 
Back in late April, 1945, Mao Tse-tung, at the Communist 7th central committee meeting, pointed out that the four provinces of Northeast China were very important ... Even if we [Communists] lost all enclaves, we could still build a solid base for the Chinese revolution by relying on Northeast China alone..." [Per ZZR's citation of a Communist internal document at the Memorial Hall of the Liao-Shen Campaign].
 
The Communists never stopped its friction warfare with the Government troops. Hu Zongnan had fought several wars with the Communists in Henan Prov in April-May 1945. Taking advantage of the Japanese attacks, the Communist contingents, numbering 30,000, under Pi Dingjun, Wang Shusheng & Han Jun, attacked Hu Zongnan's forces in Luoyang, Xin'an, Yiyang and Defeng areas.
 
More available at CCP-attacks-on-KMT-v0.pdf. (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
* Stay tuned for "Republican China 1911-1955: A Complete Untold History" *

On Aug 13th, 1945, the Communist party committee for Hebei-Rehe-Liaoning regions, at a meeting held in Fenglunxian county, made a decision to dispatch to Manchuria 8 regiments, 1 battalion, and two contingents, totaling 13,000 men or 2/3rd of the regional force, to be commanded by four commanders for military sub-districts, four CCP regional secretaries and 2500 cadres. Li Yunchang, i.e., commander-in-chief of the Hebei-Rehe-Liaoning district, was put in charge of the "Eastward March Work Committee". In late Aug, 14th, troops of the 15th & 16th military sub-districts under Li Yunchang exited the passes of the Great Wall for Manchuria. Zeng Kelin & Tang Kai, with the 12th & 18th regiments, the Korean contingent & Lin Fuchang's contingent, circumvented the Shanhaiguan Pass by exiting the Jiumenkou gate. After meeting 5 trucks of Russian troops, the Communist forces proposed an attack at the Japanese guarding the Shanhaiguan Pass. The first echelon, together with 50 Russian soldiers, fought the Japanese at the Shanhaiguan Pass and took control of the link. The 16th military district, separately, already entered Rehe and Manchuria, forcefully taking over Fangezhuang, Haiyang, Liumen & Shimenzai from the Japanese and puppet Manchukuo forces along the way.
 
At coastal Huludao, a city about 15 kilometers away from Jinzhou, the Communist forces successfully drove back the Nationalist Army which had landed ashore with the help of American transporters. In Benxi city, i.e., the Japanese-controlled coal mine, Heh Juemin [a KMT colonel captive], Xing Fangyin [a CCP New Fourth Army deputy regiment chief captive], and Tao Shouchong [a CCP Shandong District cadre captive] staged an uprising against the Japanese on the night of Aug 14th; however, with the arrival of Zeng Kelin's Communist forces, the KMT elements were soon purged and executed. About 50,000 American marines took charge of controlling the major railways around Peking-Tianjin and the Shanhaiguan areas.
 
Li Zongren memoirs stated that the first shot of the civil war was fired at Fu Zuoyi's troops in Shanxi Province by the Communist forces. The Communist documents treated the Battle of Handan in Hebei Province as the first shot. The Chinese Communists, throughout the years of resistance wars, had attempted to cross the North Yellow River Bend for linking up with Outer Mongolia and the USSR. The communists, who bought over some generals from Deng Baoshan's camp, were able to cross the East Yellow River Bend for opium trafficking and troop manoeuvre; and possibly, the communists were able to get some limited arms supply from the Soviets in Outer Mongolia through the ancient Gobi transportation road at Dingyuanyingzi in Ningxia. However, General Fu Zuoyi, with two corps of his 12th War Zone, had been able to defend his territories of Inner Mongolia against both the Japanese and the Communists. Fu Zuoyi, before the 1937 war outbreak, had enjoyed good reputation as a resisting general: On Nov 24th, 1936, Fu Zuoyi's Suiyuan Prov army sacked Bailingmiao from the "Inner Mongolia puppet army". Fu Zuoyi retook Wuyuan in 1940 and defended western Suiyuan and Mt Daqingshan against the Japanese throughout the resistance war. The Battle of Wuyuan, like the Battle of Lanfeng, should be counted as successful recovery of a city by the Chinese forces, something that soundly beat the national-anilists' claim that the Chinese troops, which did not possess artilleries and siege weapons, never ever retook a city from the Japanese during WWII.
 
American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the White Paper [Modified : Monday, 25-Feb-2013 22:00:00 EST]
 
The KMT-CCP "Peace Talks"
Chiang Kai-shek, in order to control the Communist expansion, called out to the CCP for peace talks three times, on Aug 14th, Aug 20th and Aug 23rd. Chiang exerted pressure on Mao by publishing his peace calls on major newspapers across China. Li Ao pointed out that Stalin also urged Mao for talk on Aug 22nd by telegraph. Stalin's scheme was to extract concessions from the ROC as betrayed by Roosevelt at Yalta, for which Stalin decided to use the Chinese Communists as chips to bargain with the Republic of China. By promising a purported withdrawal of military support for the Chinese Communists, Stalin basically extracted from China what he was promised by Roosevelt. On Aug 23rd, Mao Tse-tung made arrangement for Liu Shaoqi to act as the interim CCP chairman should Mao have to go to Chongqing. Liu Shaoqi, together with Zhu De, Zhou Enlai and Peng Dehuai, were designated vice chair for the CCP Central Military Committee. Mao, who had replied to have Zhou substitute him for the peace talk, would have to reluctantly accept the invitation on Aug 24th. On Aug 27th, Mao issued decrees across the CCP organizations in regards to Liu Shaoqi's acting as chair in his absence, and the two held talks together for one whole day. On Aug 28th, Mao Tse-tung, Zhou Enlai and Wang Ruofei et al., under US Ambassador Hurley and Zhang Zhizhong's escort and protection and by riding on the American military plane, flew over to Chongqing for 43-day peace talks with Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Tse-tung held altogether 9 rounds of talks. Li Ao cited Tang Zong (i.e., Chiang Kai-shek's personal attaché) in stating that Chiang Kai-shek believed that his invitation of Mao had thwarted the Communists' original plan for control of 'hua bei', i.e., northern China. The matter of fact was that the peace talks had aborted Mao and the Chinese Communists' plan for a so-called "uprising" in the Nanking-Shanghai area by utilizing the puppet troops which the communists had infiltrated into over the course of the resistance war years. (Should the communists had actually executed the "uprising", the history would be rewritten right there.)
 
In Europe, Lu Keng & Mao Shuqing, as war correspondents, continued to travel around via military vehicles. The two visited Florence, Verona, Rome, and the Vatican. Pope, hearing of Japan's surrender on Aug 10th, would grant a next day "private audience" to the two reporters as well as Chinese ambassador Xie Shoukang. When Pope expressed worries about the possible civil war in China, Lu Keng adamantly insisted that the Chinese people would desire for peace after eight year long disasters. Lu Keng claimed that Pope's niece later attended the dancing party hosted by Xie Shoukang. After Rome, the two reporters went on to Belgium where they visited former foreign minister Lu Zhengxiang who went into a monastery since Jan 14th, 1928 after his Belgian wife passed away on April 16th, 1926.
 
While in Chongqing, Mao Tse-tung impressed China's bourgeoisie class as someone embodying China's future, and one such Democratic League member privately claimed to Mao in saying that Chiang Kai-shek dared to bully his party simply because they possessed no army of their own. In late Aug of 1945, Mao Tse-tung, who knew no democracy and politics other than tricks and plots of China's twenty-four history chronicles, had given to Liu Yazi a poem [timestamped Feb 1936] entitled the "Scenery of Northern China" [i.e., Qin Yuan Chun - Xue: Bei Guo Feng Guang] that supposedly had captivated the hearts of the democratic league members. (At the end of the long march, Mao had written another poem which likened himself to the tyrants in China's history, and Mao instructed his top agent in Shanghai, i.e., Li Kenong, in purchasing a complete set of Cai Dongfan's history romance writings.)
 
On Sept 4th, 1945, Hu Feng, a follower of Li Dazhao in Peking in early 1920s as well as a member of the JCP in the 1930s, entered the Chongqing city for a dancing party that was supposed to be held for Mao Tse-tung. Hu Feng had two brief talks with the monster who would launch the "Anti-Hu Feng Movement" in early 1950s. Later, Hu Feng also attended Zhang Zhizhong's banquet for seeing Mao Tse-tung off as well as went to the Jiulongpo Airport for seeing Mao Tse-tung's flying back to Yenan. (Mao Tse-tung returned to Yenan on Oct 11th, 1945.)
 
The Communists declined Chiang Kai-shek's demands for the "united military command" and the "united administrative orders", claiming that they were for 'peace' and 'democracy' while Chiang Kai-shek intended for 'civil war' and 'dictatorship'. Mao Tse-tung merely agreed to concession of the Communist-controlled areas of Guangdong Prov, Zhejiang Prov, southern Jiangsu Prov, central Anhui Prov, southern Anhui Prov, Hunan Prov, Hubei Prov and Henan Province. Militarily, Mao Tse-tung agreed to compress to 48 and consecutively 43 divisions, so that the Communist forces would be amounting to 1/6th and consecutively 1/7th the size of 263 government troops divisions. Chiang Kai-shek stated that they intended to compress the army to 120 divisions, but the Communists refused to lower to 20 divisions. Mao Tse-tung, at one time, agreed to contract to 28 divisions instead of 12 divisions [which they possessed on paper only, as we already pierced the myth that the Communists ever possessed 300,000+ troops at the time of the Japanese surrender], but later demanded that he maintained 48 divisions and that the Nationalist Government provide the funding. The CCP accused the government troops of possessing more officers than soldiers in a division size of 6000 men, bragging that the Communist soldiers of 1.2 million could be equivalent to 200 divisions per the government troops' standards. Mao Tse-tung further demanded that in the CCP-liberated areas, the CCP had the right to recommend their men for the jobs like provincial governor, county magistrate and city mayor. (FYI: Mao Tse-tung's claim of 1.2 million Communist forces was a crap. The Communists did not have a third of it till well after the Japanese surrender in 1945. The only motive of exaggerating the fake number would be to claim a non-existent Mandate, i.e., support from the peasants, which was fallacious since the Jiangxi Soviet of 1930s. The popular claim of 900k regular and 2 million irregular was made up as well.)
 
Hurley, seeing that the Communists deliberately refused to concede, threatened to go back to America. Hurley tried to persuade the CCP into giving up the military control in exchange for assumption of ministry and provincial posts within the KMT government. Without reaching agreements on the "united military command" and the "united administrative orders", Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Tse-tung reached a Double Ten Agreement requiring that the KMT discontinue "xun zheng' (i.e., the KMT supervised administration) and convene a political consultative meeting for "xian zheng" (i.e., the constitutional government).
 
Hurley, during stopover in Moscow back in April 1945, saw Stalin who misled the U.S. opinion in stating that the CCP were not a true Communist party (but the "Margarine Communists") and the USSR had no particular connection with the CCP. On Nov 27th, Hurley, who were already fed up with the State Department reinstating the pro-communist staff he fired from the American embassy in Chungking, resigned his posts under attacks by the pro-commie U.S. statesmen.
 
George Marshall was sent to China by Truman on Dec 16th, with the birth of the so-called trilateral truce panels comprising of the CCP, KMT and U.S. representatives. George Marshall had brought with him the "carrot and stick", namely, the U.S. would purportedly support China with huge financial aid should China stop its civil war whereas the U.S. would rescind any aid should China engage in the civil war. Chiang, wary of George Marshall as a personal friend of Joe Stilwell, had to submit to the U.S. demands. The first major concession by Chiang Kai-shek would be to abandon Jehol and the city of Chihfeng to the Communists after Marshall called on Chiang Kai-shek and Zhou Enlai for a midnight session on Jan 9th, 1946. Zhou Enlai, who was in the know about the Chinese communist agents working under CPUSA, at one time commented that Marshall reminded him of Stilwell. George Marshall, a person who had personally pushed for the 1946-47 arms embargo against China and imposed three ceasefire onto the Chinese government [Jan-10-1946, June-6-1946, & Nov-8-1946], could not explain his behavior by merely "naivety". At one time, on Feb 28th, 1946, Marshall offered to establish a Chinese "West Point" Military Academy for the Communist forces in exchange for Zhou Enlai's signing an agreement for a united forces under a coalition government. As Freda Utley's The China Story [page 14] pointed out, Dean Acheson told the U.S. House Committee on June 19th, 1946 that "the Communist leaders have asked, and George Marshall has agreed, that integration with the other forces be preceded by a brief period of United States training [69 American army officers] and by the supply of minimum quantities of equipment [400 tons]." Judging by Marshall's Sept 1950 testimony before the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, i.e., pretext that he was merely observing Truman's instructions and policy without personal entanglement, Freda Utley called Marshall's mission as either a 'tool' or a 'dupe'.





 
The Nationalist Government's Military & Economic Blunders
Gu Zhutong's troops as well as Wang Yaowu & Tang Enbo's front armies, totaling 300,000, stayed on for ten months in the Nanking-Shanghai area, facing the Communist New Fourth Army across the Yangtze, and doing nothing till July 1946. The government troops, on the other hand, suffered a hit in moral when undergoing the military shrinkage, with numerous officers and generals staging protests and committing suicides in Nanking, the nation's capital. Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist Government had apparently overestimated the capabilities of the Communist troops whose so-called 'crack' force had in fact embarked on a long distance journey to Manchuria throughout late 1945. Alternatively speaking, Chiang Kai-shek did not have the courage to launch a civil war after the eight-year-long devastating resistance war, albeit issuing a hollow order to the Communist-controlled 18th Group Army [i.e., the Eighth Route Army] in cease-and-desist as to acceptance of the Japanese surrender. The "exclusive surrender acceptance" order was just a copy of McArthur's Supreme Command Center order, which the Communist side had reason to object to. The Communist routing of Sun Lianzhong's three Corps of miscellaneous provincial army nature, facilitated by Gao Shuxun's defection, did not ring a bell on Chiang Kai-shek's mind, not to mention a necessitated investigation as to why Liu Fei of the Defense Department had ordered the doomed troops to move through the Communist-dominated Ping-Han Railway in lieu of a circumvential trip via the Long-Hai and Jin-Pu Railways.
 
Owing to Xiong Bin's efforts, the Nationalist Government had begun the process of pacifying the puppet troops since the spring of 1945. The puppet troops in Manchuria, however, were not specifically included for the pacification projects. Right after the sudden surrender of Japan in Aug 1945, the majority of the puppet troops in Northern and Central China immediately took initiatives in policing and defending the major provincial cities against the Communist troops, with the end result that only a few cities like Shijiazhuang and Yantai (Chefoo) fell into the Communist hands. (The communists took over Kalgan, as a result of Marshall's pressure on Chiang Kai-shek.) In towns and counties, the "huan-xiang-tuan", i.e., the gentry-organized brigands, managed to return before the government troops. In the atmosphere of massive post-war confusion as well as the government's passivity to sub-provincial towns and counties, the gentry-organized brigands would be wiped out by the Communist troops in a matter of months.
 
the mandatory currency conversion rate
 
Finance Minister Song Ziwen's assistant - an undercover Communist (Suzanne Pepper etc, i.e., John Fairbank's students, only saw the surface of the issue by repeatedly touting the 'political' factor of Nationalist China's collapse without a slight regard for Russian and Anglo-American conspiracies against China. Pepper's perspective could best be seen in her description of the Shen Cong 'Rape' Incident by American Marine[s]. As Shen Cong, who emigrated to the U.S. under an alias, had confessed, the Chinese communists staged the 'rape' to fan up the anti-American protests across the nation.)
 
Nationalist government "take-over" officials and officers - two economic blunders,
 
E.g., Peking Steel & Iron Works was ordered to be shut down against Japanese engineer's objection, which led to two frozen furnaces till after Communist takeover in 1949.
 
stagflation and depression

 
 
The Race For Control of Manchuria
 
On Aug 9th, 1945, Mao Tse-tung, who had engaged in over four year long political purge movements in Yenan, i.e., Rectification Movement (1942-1945), quickly gave a speech entitled "The Final Battle Against Japanese". On Aug 10th, Zhu De, Communist commander-in-chief for the Eight Route Army, issued No. 1 Order, calling on the Eight Route armies, New Fourth armies, Communist militia, and Communist guerrillas to attack the Japanese and the puppets and to recover territories. On the 11th, Zhu De issued Order No. 2, with instructions that Luu Zhengcao attack Cha-ha-er and Re-he from Shanxi and Suiyuan, that Zhang Xuesi (i.e., Zhang Xueliang's brother) attack Re-he and Liaoning from Hebei and Cha-ha-e, that Wan Yi attack Liaoning from Shandong and Hebei, and that Li Yunchang relocate to Liaoning and Jilin from Re-he and Liaoning. (Note that Luu Zhengcao, Zhang Xuesi and Wan Yi et al., were all former Manchurian army generals who were undercover communists). Should Chiang Kai-shek not commit the personal blunder in putting Zhang Xueliang under house arrest, the CCP would not easily win over former Manchurian militarymen. Though, Zhang Xueliang recalled that his brother had already fallen into a Communist prior to the Xi'an Coup. Per ZZR, the CCP Central's 2nd order to Luu Zhengcao, Zhang Xuesi and Wan Yi, though published on the CCP's "Liberation Daily" on the 12th, were all fakes to deceive the nation. The internal Communist order was that Li Yunchang's loyal Communist troops immediately depart for Manchuria. Wan Yi would not board ship at Huangxian of the Shandong Peninsula for Manchuria till Sept 24th, 1945.)
 
On Aug 13th, the Communist party committee for Hebei-Rehe-Liaoning regions sorted out the following for Manchuria dispatchment: 8 regiments, 1 battalion, and two contingents, totaling 13,000 men or 2/3rd of the regional force, to be commanded by four commanders for military sub-district, four CCP regional secretaries and 2500 cadres. The first echelon, comprising of the 14th, 15th & 16th military sub-districts, and the second echelon, comprising of the Hebei-Rehe-Liaoning main military district, exited the Great Wall and entered Rehe and Manchuria in late Aug of 1945. The 16th military sub-district, at the Shanhaiguan Pass [aka the Mountain & Sea Pass], fought the Japanese who were under order to surrender to the Allied Army & Nationalist Government Army. Note that on Aug 15th, 1945, the Japanese emperor already decreed an end of war via radio, agreeing to unconditional surrender and that the surrender ceremony was held on battleship Missouri on Sept 2nd. The Communists, per the wording Mao Tse-tung used in his accusation of Chiang Kai-shek, were merely hastening up for the "peach", i.e., the fruits of war victory. Per ZZR, Zeng Kelin & Tang Kai of the 16th military sub-district of the Ji-Re-Liao [Hebei-Rehe-Liaoning] Military District arrived in Shenyang, & Benxi in early Sept, while Li Yunchang's troops arrived in the Shanhaiguan Pass, Jinzhou & Shenyang. The 16th military sub-district troops, within two months, developed into over 100,000 forces on basis of the original 13,000 army.
 
On Sept 7th, Liu Shaoqi ordered that the Communist cadres in the Hua-zhong [Central China] Bureau sort out staff of Manchurian origin for Manchuria. On Sept 11th, Liu Shaoqi ordered that the Communist Shandong Prov Sub-bureau sort out 30,000 people or 12 regiments for crossing the sea to Manchuria under Xiao Hua's command. (Per ZZR's citation of the PLA Archive Bureau document, the CCP Central's order was for Shandong to sort out 4 divisions after the Shandong Sub-bureau reported findings from spies sent to Manchuria.) In Yenan, top cadres like Zhang Qilong, Cheng Shicai, and Wu Jinnan, who were originally destined for the New Fourth Army in the south and guerrilla forces in Guangdong, changed course for Manchuria. On Sept 14th, a rep of the Russian commander at Changchun [Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (i.e., Ma-li-nuo-fu-si-ji)] arrived in Yenan with Zeng Kelin the head of the CCP contingent dispatched to Manchuria in August 1945. The CCP Central held a whole night meeting, with a decision to prepare 100 regiments worth of Communist cadres for Manchuria. On Sept 17th, Liu Shaoqi wired to Mao Tse-tung who was still in Chongqing, proposing his policy of "pushing northward and defending southward". Liu Shaoqi proposed that the CCP's New Fourth Army in Zhe-dong, Su-nan & Wan-nan cross the Yangtze back to the north bank, the CCP's New Fourth Army in Wan-bei & Su-bei enter Shandong, and 100,000 New Fourth Army & Eight Route Army in Shandong-Hebei relocate to eastern Hebei Prov and Manchuria. Alternatively, Liu Shaoqi proposed to have the CCP's New Fourth Army fill the vacancy of Shandong while the Shandong Communist forces relocate 100,000 men to eastern Hebei Prov and Jehol [Rehe] Prov. Mao Tse-tung, in subsequent wires, concurred with Liu Shaoqi. Liu Shaoqi officially drafted the "pushing northward and defending southward" document on the 19th, which was a reverse of the Communist direction in a matter of 40 days Per ZZR.
 
Per ZZR, after the announcement of the Sino-Russian friendship treaty on Aug 26th, 1945, the CCP Central studied the intricacies and then decided to send a cadre corps to Manchuria, consisting of 145 people led by Lin Feng. On Oct 1st (?), 300 Communist cadres, including the "Rectification Movement" offenders, walked their way towards Manchuria. Among them, immediately dispatched to Manchuria would be about 100 "serious offenders" of the Yenan Rectification Movement that Chen Gang [aka Liu Zuohu] and Chen Long brought along on their barefoot trip to Manchuria on Nov 9th, 1945 [??? arrival date or departure date]. (The remainder of "serious offenders" of the Yenan Rectification Movement, about hundred, including Wang Shiwei, were executed on the way of fleeing the government troops' attack in 1947. Another 300-400 captives, deemed "less-than-serious offenders", were freed in 1946 and re-assigned jobs.)
 
In Chaoyang, the Communist guerrilla had been dispatched from Jinzhou city for capturing and executing the Nationalist government's county leader who opened up the competing office against the Communist elements the second day after the Russian arrival. Zhang Shouyu took charge of the county affairs till being ordered to yield the town to the Nationalist government on Jan 14th, 1946 [i.e., after the Truce [that covered China proper, not Manchuria - since the Soviets and the Chinese communists denied activities in Manchuria] took effect on Jan 13th]. After the Nationalist Army came, Zhang Shouyu went into the guerrilla warfare till the Communists' victory in the bloody Jinzhou Campaign on Oct 15th, 1948. Certainly, the Chaoyang town was recovered earlier, i.e., in the spring of 1947, when the Communists acquired the control over the vast countryside and isolated the Nationalist armies in three major cities of Jinzhou, Changchun and Shenyang. New round of the land reform and eliminating the "class enemies" [i.e., landlords who either organized the local gentry force or collaborated with the Nationalist army] were conducted for sake of assuring the peasants that those landlords would not become "huan-xiang-tuan", i.e., the landlord gentry-organized brigand who returned to home village for retaliation against the peasants who ate the grains from the landlords' barn. One such landlord, by the name of Jin Tingquan, was executed via burning alive at Liujiazi Village in Chaoyang county; however, large scale over-killing was halted with the advent of the Communist notice in Feb 1948.
 
Collusion With the Russian Red Army In Manchuria
On Sept 5th, soldiers from the communist 16th military sub-district, consisting of the 12th regiment and 2000 men ethnic Korean contingent, arrived in Shenyang city where they were first forbidden from leaving train by Russian commander Ka-fu-dong. After CCP cadre Zeng Kelin negotiated with the Russian three times, the Communist forces were allowed to station in Sujiatun, about 15 kilometers away from Shenyang. While the Communist forces were marching on the streets of Shenyang with two Russian armored vehicles leading the way, hundreds of thousands of Chinese citizens, not knowing the KMT-CCP rivalry, swamped onto the streets to show their welcome. Daunted by the Chinese fervor, the Russian commander changed order to allow the Communist forces stay at Xiaohe district, next to the former Manchurian palaces in the center of the city. On the afternoon of Sept 7th, Col. Gen. A. G. Kravchenko [Ke-la-fu-qin-ke, i.e., the Russian commander for the 6th Guards Tank Army of the Trans-Baikal Front: Hind Lake Baikal Flank Army & 6th Tank Group Army) invited the CCP over for a talk after receiving instructions from Stalin and Molotov. Thereafter, the Communists set up the "Shenyang Garrison Command Center", with Zeng Kelin as commander and Tang Kai as commissar. Feng Zhijun, in "Mao Tse-tung & Liu Shaoqi" (Huangfu International Publishing House, HK, April 1998 Edition), pointed out that Zeng Kelin's contingent lost contact with the CCP's Yenan headquarters as a result of low power of the telegraph set.
 
On Sept 14th, the Russian commander at Changchun, Malinovsky, wished to contact the CCP. Hence, the Russian dispatched a representative for flying to Yenan together with Zeng Kelin. The Russian colonel told Zhu De that the Russian Red Army wished that the CCP forces exit the cities occupied by the Russians and that the CCP could resolve their internal disputes with the Nationalist government after the Russian Red Army vacate Manchuria. To appease the Russians, Liu Shaoqi instructed that the CCP forces evacuate from big cities like Shenyang, Changchun, Shanhaiguan, Yingkou and Dalian nominally, fake evacuation by leaving cities noisily and re-entering the cities noiselessly, and uphold a banner other than the Eighth Route Army.
 
The CCP, with the absence of Mao Tse-tung who earlier flew to Chongqing for peace talk with Chiang Kai-shek under Hurley's personal escort and protection, decided to establish the CCP Northeastern Bureau, comprising of senior leaders like Peng Zhen, Chen Yun, Lin Pei, Cheng Zihua, Wu Xiuquan and Ye Jizhuang. CCP leader Liu Shaoqi struck a deal with the Russian rep in having the CCP forces take over the Jinzhou prefecture of 14 counties in western Liaoning Prov as well as Rehe Prov from the Russian custody. The CCP also made a strategy of dispatching reinforcements to Manchuria. On the night of Sept 15th, Liu Shaoqi also ordered that the CCP enclaves of Hua-zhong [central China], Shandong, Jin-cha-ji [Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei], Jin-cha-lu [Shanxi-Chahar-Shandong] surrender officers from platoon chief to regiment chief, making up a number who would be enough to command 100 regiments.
 
With the Russian acquiesce, the CCP second echelon entered the Shenyang train station on Sept 16th, encountering a welcome party of 300 Russians. The CCP received Japanese weapons from the Russians, i.e., about 100,000 guns and thousands of cannons in Shenyang's weapon depots. On Sept 17th, the CCP Northeastern Bureau commissars flew back to Manchuria with Zeng Kelin on the same Russian plane. On the 19th, the CCP Northeastern Bureau stipulated plans for establishing a 'democratic' government at various levels as well as launching the rent reduction movements in the Manchurian countryside.
 
Liu Shaoqi ordered a blockade of Zhangjiakou [Kalgan] and Shanhaiguan for sake of stopping the Government troops from entry into Manchuria. Liu Shaoqi additionally instructed that 50,000 Communist forces control coastal Manchuria, from Yingkou to Dalian and Luushun, in the attempt of preventing the Government troops from amphibious landing along the coast. Liu Shaoqi called for a total of 150,000 personnel to be relocated to Manchuria as well as 200,000 soldiers to be recruited inside of Manchuria. In his wire to Mao, Liu stated i) that Jin-cha-ji [Shanxi-Chahaer-Hebei] and Jin-Sui [Shanxi-Suiyuan] possessed enough forces against Fu Zuoyi & Ma Zhanshan; ii) that Shandong would dispatch 30000 for clearing eastern Hebei, Rehe and Jinzhou of Liaoning Prov; iii) that Shandong dispatch another 30000 to Manchuria; iv) that the New Fourth Army in eastern China district dispatch 80000 to Shandong & eastern Hebei; v) that the CCP forces in eastern Zhejiang relocate to southern Jiangsu and the CCP forces in southern Jiangsu and southern Anhui cross the Yangtze, with an aim of 30-35,000 men; vi) that seven divisions in central and southern Anhui Prov could dispatch 20000 men for avoiding the incoming Nationalist government troops [Gui-xi occupation forces]; and vii) that Jin-Ji-Lu-Yu [Shanxi-Hebei-Shandong-Henan] encumber the northbound Government troops and dispatch 30000 for eastern Hebei and Manchuria by Nov. Liu further stated i) that he had established the CCP Ji-Re-Liao [Hebei-Rehe-Liaoning] Bureau, with Li Fuchun acting as secretary and Lin Biao acting as commander; ii) that the CCP Shandong Bureau renamed to the Hua-dong [eastern China] Bureau, with Chen Yi & Rao Shushi in charge; and iii) that the CCP Hua-zhong [central China] Bureau be downgraded to sub-bureau to be under the Hua-dong [eastern China] Bureau. The Hua-dong [eastern China] Bureau would take charge of 5 military districts. The CCP Hua-zhong [central China] Bureau would be under Zhang Dingcheng, Deng Zihui and Zeng Shan. On Sept 20th, Liu Shaoqi pressed on the Shandong Bureau in organizing 200-300,000 men for Manchuria within 2.5 months and another 50-100,000 men for placement in between Hebei and Manchuria. On Sept 29th, Liu Shaoqi changed order to have the communist Shandong troops cross the Bohai Sea against American warships' patrolling. Wu Xiuquan was dispatched to Luushun for negotiations with the Russian Red Army, while Wan Yi, Wu Kehua, Wu Dapeng and Xiao Hua were ordered to cross sea immediately for logistics. Liu Shaoqi, after finding out that the Americans had landed in Tianjin, would order that the Communist forces to cross the sea for Manchuria at nights.
 
Per ZZR, the Communists did not disclose the destination of Manchuria but to regiment level commanders. Along the way to Manchuria, innumerable Communist soldiers and officers deserted the army. Other than the Communist Ji-dong [eastern Hebei] district, most of the army were blindfolded till half way or boarding ships at the coastline. At Linyi of Shandong, Chen Yi assembled company level officers and relayed a Mao Tse-tung notice that the place they were going would be a "colorful" world where there were light bulbs, storey houses, gold and silver but he added that "Chairman Mao did not tell him [Chen Yi] where that place was". On Sept 25th, Lin Biao & Xiao Jingguang, in a wire to Luo Ronghuan, emphasized the importance of preventing the 100,000 Shandong Prov Communist army from desertation. An example of the extent of desertation would be Zhang Zhenglong's citation of Huang Kecheng's 15 Nov 1945 telegraph in which Huang disclosed that the 3rd Div of Northern Jiangsu Prov army had retained about 28,000 soldiers out of the original size of 32500 upon arrival at eastern Hebei Prov. Zhang Zhenglong cited the CCP Central order of secrecy dated Sept 2nd as another cause, which was to avoid divulsion of the scheme to the Nationalist government.
 
On Oct 1st, 300 Communist cadres, including the "Rectification Movement" offenders, walked their way towards Manchuria. On Oct 7th, Liu Shaoqi ordered that Lin Biao, who was originally dispatched to eastern Hebei Prov, depart for Manchuria immediately.

Prof Chen Yongfa produced a photo showing that Lin Biao, wearing a parachute, had flown to the east to fight the civil wars on board of the American advisers' airplanes. Mao, from 1942 to 1945, launched a three-year "political study" to route out the Moscow influences. The first-tier CCP generals, one by one, were recalled to Yenan for studies, to the extent that they were stuck in Yenan when Japan surrendered and had to rely on the Americans for flying them out.
 
Mao Tse-tung returned to Yenan on Oct 11th. Zhang Zhenglong pointed out that by early Oct, Xiao Hua, with the administrative staff of the Communist Shandong Military District, arrived at Andong [Dandong], i.e., the Yalu River mouth; that Sha Ke's 31st regiment of Ji-zhong [Central Hebei Prov] arrived in Jinzhou; Wan Yi, with the Northeast Penetration Contingent of about 3500 soldiers, came to Panshi, Hailong, Dongfeng & Xifeng; and Luu Zhengcao arrived at Shenyang with a regiment of about 600 soldiers. Further, Per ZZR, by late Oct, Wu Kehua & Peng Jiaqing, with two regiments of the 6th & 5th Division of the Communist Shandong Military District, arrived in Yingkou with 8000 soldiers; Yang Guofu's Shandong 7th Div or 6000 soldiers, arrived at the Shanhaiguan Pass; Liu Qiren's 6000 soldiers arrived at the Gubeikou Pass; Liu Zhuanlian & Yan Fusheng's 359th brigade or 3000 soldiers arrived at Benxi & Hushun; Deng Keming's regiment from Ji-Lu-Yu [Hebei-Shandong-Henan] arrived in Shenyang; Wen Niansheng's constabulary brigade from Shaan-Gan [Shenxi-Gansu] came to Jinzhou with 3000 soldiers. The so-called communist crack forces, which did not fight the Japanese but the government troops during the resistance war, would soon be spent at the Battle of Sipingjie.
 
On Oct 30th, at the suggestion of Liu Shaoqi, the CCP established the "Northeastern People's Autonomous Army", with Lin Biao conferred the post of commander-in-chief the next day and Luu Zhengcao, Li Yunchang, Zhou Baozhong and Xiao Jingguang as deputy commanders. Peng Zhen, Luo Ronghuan and Cheng Zihua acted as the CCP Bureau Commissars. Ten military districts were set up in Manchuria. Lin Biao, who returned to China from Moscow on Oct 20th, was recorded to have picked the Communist cadres for Manchuria. The reason that the Communists had to dispatch a large number of cadres to Manchuria was that the Manchurian people, who were under 15 years of Japanese colonial rule, had straightforward longing & loyalty for the Nationalist government without knowing any Nationalist evil while the Communists had basically perished under the stringent Japanese crackdown.
 
Per ZZR, in early Nov, Luo Ronghuan led 4000 Shandong district army to Andong; and Luo Huasheng led 7500 soldiers from the Shandong 2nd Division to Shenyang. In mid-Nov, Liang Xingchu's Shandong 1st Div, about 7500 soldiers, came to Jinzhou, and Tian Song's 1000 soldier contingent arrived at Mudanjiang. By mid-late Nov, Huang Kecheng led the 3rd Division of the New Fourth Army, about 32,000 soldiers, to Jinzhou. In late Nov, Huang Yongsheng, with 3000 teaching brigade soldiers from Yenan, arrived at Rehe. In early Dec, Luo Shunchu's Shandong 3rd Div, and the police 3rd brigade from Lu-zhong [central Shandong Prov], about 9000 soldiers, came to Shenyang & Anshan. 1000 students from Yenan's "Resistance Military & Political University" and 1000 students from the Yenan Cannons Institute came to southern Manchuria. Feng Zhijun stated that in total, the CCP possessed 110,000 troops in Manchuria, comprising of Luo Ronghuan's 60,000 Shandong army and Huang Kecheng's New Fourth Army 3rd Division of 35,000 army. Zhang Zhenglong estimated the number at about 107,000. In addition, over 20,000 cadres entered Manchuria.

 
 
The KMT-CCP Antagonism, Negotiations & Confrontations
 
Elsewhere in the country, the Chinese Communist forces withdrew from Guangdong Prov with the help of the American Marines. The Guerilla forces in Zhejiang Prov, which were dispatched across the river for the scheduled Shanghai-Nanking "uprisings", were ordered to cross the Yangtze for relocation back to Jiangsu Province. The Communist armies, i.e., the Eight Route Army & New Fourth Army, relocated northward district by district for sake of sending the contingents into Manchuria.
 
In northern China, the Communist forces mounted several campaigns against the Nationalist Government's herald forces. The notable success would be the routing of Sun Lianzhong's army. Back in the summer of 1943, Chiang Kai-shek suddenly relocated Sun Lianzhong's 31st Corps to south of the Yangtze to be under the 6th War Zone. Sun Lianzhong, commander of the 2nd group army under the 5th War Zone, was in charge of the 31st & 68th corps. Li Zongren persuaded Sun Lianzhong into obeying the relocation order by citing the prospect of "going back to the farm fields" after the war was to end soon. After the Japanese surrendered in Aug 1945, Chiang Kai-shek ordered that Sun Lianzhong be the chair of Hebei Prov but prohibited Sun Lianzhong from taking his troops to the north. Sun's 31st Corps was handed over to Hu Zongnan, while Sun Lianzhong brought Gao Shuxun's troops to the north along the Ping-Han Railway. The troops subject to Sun Lianzhong's command included the former Northwestern Army troops, such as Lu Chongyi's 30th Corps, Ma Fawu's 40th Corps (formerly Pang Bingxun's troops), and Gao Shuxun's 29th Group Army (which included part of formerly Shi Yousan's troops); Li Wen's group army which was previously subject to Hu Zongnan's command; the 92nd Corps and 94th Corps from the Sixth Military Zone, commanded by Shangguan Yunxiang and transported to Tientsin over the seas; and the puppet-turned North China constabulary army under the command of Menn Zhizhong. Sun Lianzhong's troops of the Northwestern Army origin would soon be surrounded by the Communist forces.
 
In October 1945 , the three army corps began to enter the former communist district of Shanxi-Hebei-Shandong-Henan, an area the communists abandoned to the Japanese following Mao Tse-tung's 1941 order to cease all operations against the Japanese. In late October, the troops intruded into the Cixian-Handan area, where they faced Liu Bocheng and Deng Xiaoping's communist army. The communist leaders were just flown over from Yenan by the planes of the American Dixie Mission. On October 30, Gao Shuxun secretly initiated the mutiny, defected to the Communists with his 29th Group Army or the New 8th Corps, and yielded the right of way and the flanks to the communists. On the 31st, Ma Fawu's 40th Corps, about 20,000 men, was attacked and routed by the communist army at Qiganzhang, Xinzhuang and Maying (horse camp), north of the Zhanghe River. Lu Chongyi's army, which was also attacked by the communist army, suffered heavy casualties and later reverted to Hu Zongnan's command for reorganization. As recalled by Jin Dianrong, a former exile student ensuing from the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, Sun Lianzhong took the advice of military zone's chief secretary Xu Huailie to have the troops push north using the "crawl" tactics, namely, moving slow. Xu Huailie, a nephew of KMT leftist Xu Qian, was called a Trotskyite by the communists in the 1930s for his association with estranged communist Zhang Jinren in the organization of the Chahar Allied Army in 1933. Jin Dianrong blamed the debacle on the communist mole at the military headquarters in Chungking, specially Liu Fei, for the setup. In Jin Dianrong’s opinion, the troops could travel by train unimpeded by detouring along the eastern section of the Long-hai Railway and the Tientsin-Pukow Railway, which remained largely intact as a result of the undertable wartime collusion between the Japanese military and the Chinese Communists-controlled New 4th Army, other than a small segment north of Tai'an, Shandong, that was sabotaged by the communists after the Japanese surrender.
 
After Gao Shuxun defected to the Communists, and the communists destroyed Ma Fawu's army and mauled Lu Chongyi's army, Sun Lianzhong became a "bald commander" in Peking. However, Sun Lianzhong, directing the central army lineage troops, still managed to repel the communist attacks for years, till October 1947 when Luo Lirong's army was routed by Yang Dezhi's communist army at the Battle of Qingfengdian. Throughout the years, Sun Lianzhong had retained communist mole Yu Xinqing, a red priest in Feng Yuxiang's army since the early 1920s, as his counsellor and politics department director. Additionally, Xie Shiyan, a tactician under Sun Lianzhong, liaisoned with the communists on the trilateral truce panel in Peiping (Peking), and was responsible for divulging the Kalgan military campaign in autumn 1946 and so on.
 
Guangdong Prov

 
Anhui Prov

 
Henan Prov
Pi Dingjun, Wang Shusheng and Han Jun were ordered to attack Luoyang of Henan Prov for sake of hindering the Government troops from eastern relocation as well as assisting Liu Bocheng and Chen Yi's communist forces in campaigns in eastern China. Hu Zongnan promptly sent the 53rd & 61st Divisions and the 27th Corps to Luoyang on Aug 25th. On Oct 5th, Hu Zongnan ordered a siege of the Communist forces in the area south of Mt Songshan. Hu Zongnan's 15th Corps defeated the Communist forces, and the remnant Communist forces fled southward to Changbu, Daying and Nanzhao areas.
 
In northern Henan Prov, Liu Bocheng's Communist forces, numbering 50,000, attacked Tangyin county on Aug 29th. On Oct 13th, in collaboration with the communist forces under Yang Yong [western Shandong Prov] and Nie Rongzhen [southern Hebei Prov], Liu Bocheng mounted an attack at Anyang in the attempt of cutting off the Ping-Han Railroad. On Oct 4th, Hu Zongnan ordered that Sun Dianying's newly-organized 4th Army attack Liu Bocheng's communist army. On Oct 10th, i.e., the National Day, Hu Zongnan, at age 50, was conferred the Medal of Resistance War Hero. Hu Zongnan sent the 232nd regiment of the 78th division to Anyang via airlift. After incurring a casualty of 8000, communist commander Liu Bocheng withdrew the siege of Tangyin on the 16th.
 
By Oct 17th, Hu Zongnan's 110th division of the 85th corps successfully took control of the railway segment between Zhengzhou and Anyang of Henan Prov by defeating the Communists in Yuanwu, Huoia [?] and Huixian. The Communist forces under Liu Bocheng stationed in Lucheng and Changzhi of Shanxi Prov, while Yang Yong's communist force stationed to the north of Qixian and Tangyin of Henan Prov. On Oct 20th, Hu Zongnan dispatched four prongs against the Communist forces. On this day, Communist general Lin Biao returned to China from Moscow. Hu Zongnan, learning that Lin Biao had stayed at the guest house of the 18th Group Army (i.e., the CCP's Eight Route Army) in Xi'an, drove over for a two-hour meeting with Lin Biao as a courtesy of the Whampoa 1st Session elder brother to the 4th Session younger brother. The next day, Hu Zongnan secretly requested that KMT espionage chief Dai Li fly over to Xi'an from Chongqing for a meeting with Lin Biao. Hu Zongnan and Dai Li, claiming to be the "martial and civil dogs" of Chiang Kai-shek, never revealed the contents of their meetings with Lin Biao. Separately, Hu Zongnan went to Chongqing for a military meeting on Nov 8th, and attended the military demobilization meeting on the 11th. On Nov 15th, Hu Zongnan requested with Chiang Kai-shek for an inspection trip to the field for reviving the morale, pointed out that the soldiers would unlikely desert should the soldiers' food ration not be cut by half, and further expressed worries over the situation of the 2nd Military District in Shanxi Province.
 
Shanxi Prov
The Communist forces managed to grow to 250,000 in northern Shanxi Prov and 150,000 in southern Shanxi Prov as a result of Yan Xishan's regionalism approach. When the Japanese surrendered on Aug 15th, Yan Xishan declined Chiang Kai-shek's offer to dispatch the Nationalist government Central Army to Shanxi. Nevertheless, Hu Zongnan dispatched the 167th Division of the 1st Military District to southern Shanxi Province. Additionally, 16th Corps Chief Cao Rehui went to Taigu for contacting Yan Xishan in vain. Li Wen, whose 34th Group Army passed through Shanxi Province for Shijiazhuang of Hebei Province, reported to Hu Zongnan on Sept 16th that Yan Xishan would run out of grains in three months and that at least 5 Central Army Corps equivalent of troops would be needed to prevent Shanxi from falling into the fate of a second Jiangxi Soviet.
 
In Shanxi Province, Yan Xishan retained the Japanese commander and Japanese army in maintaining security in Shanxi, and moreover, established a so-called "Asian National Revolutionary Comrade Society". George Marshall, with the tip from the communists apparently, paid a special visit to Shanxi to investigate the incident, forcing Yan Xishan into cutting back on the scale of hirings as to the Japanese troops. When the Communists later fought the Battle of Taiyuan, part of the Japanese mercenary army were still among the defenders on behalf of Yan Xishan.
 
Xu Dixin and the communist propaganda stated that on Aug 29th, i.e., the second day of Mao's arrival in Chongqing for the peace talk, Chiang Kai-shek had instructed Yan Xishan in attacking the CCP's "liberated area" in Shangdang area of Shanxi Prov. It is certainly not true that Chiang Kai-shek and Yan Xishan would have any coordination should we examine Yan Xishan's history to derive a conclusion that whatever actions Yan Xishan took had to do with his regionality policy. Xu Dixin further said that Liu Bocheng and Deng Xiaoping defeated the two prong attacks by Yan Xishan's 13 divisions or 38,000 men, and that the CCP destroyed the bulk of the enemy, about 35000 men, and captured several of Yan Xishan's generals, including Hu Sanyu and Shi Zebo, and caused Peng Shubin to commit suicide.
 
Shandong Prov
Li Yannian's 2nd Corps returned to Shandong from Wuhu via the Jin-Pu Railway in September 1945. From the sea, Li Mi's 8th Corps arrived at Qingdao in the footsteps of the American Marines in early October. While the Nationalist government set the provincial capital at Ji'nan, the Communist Shandong Military District and provincial government decided to set their capital and base at Linyi which was once defended by Pang Bingxun during the 1938 Battle of Taierzhuang. In early September, right after the Japanese Yizhou Division-conglomerate of the 43rd Army evacuated Linyi for the provincial capital, Luo Ronghuan's Communist forces descended upon the city. One regiment of the puppet Shandong constabulary managed to defend against the Communist onslaught for twenty days till the 40-Chinese-feet citywall was blasted apart. After the Communist takeover, Xiao Hua & Luo Ronghuan's Communist Eight Route Armies were called for duty in Manchuria, yielding the control to Chen Yi, Rao Shushi & Zhang Yunyi's Communist New Fourth Army. Linyi, i.e., the Communist second Yenan, became a liaison and diplomatic nexus for the American military advisers and mediators from coastal Qingdao.
 
In Shandong Prov, the Communists already penetrated the puppet army led by Hao Pengju [who surrendered to the Japanese in 1941 to be governor of Huai-hai Prov under Wang Jingwei]. Per ZZR, by 1942, two division chiefs out of four were undercover Communists. In Jan 1945, the Americans and the Chinese Communists held a talk in regards to a loan of 20 million U.S. dollars in exchange for the Communist lease to the Americans of the Lianyungang Harbor. When the Yalta Agreement stipulated that the USSR was to lease Port Arthur and Dalian, the Chinese Communists backed off from the offer of Lianyungang to the U.S. Further, the Communists declined Wedemeyer’s request to facilitate the U.S. agents' travel to Shandong Prov.
 
After the Japanese surrender, Hao Pengju nominally accepted Chiang Kai-shek's conferral of commander of the 6th Route Army, but secretly reported to Communist general Chen Yi and Lao Shushi. When the U.S. sent agent John Birch [Bo-qi] to Shandong, Hao Pengju turned over Chiang Kai-shek's telegraph to the Communists. The Communist forces intercepted Birch's team, and later on Aug 25th, murdered him in cold blood.
 
Before John Birch [Bo-qi] Incident, the Communists, in May 1945, detained 4 American agents in Fuping. After Wedemeyer protested against Mao Tse-tung & Zhou Enlai, the Communists released the team on Sept 8th. Separately, another U.S. team sent to the Bohai Bay was detained by the Communist forces on Aug 31st, 1945.
 
The Trilateral Truce Panel & People's Political Consultative Conference
The Trilateral Truce Panel, comprising of Zhang Qun (KMT), Zhou Enlai (CCP) and Marshall (U.S.), held its first meeting on Jan 7th, 1946 and issued the First Truce Order on Jan 10th demanding that all parties stop actions on the midnight of Jan 13th, with an exception that the Government troops continue to march on to Manchuria for taking over custody of the land from the Russians. The first major concession by Chiang Kai-shek would be to abandon Jehol and the city of Chihfeng [Chifeng] to the Communists after Marshall visited Chiang Kai-shek and then called on Zhou Enlai for a midnight session on Jan 9th, 1946. By retaining Chifeng of Jehol and Tolun [Duolun] of Chahar, Zhou Enlai successfully kept open the linkage of the Communists in North China and Manchuria. Zhou Enlai's excuse for wrestling over Chihfeng was that the Communist troops were already in control of the city. Later, it was discovered that no Communist troops were present before the offer. Zhang Zhenglong, in "Snow White, Blood Red", repeatedly touted the term of the "last battle" before the midnight of Jan 13th and emphasized that the Nationalist government troops and CCP troops, in one place of Manchuria, had engaged in the "last battle" 1-2 days beyond the midnight of Jan 13th. Possibly, the Communist soldiers and troops in Manchuria had misread the order of the First Truce as being applied to the entire nation. In deed, there was no "last battle" in Manchuria since the Communist troops, after Chihfeng, moved into Jining & Yingkou.
 
Four trilateral truce panels were dispatched on Jan 14th. In Peking area, the CCP and Government troops were ordered to pull back by 30 kilometers, respectively. Xu Zhen wrote that once the Government troops pulled back, the Communist insurgents filled in the vacuum. (The Russians, per original agreement, had promised to stay in Manchuria for only three months and should begin withdrawal beginning from the 6th week onward, but they delayed their departure for sake of pillaging as well as providing cover for the CCP. The pretext to prolong their stay was exacerbated by the Chinese request for a delay so that the Russians would not hand over control to the Communists. To create an artificial friendship, Jiang Jingguo suggested that his stepmother, i.e., Mme Chiang Kai-shek, pay a solicitude visit: on Jan 22nd, Mme Chiang flew over to Changchun via the presidential plane piloted by Yi Fuen, and visited the Russians the second day.)
 

Also on Jan 14th, 1946, under the pressure of Marshall, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference [CPPCC] was held in Nanking, with participants from the KMT, CCP, Youth Party, Democratic League, and various social activists. The CPPCC, by the end of Jan, reached five resolutions. Chiang Kai-shek's statement of observing the CPPCC resolutions was published on the Central Daily Newspaper on Feb 1st, in which he promised to reorganize the joint government [i.e., coalition government] and accused the regional powers and private armies of being pseudo-democracy and anti-democracy. During and after the CPPCC, Chiang Kai-shek's secret agents had intruded into the residencies of Huang Yanpei & Zhang Shenfu (i.e., leaders of the Democratic League - either sympathizers to the Communist cause or undercover Communist agents), disturbed the populace celebration of the CPPCC resolutions, inflicted some physical injuries to the celebration meeting assemblers, including Guo Moruo, Ma Yinchu, Shi Fuliang, and Li Gongpu et al. The KMT agents also sabotaged the CCP's New China Daily Newspaper agency as well as the Democratic League's Min-sheng [People's Livelihood] Newspaper agency. On Feb 23rd, Zhang Lan wrote to Chiang Kai-shek with a request that the KMT agents be disbanded, while Chiang Kai-shek, per Tang Zong's Diaries, instructed that the Democratic League was CCP's running dog. Dai Li, i.e., KMT chief of the secret agents, would die in a plane accident shortly thereafter. Before that, Chiang Kai-shek had already decided to shrink the secret servcice, forcing Dai Li into seeking an alternative career which was rumored to be some position in the Chinese Navy. (Many of those Democratic League leaders, i.e., undercover communists, would suffer from the Communist persecutions during the Anti-Rightist Movement later.)
 
Marshall set up a separate Military Panel comprising of KMT rep Zhang Zhizhong and CCP rep Zhou Enlai. On Feb 24th, Marshall had two parties agree to contracting the Government troops to 90 divisions and the CCP to 18 divisions within 12 months, to be followed by the Phase II Compression. The Phase II Compression would supposedly compress the total national army to 60 divisions or 20 corps, with the Government troops reduced to 50 divisions and the CCP forces to 10 divisions. A limitation of no more than 14,000 staff and soldiers was set for each division. Other than the army, the Nationalist government wartime training schools and academies were ordered to be shut down. Hu Zongnan’s 7th Branch of the Whampoa Military Academy, which had trained 7 sessions of 15th-22nd or about 25,014 cadets in addition to 12,303 graduates for 33 Nationalist government troops units and organizations, forwarded the last class of students to the Whampoa Academy's headquarters in Chengdu of Sichuan Province. Liu Ruming was called to Chongqing for a shrinkage meeting at which General Wedemeyer had made a speech. Shortly after returning to his garrison, Liu Ruming received an order to dismiss one third of his army. The Nationalist government initiated the "Phase I Downsizing" on March 16th, 1946, with a target of compression to ten corps for the First Military District. The First Military District, which enjoyed 5 group armies or 13 corps at the peak, had already downsized since the Japanese surrender, with i) the 16th & 3rd Corps of the 34th Group Army assigned to the 11th Military District in Hebei Province and ii) three divisions of the 89th Corps reorganized into the 15th Corps for subordination to the 5th Military District. During the resistance war, hundreds of thousands of soldiers had been allocated to the Burma Expedition Forces. Hu Zongnan's First Military District of 4 group armies [the 4th, 31st, 37th & 38th] or 10 corps had revoked 26 regiments, with about 27,500 soldiers dispatched home with allowances. Xu Zhen wrote that while the Government troops were contracting, the CCP continued to expand their army ranks by hiring former puppet Wang Jingwei government soldiers.
 
In Manchuria, the Russian soldier killed Chinese engineer Zhang Xinfu in the process of dismantling the equipment. Alternative writings pointed out that the Chinese Communists, with Russian arrangement, deliberately expelled Zhang Xinfu and his team out of Luushun and then murdered them with bayonets halfway to Shenyang. Altogether, the Communist troops bayoneted eight Chinese engineers and mining industry officials near Luushun, including Zhang Xinfu, after sparing the platoon of railway police whom the Russians claimed belonged to the Southern Manchurian Railway. Li Shenzhi, recalling a massive nationwide protest movement against the USSR in early 1946, pointed out that elementary and middle school students in the countryside of Chengdu-Chongqing waved flags denouncing the Russian barbarity. Meantime, the CCP-controlled "New China Daily Newspaper", in its Chongqing edition, published an article entitled "Patriotism Is Not Equal To Excluding the Foreigners [i.e., the Russians]". The Communist students, who had launched Dec 1st, 1945 student protest in Kunming just one month ago, would refrain from denouncing the Russian killing, pillaging and raping in Manchuria.

 
 
The Nationalist Government Troops Recovering Manchuria
 
For Manchuria, Chiang Kai-shek had conferred the post of director for "Northeast Military Office" onto Xiong Shihui, the post of security commander onto Du Yuming and deputy post onto Zheng Dongguo. Xiong Shihui arrived in Changchun with about 100 entourage on Oct 2nd, 1945, but he was basically restrained in office by Russians who guarded his office. However, Government troops did not get to take control of Manchuria as a result of Russian interference and eight month Russian occupation. Pseudo-history website like http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Chinese-Civil-War and pseudo-encyclopedia website like wikipedia claimed that "later in the year [1945] Chiang Kai-shek came to the painful realization that he lacked the resources to prevent a CCP takeover of Manchuria following the scheduled Soviet departure, he therefore made a deal with the Russians to delay their withdrawal until he had moved enough of his best-trained men and modern materiel into the region." Truth is that Stalin had at one time demanded that both USSR and US withdraw from China at the same time. Original agreement called for Russian withdrawal by Nov 14th, 1945 [Dec 3rd Per ZLA].
 
After Chiang Kai-shek, on Nov 7th, dispatched several planes to Changchun to pick up stranded Chinese officials as a protest against Russians, China and USSR reached an agreement, and announced the new deadline of Jan 3rd for final Russian withdrawal. Russians approved the air delivery of Chinese troops to Changchun & Shenyang, acknowledged Xiong Shihui's "Military HQ" office and agreed to station a liaison officer inside of the office building, at the expense of Chinese concession that industries in Manchuria were Russian bounty. Vehicles were provided to Chinese, a train was allocated for fetching coal from Jiutai county, and a command center was set up in the airport for preparation of Chinese troop arrival.
 
CCP harassed Ping-Han [Peking-Wuhan] railroad lines and raided Nationalist army positions in Shanxi, Henan, Hebei and Shandong provinces, effectively bringing down the communication and railways in northern China. Luushun & Dalian being leased to Russians, the seaport available to Government troops would be Yingkou and Huludao which the American Navy, under Vice Admiral Daniel E. Barbey, had abandoned to the Communists since on November 2, 1945. Claiming that Manchuria did not belong to truce area, CCP mounted major campaigns in Manchuria, taking over Yingkou on the coast, Sipingjie, Changchun, Harbin, Andong, Jilin and Qiqihar [Qiqihaer] etc. CCP forces refused American marines and American transport ships with Nationalist army soldiers from going ashore. CCP received Japanese weapons depot from Russians and established various governments, including the Russian-restricted areas inside of Dairen & Port Arthur. Apparently fallacious would be Zhang Zhenglong's Snow White, Blood Red repeatedly-mentioned term "Last Battle", a battle call which was relayed to each and every Communist fighting unit in Manchuria for wrestling over control of positions from the Nationalist Army inside of Manchuria. George Marshall had apparently left out Manchuria due to possibly three factors: 1) Marshall's possible blindfolding by Russian & Comintern conspiracies in Manchuria; 2) Chinese Communists' denial of its secretive operation in Manchuria; and 3) Nationalist Government's taking advantage of the fuzzy status quo in Manchuria for taking over Manchuria from USSR per the friendship treaty under American auspice and sponsorship.
 
Campaign of Linyu & Shanhaiguan Pass
General Liu Yuzhang, who had been dispatched to Haiphong of Vietnam for accepting Japanese surrender, received instructions that his 2nd Division, together with 25th Division at Haiyang and 195th Division at Jianjun, would be going to Manchuria by riding on American Seventh Fleet warships. The actual trip was delayed several times when Americans first failed to obtain Russian approval to dock at Dairen [Dalian] and then were obstructed by Chinese Communist troops at Yingkou. On November 4th, 1945, Liu Yuzhang went ashore at Qinhuangdao, a coastal resort just to the south of Mountain & Sea Pass and the Great Wall. At about the same time, Shi Jue's 13th Corps also arrived at Qinhuangdao. 25th Division of 52nd Corps joined the 13th Corps in launching a circumvential attack at the pass. On Nov 22nd, Du Yuming convened a military meetings to appraise the campaign accomplishments of five government divisions from 13th & 52nd Corps and congratulated the 2nd Division on taking over three cities in one single day. Two days after taking over Jinzhou, 52nd Corps was ordered to attack Heishan and Beizhen.
 
Battle of Qianwei-Suizhong
 
Battle of Huluodao
 
Battle of Jinzhou
 
On Nov 19th, Russian Red Army notified CCP Northeastern Bureau that Russians intended to hand over cities to Nationalist government once the Government troops arrived. With Mao Tse-tung falling ill since return from Chongqing on Oct 11th, Liu Shaoqi took charge again by ordering on Nov 20th that Lin Biao yield the right-of-way along major railroad lines and cities. On Nov 28th, Liu emphasized again the importance of establishing Communist bases in eastern, northern and western Manchuria.
 
On Dec 6th, Jiang Jingguo & Zhang Jiaao held another round of talks with Russian generals, including Malinovsky. Russians emphasized that they had retained Manchukuo railway management and employees [including Japanese board of directors], and [unilaterally] re-established the railway company [on Sept 22nd] per Sino-Russian friendship treaty that stipulated a time period of 30 years of Sino-Russian mutual administration. Zhang Lingao claimed that Jiang Jingguo had been reaffirmed what Russians had agreed upon while in Moscow. Zhao Junmai, under Russian escort, went over to Changchun cityhall for establishing authority. Communist forces withdrew from Changchun city center on Russian demand. Subsequently, Dong Wenqi assumed the mayor post at Shenyang, and Yang Chunan at Harbin. Though, Russians refused to allow Chinese officials enter Port Arthur [Luushun] and Dalian. At the pressure of Communist forces, Dong Wenqi and Yang Chunan soon fled their posts once Russians exited towards northern Manchuria. In mid-Dec, Jiang Jingguo flew to Changchun with Du Yuming & Wang Shuming, and held another talk with Russian commander. Russians claimed that they, having withdrawn from Shanhaiguan-Yingkou-Huludao-Jinzhou, now began the phase of withdrawing from Shenyang-Changchun-Harbin. Russians agreed to allow one Chinese mechanized division airlifted to the outskirts of Changchun. Per ZLA, Jiang Jingguo instructed Du Yuming etc that China should befriend the Russians so that Chinese Communists would not be able to find a crack in between. Having dismissed the economic loss to Russians as merely Japanese operations, Jiang Jingguo stated that Qi Shiying, i.e., an anti-USSR party official, was sent back to Chongqing at his request as a warning to other stubborn anti-USSR people [e.g., Xiong Shihui & Jin Zhen]. As an appreciation of Jiang Jingguo's cooperation [and hospitality in hosting luxurious banquets on daily basis], Russians sent over four cases of Brandy & French wine, and bragged that they obtained them from Germans who in turn looted from the French.
 
On Dec 7th, Liu Shaoqi warned Lin Biao and Cheng Zihua Per FZJ, and on Dec 24th, Liu Shaoqi warned Peng Zhen against attempt at controlling big cities like Shenyang, Changchun and Harbin. On Dec 28th, Mao Tse-tung, having recovered from illness a bit, reaffirmed Liu Shaoqi's standgrounds. By late 1945, CCP military forces amounted to 220,000 in Manchuria Per FZJ.
 
Battle of Beining-Heishan-Beizhen
 
Battle of Chaoyang
 
Battle of Huxin-Haizhou
 
On Dec 25th, Liu Yuzhang's 2nd Division converged upon Anbao [Zhenanbao] of Beizhen, i.e., former beacon tower of Ming Dynasty's great wall against Manchu. After that, Liu Yuzhang's troops were trucked to Nuerhe of Jinzhou for deployment to Rehe to the west.
 
Li Zefen, i.e., 5th Div Chief under the Nationalist government 94th Corps, inspected the Changchun Airport, and then told Jiang Jingguo that he would rather go to Tianjin than delivering himself to the mouth of the Communists. Xiong Shihui, seeing that the Government troops refuse to come over, then ordered that two regiments of the constabulary forces [led by Xu Genyang & Liu Defu] be delivered to Changchun from Peking. At the time the Russians withdrew from Changchun, the Nationalist government officials fled the city for a second time. Two regiments of soldiers, who were formerly puppet forces around Peking, were disarmed by the Communists.
 
The Battle of Lingyuan-Pingquan
 
The Battle of Jianping
 
Truce In Rehe & the Communist Siege of the Nationalist Army 5D of 13C At Guozangzi
 
The Battle of Shaling
 

 
It was on March 13th, 1946 that the Nationalist 52nd Corps took over custody of Shenyang from the Russians and began to push on towards the Sipingjie city. By late March, Sun Liren's New First Corps arrived at Qinhuangdao from Southeast Asia & Southern China via American warships. Then the Government troops pushed towards Changchun along the railroad. Prior to this relocation, Dong Zhujun managed to bribe the Nationalist Army contacts to have his son return home for a visit, hence escaping the fate of being dispatched to Manchuria. Manchuria was to become the graveyard for the Nationalist Army's best-trained and best-equipped armies which had been the most valiant forces fighting the Japanese aggressors in the Burma-Vietnam Theater. Chiang Kai-shek, after loss of Manchuria, once complained that it was the Americans who had pushed Chiang Kai-shek into Manchuria for counter-balancing the USSR, stating that the original intention was to retain control of Jinzhou city only.
 
In whole area of Manchuria, the Government troops possessed the New 1st Corps, New 6th Corps, and 52nd Corps. To counter the Communists, Chiang Kai-shek ordered that Sun Du lead the 60th Corps & 92nd Corps of Dian-jun [Yunnan Prov native army] to Manchuria. Sun Du was the group army commander of Lu Han's Dian-jun which was shipped over from Haiphong of Vietnam. However, Du Yuming broke apart the 60th Corps & 92nd Corps to make Sun Du a nominal commander by dispatching Zhang Chong's corps to Jilin Prov. Li Ao, a critic of the KMT in Taiwan, commented that Chiang Kai-shek's toppling Yunnan Prov chair Long Yun had cost him the later defection of the Dian-jun army to the Communists in Manchuria. (Li Ao also commented that Chiang Kai-shek had time and again declined Roosevelt's offer of making Vietnam a trustee country to be controlled by China while frustrating Long Yun and his Dian-jun's ambition in Vietnam & Burma where they fought the Japanese valiantly. Chiang Kai-shek also declined the U.S.'s request for dispatching 50000 Chinese occupation forces to Japan -which could be true at one point as Sun Liren's army was preparing for the mission in Japan.)
 
The Russian Red Army first withdrew from Changchun on April 14th, 1946. 30,000 Communist forces promptly took over positions from the Russians. On May 3rd, 1946, the Russian Red Army left Manchuria with full loads of bounty. By the end of 8 months (against the USSR's original stipulation of 3 weeks to 3 months), the Chinese Communists had already absorbed 300,000 puppet Manchukuo army and developed into half million strong force from the original contingent of less than 20,000. However, the communists would soon lose their crack forces during the Battle of Sipingjie, with the newly-built army, comprising of the puppets, defecting to the government side. Only the Korean diehards stayed with the communists after the Battle of Sipingjie. The communists, to rebuild the army, launched a massive 'land reform' movement in northern Manchuria, forcing the people into joining the communist army via the old practice of killing a certain percentage of the local population as landlords. The communists, utilizing the truce brokered by Marshall, at the same time conducted a sweeping campaign against the pro-government forces and brigands to consolidate the hold in northern Manchuria before striking south in the so-called Three Campaigns of Crossing the Sungari River.
 
The Nationalist government declared a return to Nanking the capital on May 5th, 1946.
 
The Battle of Sipingjie
The new order from the Northeast Military Headquarters was for the N1C and N6C to attack to the north and south respectively, while the 52C to attack Hushun to the east beginning from March 19th. In Manchuria, the Government troops, i.e., the New 1st Corps and 71st Corps, under Liang Huashen, began attack at Sipingjie in early April. On April 3rd, the N1C arrived at Changtu. Near Quandou, the Communist forces had dug in, from Hushizi area to the east to the Xinglongling Ridge to the west, and Jijialing and Hongshanbao to the south. Facing the 50D of the N1C would be the so-called Communist crack force 7th Brigade of the 3rd Division, consisting of the 19th, 20th and 21st Regiments, while the Communist force facing the N38D of the N1C would be the Communist 10th Brigade. Every Communist brigade had Japanese mountain guns, every regiment had five mortars, every battalion four heavy machineguns, and every company six light machineguns. On the 7th, the 113th Regiment of the N38D took over Xinglongquan. By 4:00 pm, over ten thousand Communist soldiers appeared in front of Sun Weimin's battalion. Meanwhile, Zhong Shan's battalion was completely surrounded by the Communist troops. After midnight, the N38D HQ, which was about eight kilometers to the south of Xinglongquan, was attacked by the Communist force from the east. After beating off the Communist assaults overnight, Sun Weimin's battalion gunned down altogether seven waves of Communist "human sea attacks" from three directions, with each wave consisting of three consecutive echelons of about one hundred men or one company formation in each direction. It was soon discovered that the people charging at machineguns of the government troops were mostly plaincoated civilians wearing the cart-driver coats, melon-shaped hats and black pants. (The Communist records fallaciously claimed that Lin Biao directed the Battle of Quandou with Wan Yi's "zong dui", 1st Division, 8th & 10th Brigades of 3rd Division, totaling twelve regiments. Skipping the "human wave" attack, the Communist records claimed to have 'merely' destroyed four whole companies of the N38D as a result of the slack encirclement. )
 
By 9:00 am, on April 8th, the Northeast Military HQ passed on information that Lin Biao had come south with three Communist "zong dui" or 40,000 men in the attempt of wiping out the N1C; that two "zong dui" were attacking the government troops in Xinglongquan and one "zong dui" pushing through the railway between Xin-changtu and Jiu-changtu; that the uniformed Communist troops belonged to Lin Biao's troops from Northern China or Koreans; and that the Japanese prisoners of wars were manning the Communist machineguns. With the 113th Regiment in perilous situation, Li Hong ordered that the 112th Regiment come to the aid from east of the Liao-he River, while Li Hong himself led the 114th Regiment head-on towards the Communist troops that came through the crack between Xin-changtu and Jiu-changtu.
 
On 10th, the N1C pushed towards Shuangmiaozi, with the N30D and N38D moving side by side. With Zhang Jiezhi's Regiment attacking the Communist flank to the west, the Communist forces retreated on the morning of April 10th.
 
Luo Ronghuan had obtained eight trains of munitions and medicine from the Russians in Dairen, shipped the goods to Korea by sea, and then transported via the international railway to Meihekou where the CCP Northeast Bureau was seated. However, the government airplanes bombed 260 carriages of supplies to ashes on April 28th per Communist records. --Whether it was wise for the Nationalist Troops to enter Manchuria at all could be validated by the Russian link. Should Manchuria be abandoned to the CCP in the very beginning, the CCP would very well be able to mobilize millions of army in a matter of months to pose a threat to China Proper instead of years later. As the Communist documents ascertained, the more landlords they killed in the 'land reform', the more army they could recruit, no matter it was the populace's belief in guaranteeing the fruits of victory voluntarily or the populace's involuntary action of taking up the arms against the opposite class for fear of reprisals by the "brigands who returned to hometowns". Chiang Kai-shek's faults lied in the incompetent generals like Du Yuming and treacherous generals like Wei Lihuang.
 
On April 21st, at dawn, the N30D launched an attack at Sipingjie City by treading over the open paddy rice fields and incurred heavy casualty under the blasting of Communist cannons from the blockhouses and trenches inside the city which was rising towards the northeast in multiple gradients. On May 3rd, the Northeast Military HQ approved a suspension of the campaign against Sipingjie. Zheng Dongguo was at one time dispatched to the Sipingjie frontline for directing the campaign in vain. At the suggestion of Du Yuming, Chiang Kai-shek sent four consecutive wires to the U.S. for recalling Sun Liren back to China. At the Northeast Military HQ, Du Yuming informed Sun Liren that Lin Biao's Communist forces possessed a total of seven "zong dui", two Korean-ethnic armies which were formerly the Japanese Kwantung Army, one Japanese heavy machinegun division, and one Japanese 38-model cannons "Daitai". Sun Liren, upon return to the N1C, held a meeting with Deputy Corps Chief Jia Youhui and Tactician Shi Shuo. With order to encircle and destroy the Communist force to the north of Sipingjie in collaboration with the 71C to the left and the N6C to the right, Sun Liren revised the layout of the 50D, N30D and N38D. Pan Yukun's 50D was ordered to launch a frontal attack at Hafutun; Tang Shouzhi's N30D was to attack the northside of Sipingjie as the right flank; and Li Hong's N38D was to circumvent to the hind of the Communist forces as the left flank. Battle was to start on the 16th, with a deadline to securing Sipingjie within four days. (The Communist records fallaciously claimed that Sipingjie was an empty city when Sun Liren sacked it, in the same way as Yenan was claimed to be when it was sacked by Hu Zongnan's army in March 1947. )
 
After reading the newspaper reports that the N6C had taken over Sipingjie, Sun Liren called over reporters for a rebuke, saying, "Are you guys seeking for a chaos of the land under the Heaven?" Sun Liren Biography pointed out that at the Battle of Sipingjie, the N1C, facing a Communist army group of over 100,000, had killed 25,000 enemies and captured alive 623 at a self death toll of 45 officers and 1025 soldiers as well as 249 missing troops, 95 officers and 2002 soldiers wounded. Lin Biao's Communist troops consisted of the 7th, 8th & 10th Brigades of the 3rd Division; three regiments from the 1st Division; the 12th, 24th, 19th and 22nd Brigades; the Independent 1st & 7th Brigades; the Constabulary 20th & 1st Brigades; and the Righteous & Brave Regiment of the 7th Division. On basis of the "Military Documentation Regarding Three Years Of Liberation War In The Northeast", the Communist 7th Brigade of Huang Kecheng's 3rd Division had 3000 soldiers left after the Sipingjie Campaign; Wan Yi's 3rd Division had 4-5000 soldiers left out of the original 13,000; Liang Xingchu's 1st Division had 5000 left; Luo Huasheng's 2nd Division still retained the fighting capability; Deng Hua's Constabulary 1st Brigade was heavily damaged; the 8th & 10th Brigades of the 3rd Division [? constabulary] were badly mauled as well; and Yang Guofu's 7th Division suffered heavy casualty, too. (Deliberately off-the-records would be the Korean & Japanese mercenaries of the former Japanese Kwantung Army that was sorted out by the Russians for deployment against the Chinese government troops. Two so-called "Inner-Mongolian Cavalry Divisions" would appear later in Oct-Nov 1947 Jinzhou Campaign.)
 
Prof Chen Yongfa explained the reasons that the Communist forces resisted the Nationalist Army fiercely at Sipingjie instead of following the policy of "yielding the main road and occupying the two sides": the CCP intended to retain big cities as a bargaining chip with the Nationalist government. (However, Fang Zhijun's writings on Liu Shaoqi pointed out that Lin Biao had refused to obey the order as to yielding the main cities. Communist records were all craps and made up if you don't know already.)
 
The Government troops took over Benxi, Sipingjie and Gongzuling consecutively. With Changchun still in Communist hands, Zhou Enlai proposed to George Marshall that the city be made a trustee territory under the CCP-KMT joint management. By May 23rd, 1946, the Government troops took over Changchun from the Communists even though a so-called "trilateral truce panel", comprising of the CCP, KMT and US, was sitting at Shenyang. On May 24th, at Shenyang, Chiang Kai-shek had Song Meiling authorize a letter to Marshall in regards to renewing the peace talk with the CCP with three conditions which CCP leader Zhou Enlai had basically accepted.
 

 
Battle of Hushun
 
Battle of Benxi
 
Communist Anshan-Haicheng Campaign
Xiao Hua & Cheng Zihua's Communist 4th "zong dui", which had fled Benxi in early May, launched the Anshan-Haicheng Campaign by attacking 184th Division of 60th Corps along the Southern Segment of China Eastern Railway on the night of May 23rd. With 184th Division besieged by Communist force in Southern Manchuria, Du Yuming ordered that N30D & N38D of N1C immediately go south on the night of May 24th. With Chiang Kai-shek approval, Sun Liren obtained a break of three days for N38D by citing the non-stop feats at Sipingjie and Changchun.
 
On the afternoon of 25th, Haan Xianchu's Communist forces sacked Anshan. On May 28th, Communist force surrounded Haicheng. 184th Division Chief Pa Shuoduan, with some remnant of one regiment, defected to the Communist camp. On June 2nd, Haan Xianchu took over Dashiqiao. (Communist records claimed to have killed 1200 government troops, caught alive 2104, and instigated Pan Shuoduan and 2700 soldiers into an uprising.)
 
On June 8th, N38D went to Gongzuling where they took train for Anshan.
 
In southern Liaoning Province, the Communist forces totaling close to 80,000, with two local compositions of "Li Hongguang Korean Detachment" and Zhang Xuesi's column. Zhang Xuesi, i.e., a brother of Zhang Xueliang, had his base in Haicheng, while Li Hongguang, in charge of two ethnic-Korean Divisions under the former Japanese Kwantung Army, was pushing their way northward. (Deliberately off-the-records would be Korean & Japanese mercenaries of the former Japanese Kwantung Army that was sorted out by the Russians for deployment against the Chinese government troops.)
 
The Campaign of Western Rehe & Eastern Chahar
 
The Battle of Chifeng
 
The Battle of Andong
 
The Second & Third Truce Orders
On April 14th, 1946, the Russian Red Army first withdrew from Changchun after a delay. Stalin had at one time demanded that both the USSR and the US withdraw from China at the same time. 30,000 Communist forces promptly took over Changchun positions from the Russians. On May 3rd, 1946, the Russian Red Army left Manchuria with full loads of bounty. By May 23rd, 1946, the Chinese Government troops, pushing against the Communist forces, took over Changchun while a so-called "trilateral truce panel", comprising of the CCP, KMT and U.S. representatives, was sitting in at Shenyang. On May 24th, at Shenyang, Chiang Kai-shek had Song Meiling authorize a letter to Marshall in regards to renewing the peace talk with the CCP with three conditions which CCP leader Zhou Enlai had basically accepted.

 
Communist China's crony from Taiwan, Li Ao, commented that Chiang Kai-shek had no clue as to what adversary he was facing and should know that he was no opponent of Mao Tse-tung since the KMT, never having destroyed the CCP ten years ago with a strength ratio of 10:1, would be doomed in fighting against relatively well-equipped Communists at a ratio of 3-4:1. Li Ao concluded that Chiang Kai-shek had too much superstition in his U.S.-equipped armed forces, airforce and navy. Li Ao of course had no clue about the U.S. arms embargo against China, not knowing that the Soviet agents controlled the U.S. state department and treasury department, etc. When the State Department refused to issue an export license to the ROC government's order to buy one-and-a-half billion rounds of small-arms ammunition in the summer of 1946, the British followed the same suit.
 
 
Marshall's Arms Embargo & End of the American Involvement In China
 
Marshall deliberately flew back to China in May 1946 to stop the Nationalist troops from chasing the Communists north of the Sungari River. On May 29th, in southern Liaoning Prov, the Communists mounted an offensive, and part of Dian-jun's 184th Division of the 50th Corps defected to the Communists in Haicheng. Chiang Kai-shek did not return to Nanking till June 5th on which day he promised to have a truce for 10-15 days. Numerous Chinese generals and politicians failed to see the nature of the truce issued on June 6th, 1946. Up to today, year 2005, the Russians still refused to equate Marshall as possibly the Soviet mole in the top US military leadership as hinted in VENONA transcripts. Nevertheless, Marshall, per Prof Chen Yongfa, had ordered a cessation of military supplies for ten months in June of 1946. Freda Utley stated that "at the end of July 1946 General Marshall clamped an embargo on the sale of arms and ammunition to China... On August 18, 1946, President Truman issued an executive order saying that China was not to be allowed to acquire any 'surplus' American weapons 'which could be used in fighting a civil war'..." [page 13]. About this time, on June 28th, Acheson made a speech in New York, stating that "too much stress cannot be laid on the hope that our economic assistance be carried out in China through the medium of a government fully and fairly representative of all important Chinese political elements, including the Chinese Communists." [page 15]
 
Meanwhile, the Communists re-designed their spheres of influence into the military districts. With the balance tilted to the Communist side, the Communist newspaper in Yenan, i.e., The Liberation Daily, published an article against the Americans on June 5th, 1946 by demanding that America should stop fomenting the civil wars in China. In early June, Chen Geng's Communist Tai-yue [Mt Taiyueshan] Military District of Southern Shanxi Province, with 9 brigades, launched a general strike at the Nationalist government army positions in southern Shanxi. On June 19th, the Communist side declined the Nationalist Government's proposal for military organization in Manchuria. On June 22nd, Lin Biao, i.e., Communist commander-in-chief for Manchuria, declined the request of the Three Person Military Panel to enter the Communist-controlled territory in Manchuria. The Communists' record claimed that Chiang Kai-shek declared on June 25th that the Nationalist government military would take action within 24 hours, and the next day, on June 26th, the Nationalist military pushed against the Communist "Central Plains Liberated Area". Alternative Communist records cited by Yang Bichuan, however, pasted a picture of resourceful Li Xiannian who faked illness in the presence of the Three-Person Truce Panel and then jumped up to issue the order of a western expedition right after the American and Nationalist representatives left the scene. Also touted by the Communist side would be Zhou Enlai's personal visit of Li Xiannian's camp for the arrangement of shipping out over 2000 Communist wounded, cadres and family members. On June 26th, 1946, Li Xiannian's Central Plains Communist Forces secretively converged upon Xuanhuadian of northeastern Hubei Province for a western breakout. On June 29th, Li Xiannian's Zhongyuan [Central Plains] Military District attacked the Nationalist army positions in Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi borderline area. The communists, to secure the western move of the bulk of the troops, sent Pi DIngjun on an eastern excursion with a small force as diversion. On the 29th, Li Xiannian breached the Nationalist Army's defense line for the west. Hu Zongnan's troops, after 53 days of fierce fighting along 700 kilometers of mountain roads and paths, reduced Li Xiannian's 16000 troops and Wang Zhen's 3000 troops to 200 remnants, respectively. The communist unit moving east, after a long trek along which they mercilessly killed their own wounded comrades, reached the communist enclave in Jiangsu Province.
 
Chiang Kai-shek, by the truce expiration date of June 29th, insisted one more concession from the Communists, namely, the CCP withdrawal from northern Jiangsu Province, per Lu Keng. By June 30th, 1946, ceasefire over Manchuria, which Chiang Kai-shek had agreed to under the pressure of Marshall, expired. On July 1st, Zhou Enlai proposed to Marshall to have dual talks over the political and military issues. At the insistence of Marshall, a five person truce panel continued to work on resolution on July 2nd. On July 2nd, Chiang Kai-shek called over Zhou for talks. Shao Lizi, Wang Shijie & Chen Cheng were present. Lu Keng pointed out that the KMT-CCP peace talk had broken down over the "administrative ownership" of northern Jiangsu Province. Marshall suggested that the United Nations take over northern Jiangsu Prov as a buffer zone, which Chiang Kai-shek declined as a violation of China's sovereignty. Chiang cursed Wang Shijie for this UN proposal. (Lu Keng naively made a discourse on the UN referral proposal while the Communist side believed the conflict of Li Xiannian's Central Plains Communist Forces with the Government troops had officially lit the fuse of a civil war per Yang Bichuan.)
 
On July 7th, the Communists issued a July 7th Proclamation in Yenan, demanding i) that America withdraw all its troops from China and ii) that Britain, the U.S. and the Soviet Union re-assert the policy of non-interference in China's internal affairs. The next day, the Communists sent over a protest to Nanking with rejection as to convening the National Assembly. In Aug, Liu Bocheng, with purportedly 150,000 Communist troops, harassed the areas of western Shandong Province and northern Henan Province.
 
Marshall’s Eight Trips to Mt Lushan
Marshall followed Chiang Kai-shek onto Mt Lushan on July 14th. Marshall made nine trips to Mt Lushan from July to Sept 1946.
 
More available at GeorgeMarshall-mediation-v0.pdf (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
* Stay tuned for "Republican China 1911-1955: A Complete Untold History" *

George Marshall Mediation & Zhou Enlai's Fake Tears [Modified : Thursday, 11-May-2006 01:16:33 EDT]
 
On Dec 18th, Truman issued another statement, insisting that "peace" and "unity" were the conditions for Republican China to receive the American financial aid, and furthermore emphasized that Byrnes, Molotov and Bevin, three foreign secretaries from the U.S., Britain and Russia, had a consensus that China must be organized into a "coalition government" with the Chinese Communists. In the farewell statement of Jan 7th, 1947, Marshall expressed regret that the Chinese Communists "did not see fit to participate in the [National] Assembly" but understood that the Communists as having "'good excuse' for their distrust of the Kuomintang leaders" [page 23].
 
In Peking, the communist students launched a massive anti-America demonstration on Dec 30th under the Communist leadership. Nationwide, the students echoed in support. The fuse was the purported rape of a female leftist student by the name of Shen Chong. Multiple reporters interviewed Shen Cong the victim and published conflicting accounts as to the 'rape'. While Marshall found himself 'mission over' finally, the Communist side no longer saw any utility in retaining the service of the Americans, either.
 
Japan's Revival Under McArthur
In Japan, McArthur, for making his control over Japan smooth and easy, had retained the Japanese emperor as a symbol after nominally depriving him of deity and the administrative power in the new constitution released on Nov 3rd, 1946. To deflect criticisms by American politicians and the Chinese government, McArthur organized several "inspection delegations" for visiting his experiment with 'democracy' in Japan. Chinese officials, believing that the Japanese really wanted a 3rd world war, commented that McArthur's intent was merely against the USSR in reviving Japan. Lu Keng pointed out that China's occupation force for Japan was hindered by McArthur. The Chinese embassy was also hindered by McArthur from being re-established in Japan. Similarly, McArthur obstructed Shao Yulin from going to Korea to establish a Chinese legation. Ambassador Stuart's personal adviser Fu Jingbo later disclosed that Stuart had passed on the Chinese resent over to McArthur. After the visit of the Roy Howard delegation, McArthur asked Zhu Shiming to relay an invitation to China. From Feb 26th to March 15th, 1947, Lu Keng participated in the tour of Japan. Gong Debai of "The Salvation Daily" tried in vain to get a quota for visiting Japan on the same trip, and blasted the Nationalist government propaganda ministry over Lu Keng's obtaining the quota to visit Japan. Lu Keng noticed that the Japanese were extremely obedient to McArthur, and bowed towards the delegation's train and the American train with 90 degree courtesy. By Feb, Japanese exports had reached US$190,000,000 while imports 320,000,000, with the bulk of trade with the U.S. but threatening HK's cotton product market already. On Feb 28th, McArthur gave a reception to the Chinese media people. Mrs McArthur talked about her appreciation of a jade cauldron that Xu Shichang gave her at the Japanese surrender ceremony, and further praised General Wu Peifu as patriotic. The Japanese expressed their sentiment at a news conference held by "Asashi News" on March 9th, with the editor-in-chief offering the Chinese only the black coffee on the pretext that Japan no longer had sugar after Taiwan was returned to China. When Lu Keng asked the Japanese what they thought about the war, the Japanese mostly expressed repentance and furthermore expressed the only wish that China could help Japan on the matter of signing the peace treaty as soon as possible. After visiting Hiroshima, the Chinese delegation went to Korea, and met with Jin Jiu [Kin Kau] who once expressed a wish to commit suicide so that both the Russians and the Americans would withdraw from Korea. The Chinese had raised the demand in making Korea an independent country at the 1943 Cairo Meeting. However, Stalin and the Soviet-hijacked U.S. government had another design for the division of the world. After return to China, Lu Keng's report on the affairs between Zhu Shiming and Li Xianglan [YAMAGUCHI Yoshiko] led Chiang Kai-shek into angrily rescinding Zhu Shiming's post of delegation chief of the Chinese representative to Japan. (Zhang Ling'ao pointed out that Chiang Kai-shek had dismissed Zhu Shiming after Zhu's wife raised a complaint with Chiang Kai-shek.) Later, in 1948, Chiang Kai-shek rescinded successor Shang Zhen's post for his impregnating a Japanese maid. (Zhang Ling'ao claimed that Shang Zhen resigned his post in March 1949 for going into business in Japan.) Thereafter, Zhu Shiming resumed the post in Japan till he was dismissed again after his subordinates, like female writer Bing Xin, went back to Communist China. Zhu Shiming was later killed in a mysterious circumstance in Japan over implication with the matter of the communists versus the nationalists.

 
 
Manchuria, The Graveyard of Nationalist government Troops
 
Du Yuming established 11 security columns and 9 security centers as the local auxiliary forces, while Lin Biao was said to have hired hundreds of thousands of former Manchukuo puppet government soldiers. In Jan 1947, Lin Biao, after half year of respite, crossed the Songhuajiang [Sungari] River to the south with 12 divisions, and purportedly destroyed three Sun Liren regiments within two months, including the 113th regiment which was noted for accomplishments in Burma. - Sun Liren's fear since the 1937 Battle of Shanghai and the 1942 Burma Campaign had always been the piecemeal disposition of his troops.
 
From June 1946 to Feb 1947, the Government troops took over hundreds of cities from the CCP; however, the Government troops would be weakened as a result of spreading across multiple isolated cities. By March of 1947, Chiang Kai-shek had to adjust his strategy to "key attacks" from "wholescale attacks", i.e., campaigns against the Communist forces on the Shandong Peninsula and in the Shenxi communist Home Base. (Communist records claimed that Hu Zongnan led 140,000 army against Yenan on March 13th. Feng Zhijun claimed that Hu Zongnan's "Xi'an Pacifying Military Office" possessed 34 brigades or 250000 soldiers, i.e., a Communist rhetoric. Actual deployment of government troops by Hu Zongnan was explicitly detailed in Hu Zongnan's biography.)
 
In occupied territories of Manchuria, the Nationalist government failed to revive the economy after most of the equipment had been dismantled by the Russians. In China proper, with the government troops in standby mode till early 1947, the fighting spirits of the army had degraded. The Nationalist government officers and officials were said to be busy looking for women as wives or concubines. Corruption ran rampant when the officers and officials, with the Chinese Communist infiltrators included, embezzled properties from collaborators with the Japanese as well as engaged in trade with the Chinese Communists. Chiang Kai-shek devised so-called "da [hit] hu [tiger] dui [special force]" for dealing with the corrupt officials. Smuggling became a means for the corrupt Nationalist government agents to get rich when the Communist guerilla had to obtain commodities through blockades from the cities. Though, schools and colleges were re-opened.
 
On the Shandong Peninsula, the communists re-etsbalished their army after the crack force went across the sea to Manchuria in 1946. Through the cross-see routes, the communists obtained large quantity of weapons and ammunition from the Soviet-controlled weapon depots in North Korea and Dairen. The CCP Eastern China Field Army (i.e., the original New Fourth Army under Commander Chen Yi), headed by Su Yu, launched an elimination campaign against Zhang Lingfu's 74th Division with advance information from both spies inside of the Nationalist government Defense Department and on the ground. Five "zong dui" were to lay siege of Zhang Lingfu, while another four "zong dui" were to impede the Nationalist government relief army at Duozhuang. Zhang Lingfu was attacked right after he began to cross the Wen-shui River. On May 14th, Su Yu forced Zhang Lingfu onto Mt Menglianggu. Zhang Lingfu, while defending on the barren mountains, also suggested that the Nationalist government armies converge upon Mt Menglianggu for a counter-encirclement. On May 15th, Li Tianxi and Huang Baitao still failed to get close to Zhang Lingfu. At 1:00 pm, on May 15th, the Communist forces launched a general attack. The Communist mortar caused heavy casualties onto the 74th Division with shrapnel and flying stones, while Zhang Lingfu's cannon-pulling horses ran loose. Almost every hilltops changed hands numerous times. By the afternoon of the 16th, Zhang Lingfu's remnants had held out on few hilltops. The Communists, claiming a force of 100,000, totally destroyed 32,000 Government troops. Zhang Lingfu, Cai Renjie and Lu Xing committed suicide. Communist general Pi Dingjun was said to have purportedly buried Zhang Lingfu in a coffin.
 
Campaign of Northern Liaoning Province - the Defense Battle At Sipingjie
By the middle of May 1947, the Communist forces mounted a summer campaign against southern Manchuria and took over Huaide city. The Nationalist government army's 88th Division of the 71st Corps was destroyed while en route to the relief of Huaide. On May 26th, the communists sacked Faku, and on the 29th, sacked Changtu, posing direct threat to Shenyang. With four "zong dui" of troops, Lin Biao mounted a siege campaign against Sipingjie. On May 30th, Chiang Kai-shek flew to Shenyang and adopted a defensive strategy.
 
In mid-June, the Communist forces, numbering 200,000, surrounded Sipingjie the midpoint between Shenyang and Changchun in a surprise move. Defending the city would be Chen Mingren's 71st Corps [lacking the 91st Division] and the 54th Division [lacking the 162nd Regiment] of Shi Jue's 13th Corps. Initially, Chen Mingren ordered that Song Bangwen defend the old district to the east of the railway, with an order that no soldiers from the 54D should cross he railway in any case. Under Lin Biao's intensive attacks, the 71C fell back to the east side of the railway, and lost his brother to the Communist captivity. Song Bangwen, together with two regiment chiefs, defended the city house by house, and spread the beans on the field to create difficulty for the Communist troops to charge. The Nationalist government army dispatched the 53rd Corps to Shenyang. The New 1st Corps, and New 6th Corps also came to the relief. The 54D, part of Shi Jue or Tang Enbo's crack force that fought against the Japanese across China throughtout WWII, then launched a counter-offensive from Sipingjie and successfully beat back Lin Biao's Communist troops at the Siege Battle of Sipingjie. Taking advantage of the Communist debacle at the Battle of Sipingjie, Chen Cheng authorized the counter-attacks which recovered the northern Jilin territories of Gongzuling, Lishu, Bamiancheng, Shangyang & Yitong and the northern Liaoning city of Xifeng.
 
By August 1947, Chiang Kai-shek ordered that Chen Cheng replace Xiong Shihui as director for the Northeast Military District. Chen Cheng relocated the 49th Corps to Manchuria from northern Jiangsu Prov; shortly afterward, however, the 105th Division of the 49th Corps was destroyed by the Communists to the north of Jinzhou. Chen Cheng re-organized Du Yuming's local security forces into the New 3rd Corps, New 5th Corps, New 7th Corps and New 8th Corps.
 
In Oct 1947, the Shanghai-San Francisco direct flight commenced. The Chinese Aviation Company invited notables and reporters for a pilot flight, which included Zhao Minheng ["news newspaper"], Zhang Guoxun ["continental newspaper"], Fei Yimin ["grand public newspaper"], and Lu Keng ["central daily newspaper"] etc. The group visited the Pearl Harbor, SF, NY, & DC. Marshall was back in the U.S. as secretary of state, and replied to Lu Keng on Nov 21st, with the following hints as to the U.S. aid: "... the United States Government continues to regard with concern the difficulties faced by the Government and people of China and is constantly considering what assistance it can appropriately extend which would be effective in lessening those difficulties..." With the U.S. having already cut aid to China, Tao Xisheng immediately published Marshall's letter on the Nationalist government "Central Daily" for propping up the fighting spirits of the Nationalist government troops. Though, Tao Xisheng would not knonw that Marshall was bent on destroying the Republic of China.
 
By mid-Oct, the Communist troops, i.e., the so-called "Northeast Democratic Allied Army", totaling 500,000, mounted a 50-day "autumn campaign" and purportedly destroyed about 70,000 Government troops. Chiang Kai-shek flew to Shenyang again, and Chen Cheng acknowledged his dereliction. Chiang Kai-shek recalled Wei Lihuang back to China in Oct 1947 for sake of replacing Chen Cheng. However, Wei Lihuang, who was deprived of the post of deputy infantry commander and sent on an European tour in Nov 1946, had already contacted the Chinese Communist agents in Europe and expressed a wish not to engage in fighting with the Communists. Recent revelation claimed that Wei Lihuang intended to enroll in the CCP, but the CCP instructed that Wei Lihuang could contribute more to the CCP cause should he remain inside the Nationalist government. Zhang Fuxing & Wang Yunfa's anthology, "Rise & Fall Of KMT Defeated Generals" (Military Science Publishing House, Beijing, China, 2002 edition), claimed that Wei Lihuang instructed Wang[1] Dezhao in sending telegraph to the CCP while still in Paris.
 
The Communist "Northeast Democratic Allied Army" then renamed itself to the Northeast Field Army and launched a "winter campaign", with the 2nd, 3rd, 6th & 7th "zong dui" [corps equivalent] and three cannons regiments. Chen Xinda's New 5th Corps, after sacking Paoziyan & Wenjiatai on Jan 3rd, 1948, pushed forward against 200,000 Communist troops around Gongzhuling and surrounded the Communist 7th "zong dui". Along the way, the Communist 6th "zong dui" put up fight-and-retreat. On Jan 5th, 1948, the Communist troops, comprising of the 2nd & 7th "zong dui" from Zhangwu to the north and the 3rd "zong dui" from Shezishan to the east, initiated a counter-encirclement, whereas the Nationalist government army New 6th Corps failed to receive order to go to the aid of the New 5th Corps by the deadline of Jan 5th. Lin Biao separately assigned the 1st, 4th & 10th "zong dui" to impeding the Nationalist government army relief from Shenyang. Chen Xinda's troops, about 20,000 in total, fought on against the Communist troops through the villages of Gongzutun, Wangdaotun, Wenjiatai and Huangjiashan. By the 7th, the 5th Corps Command Center at Wenjiatai Village fell under the Communist cannons. Chen Xinda, together with 43rd Division Chief Liu Guangtian and 195th Division Chief Xie Daizheng, would be caught alive by the Communists.
 
After Wei Lihuang declined the post numerous times, even after Zhang Qun and Gu Zhutong et al., personally visited him at the residency, Wei Lihuang suddenly agreed to taking on the task. Chiang Kai-shek made five promises, including 1) no dereliction accusation should Wei Lihuang fail to quell the Communists, 2) Chen Cheng helping Wei Lihuang in controlling the troops, 3) dispatchment of one more corps-conglomerate to Manchuria, 4) full airforce support, and 5) 3-4 more Corps for Manchuria by 1948. On Jan 17th, Wei Lihuang officially assumed the post for the "Northeast Banditry Quelling General Command Headquarters", and arrived in Shenyang on Jan 22nd, 1948.
 
In Manchuria, the Nationalist government army still possessed the New 7th Corps and 60th Corps in Changchun, the 9th Corps-Conglomerate [commanding New 1st, New 3rd, New 6th, and 49th Corps] in central Liaoning Prov, the 52nd Corps and one corps of Zhou Fucheng's 8th Corps-Conglomerate in southern Liaoning Prov and Shenyang, and Dian-jun's 93rd Corps in Jinzhou. Other than that, there was Xiang Fengwu's 71st Corps under Liu Anqi's 7th Corps-Conglomerate. By the time Wei Lihuang arrived in Shenyang, the "Communist winter campaign" was at the peak. The Communist forces purportedly destroyed 1 Nationalist Corps and 8 divisions, totaling 156,000 men, and sacked 18 cities. (The number was wholesome and needs itemization.) One Nationalist army division defected to the Communists. Citing the Communist losses in the siege of Sipingjie, Wei Lihuang deliberately adopted a strategy of "sitting out" by having his troops defend the major cities like Shenyang, Changchun, Jinzhou and Huludao.
 
Wei Lihuang regrouped 4 corps-conglomerates of 14 corps or 44 divisions, making Zheng Dongguo's 1st corps-conglomerate (about 6 divisions or 100,000 men) in charge of Changchun in the north, Fan Hanjie's 6th corps-conglomerate (about 14 divisions or 150,000 men) in charge of Jinzhou in the west, and 8th & 9th corps-conglomerates etc (about 300,000 men) in charge of Shenyang, Benxi, Fushun, Tieling and Xinmin in the middle. Though Wei Lihuang still possessed [nominally] 550,000 men, they were dispersed in separate cities cut off from each other, with the city of Changchun to be under the Communist siege till October 1948, where starvation led to death of hundreds of thousands of people under the communist blockade. The Communist forces deliberately shot at the civilians with machine guns for stopping the civilians from leaving Changchun. The siege of Changchun city would cause over 300,000 civilians starved to death as a result of the Communists' blockade of the city. ('Xue3 [snow] Bai [white], Xue4 [blood] Hong [red] by Zhang Zhenglong is a good reference book on this subject. Zhang Zhenglong cited multiple eyewitness accounts in pointing out that Communist army would only allow those Nationalist army soldiers to defect through the blockade with gun as a pass or allow the relatives and families of undercover Communist agents or colluding Nationalist army officers and officials to exit the vacuum belt. At the vacuum belt, innocent civilians who had died would echo with the sound of crack of the bloated bellies in the hot sunlight.)
 
With coastal Yingkou taken and the Bei-Ning [Northern Liaoning] Railway cut off by the Communists, Shenyang and Changchun had to rely upon airdrop for survival.
 
Wei Lihuang's Refusal To Evacuate From Shenyang and Changchun
With the purported American nodding approval [which was another communist-published misinformation], Chiang Kai-shek began to implement the policy of retreating to Jinzhou and/or inside of the Shanhaiguan Pass. However, Wei Lihuang repeatedly rebutted Luo Zekai & Li Shuzheng of the Nationalist government National Defense Department, claiming that should his forces leave Shenyang, the Communists would utilize the three rivers of Liao-he, Daling-he and Raoyang-he in ambushing them. Wei Lihuang dispatched Zheng Dongguo to Nanking for dissuading Chiang Kai-shek from the order of retreat from Shenyang. Chiang Kai-shek, however, insisted that Shenyang must be abandoned and added that Changchun could be abandoned as well for preserving the Nationalist government army strength. Wei Lihuang then held a military meeting with his generals and dispatched Zhao Jiaxiang and Luo Youlun to Nanking for relaying the opinions of the Northeastern Nationalist government army generals.
 
Chiang Kai-shek gave in to Wei Lihuang for the time being. Wei Lihuang requested that the Government troops be sent to Huludao, a coastal city to the south of Jinzhou, and ordered a recruitment of soldiers in and around Jinzhou and Shenyang. Being afraid of the Nationalist government forced recruitment, Gao Wenjun and his classmates stayed inside the school most of the time. Gao Wenjun, who wrote the "Memoirs of the Korea War" (Shengzhi Culture Enterprises Publishing House, http://www.ycrc.com.tw, Taipei, Taiwan, July 2000 edition), was attending the Liaoning Provincial High School in Shenyang. Later, in June 1948, 6000 students took exam for the Whampoa Academy 23rd Session, with Gao Wenjun among 600 examinees accepted. Gao Wenjun left for Sichuan Prov in August, with his parents walking him to the airport hands in hands. Gao Wenjun was never to see his parents again the rest of his life. The Sichuan Whampoa class was later betrayed to the communists by the schoolmaster.
 
In March 1948, Chiang Kai-shek changed mind and ordered that Wei Lihuang fly to Nanking. On March 22nd, Wei Lihuang flew to Nanking and still objected to withdrawal from Shenyang & Changchun, claiming that he would contact the Americans direct for help in airdrop of supplies. Wei Lihuang then ordered that Liu Yanhan contact David Barr [Ba-da-wei], the U.S. director of JUSMAG, for assistance. On May 11th, Barr and the U.S. Delegation flew to Shanyang & Changchun and purportedly promised to Wei Lihuang in supplying equipment for 10 divisions. Note that the U.S. government did not ship out any military aid till late 1948. When Chiang Kai-shek renewed his call for withdrawal from Shenyang, Wei Lihuang dispatched Liao Yaoxiang to Nanking for a dissuasion on the pretext that should the Nationalist government army withdraw from Shenyang, then the Nationalist government army soldiers in Changchun would lose the fighting spirits. While Chiang Kai-shek and Wei Lihuang were entangled in the disputes, the CCP forces, which were equipped by Stalin-supplied American August Storm weapons, launched the Liao-Shen Campaign on the evening of Sept 17th, 1948.
 
CCP Liao-Shen Campaign
Economy collapsed inside the cities when the Nationalist government currencies rolled out to replace the old version. Ten year old girl could be bought for 10 kilograms of rice. One teacher of the Jinzhou Normal College picked up a rotten meat on the street, cooked it and ate it, and died shortly afterward. Xia Dehong, as chairwoman of autonomous student union, organized a raid into a banquet for collecting donations. In Feb 1948, with Communist agent's support, Xia Dehong entered the Medical College of Jinzhou's "Northeastern Exile University". After reflecting on the mistake of over-killing the wealthy landlords and business owners of northern Manchuria, Communists issued an instruction in winning over the hearts of the students of the exile university. In late June, a shipload of Exile University students traveled south to Tianjin [Tientsin] under the encouragement of Nationalist government authorities. However, at Tianjin, under the dissension by undercover Communist students, Exile University students mounted a protest against Tianjin garrison troops in demand of food and lodging while turning down a Nationalist government request that the students joined the army under a slogan "Fighting Back To Hometown". Several were shot dead. When news spread to Jinzhou, Xia Dehong took charge of a joint student union of Jinzhou in protest of the massacre, for which she was later arrested as a Communist suspect and went through an execution session while standing blindfolded with a real Communist.
 
Wei Lihuang maneuvered to have his crony Chen Tie assemble all generals for an objection to high command's retreat order, and at a private banquet, Wei Lihuang maneuvered to have Liao Yaoxiang propose to Gu Zhutong a different path: 1) Nationalist government army dispatch relief northward to Jinzhou from Huludao; Jinzhou & Huludao relief forces break through eastward to converge with Shenyang army; and combined forces go north to the relief of Changchun; 2) Shenyang forces go south to attack coastal Yingkou and then attack Communist forces to the east of Jinzhou, with another possibility of dispatching relief to Huludao from Yingkou by crossing the Liaodong Bay of Bohai Sea. After Gu Zhutong submitted Liao Yaoxiang's proposals, Chiang Kai-shek telephoned Gu Zhutong with order of executing the original plan. With Liao Yaoxiang finally giving in, Wei Lihuang managed to get Gu Zhutong leave for Nanking by ordering that Liao Yaoxiang make preparatory works in Xinmin city, to the northwest of Shenyang.
 
Lin Biao's Communist forces made a stealthy march towards the south for Jinzhou city. General Fan Hanjie, with Shen Xiangkui's N8C and Lu Junquan's 93C, failed to contract defense line. Communists first concentrated heavy artillery against Yixian to the north of Jinzhou, and two days later, on Oct 1st, took over Yixian county. Communist forces then attacked Jinxi and Xingcheng to the southwest of Jinzhou. With assurance from Fan Hanjie as to his determination to persist at Jinzhou in lieu of a retreat to coastal Huludao, Chiang Kai-shek planned to call over reinforcements from Shenyang for a duel with Communists. To reinforce Jinzhou, Chiang Kai-shek air-lifted 49th Corps to Jinzhou for assistance with city defense. Thereafter, Communist force totally surrounded Jinzhou.
 
On Oct 2nd, Chiang Kai-shek personally flew over to Shenyang, but Wei Lihuang threatened him with resignation. Chiang Kai-shek assembled all officers above division level and reminded them that they could be caught by CCP bandits (i.e., People's Liberation Army) should they still disobey his order. Wei Lihuang privately claimed to Chen Tie & Peng Jieru that Chiang Kai-shek intended to abandon Shenyang for Jinzhou in accordance with American instruction and that Chiang Kai-shek would later punish him as a scapegoat for losing Shenyang. On Oct 8th [Oct 6th per Jung Chang], Chiang Kai-shek flew to Huludao to organize expedition force for converging with Shenyang withdrawal after dividing Shenyang forces into Liao Yaoxiang's Liaoxi Group and Zhou Fucheng's Garrison Group. (Per Jun Chang, Wei Lihuang did not follow the order till Oct 9th, and merely dispatched Liao Yaoxiang's Liaoxi Group.) On Oct 9th, Chiang Kai-shek, riding on Chongqing Warship, launched a futile attack at coastal Tashan with the support of Zhou Zhirou's airforce.
 
250,000 Communist troops launched the siege on Oct 8th. Xia Dehong managed to send in explosive to Jinzhou's Nationalist government army arsenal. Colonel Ji had doubts about Xia Dehong's possible involvement after the blast but was assured that Communist government would not punish him. Cannon balls began to fly into the city indiscriminately. The whole city was on fire. One such bomb pierced into the floor of a table inside of Xie Dehong's residence but did not explode. Black markets disappeared, and people could no longer buy food anywhere. Nationalist government army soldiers retreated into the city from the outskirts on Oct 13th. At one time, dozen soldiers asked for food at Xia Dehong's residence, but soon the iron wok was hit by Communist shelling. On Oct 14th, 900 cannons, per Jung Chang, shelled at the city. 14 cats sought asylum inside of Xia Dehong's residency. The next day, Communist and Nationalist soldiers fought street battles. Soldiers from two camps visited Xia Dehong's residency consecutively. Communist soldiers, with white towers on left arms, knocked on the door. Nationalist government army soldiers sought for plaincoats. Stepping out of the door, Xia Dehong could only see scenes of broken body parts lying everywhere on the streets. A pregnant woman in the neighborhood was killed by shelling, and lots of neighbors also perished. Per Jung Chang, 20000 government army soldiers were killed, 80000 caught captive, and commander Fan Hanjie was caught alive while fleeing out of the city.
 
On Oct 15th, Chiang Kai-shek flew to Shenyang again with Du Yuming. Du Yuming privately told Wei Lihuang that the President (i.e., Chiang Kai-shek) had dropped letters to Zheng Dongguo [in Changchun] and Fan Hanjie [in Jinzhou] with authorizations of a breakout. Note that government army generals dared not leave their posts without written order from Chiang Kai-shek himself. After Jinzhou, Changchun was lost to CCP consecutively. After receiving the breakout order, Zheng Dongguo ordered that New 38th Division push to the position. On the night of Oct 17th, Zeng Zesheng's 60th Corps declared an uprising for the Communist camp, and cut Changchun city into two parts. Zheng Dongguo sent a telegraph to Chiang Kai-shek about his readiness to sacrifice life with Changchun, which was published on government Central Daily on Oct 24th. However, the subordinate officers, i.e. Yang Youmei, 3 days ago, had already disarmed Zheng Dongguo to prevent him from a suicide.
 
On Oct 18th, Chiang Kai-shek flew to Shenyang again, and ordered a recovery of Jinzhou by taking advantage of the casualty of 60,000 that CCP forces had suffered in attacking Jinzhou. Zhao Jiaxiang repeated Wei Lihuang's opinion that recovery of Jinzhou was not a good idea since CCP forces might have outweighed Government troops by more than twice as much. Zhao Jiaxiang stated that CCP could have as many as 800,000 men in Manchuria, with at least 11 "zong dui" and several detached divisions, numbering 600-700k, around the areas of Jinzhou, Heishan [black mountain] and Dahushan [big tiger mountain], while CCP forces in Changchun area, numbering another 100,000, could come southward to the siege of Shenyang at any time. The next day, Chiang Kai-shek, from Peking, called over Wei Lihuang and Du Yuming, and blamed everything on George Marshall when Fu Zuoyi declined to offer opinions. With Fu Zuoyi backing, Wei Lihuang antagonized Chiang Kai-shek on the matter of recovering Jinzhou. Still one more day later, Du Yuming proposed an alternative approach of using Yingkou as a base for defending Shenyang as well as attacking Heishan and Dahushan. However, Du Yuming refused to replace Wei Lihuang as the commander, and furthermore, cited ancient tactics to advise against attacking CCP forces in Jinzhou area.
 
On Oct 20th, Du Yuming and Wei Lihuang flew back to Shenyang, with order that Liao Yaoxiang's Army Group, with an addition of 207th Division of 6th Corps, attack Heishan and that Liu Yuzhang's 52nd Corps attack Yingkou for securing the withdrawal route of Liao Yaoxiang. Secretly, Wei Lihuang instructed Shenyang garrison division chief Wang Lihuan in guaranteeing the peaceful transfer of Shenyang and its 2 million citizens to CCP.
 
On the afternoon of Oct 25th, Liao Yaoxiang sent an urgent message over to Wei Lihuang, stating that his army group had fallen into CCP forces' encirclement. At the urge of Shenyang garrison commander Hu Jiaji who wished to save those soldiers who had fought valiant wars in Burma Theater, Wei Lihuang telegraphed Liao Yaoxiang for a speedy return to Shenyang. Liao Yaoxiang was surrounded by CCP forces in Daheishan area, and by Oct 28th, Liao Yaoxiang was captured. Gone with Liao Yaoxiang would be the New 1st Corps, i.e., war heroes of the Burma Theater. Chiang Kai-shek later blamed Wei Lihuang for not dispatching relief forces to Liao Yaoxiang.
 
With western Liaoning Prov settled, CCP Northeastern Field Army dispatched 1st & 2nd "zong dui" against Shenyang and 7th, 8th & 9th "zong dui" against Yingkou. Du Yuming was dispatched to Shenyang for assisting Wei Lihuang & Zhou Fucheng in city defense. Shenyang still possessed 53rd Corps, 6th Corps and 207th Division. Meantime, Gui Yongqing's navy was sent to Yingkou for rescuing remnant Government troops. Du Yuming flew on to Huludao for arranging retreat. As a caution against Wei Lihuang's possible defection, Mme Chiang Kai-shek retrieved Wei Lihuang's wife [Han Quanhua] to Nanking from Shenyang. On Oct 30th, Du Yuming was advised against landing in Shenyang's Beiling Airport in northern outskirts. Wang Shuming, airforce deputy commander, flew to Peking from Shenyang, leaving one airplane inside of Shenyang civil airfield for Wei Lihuang.
 
On the afternoon of Oct 30th, Wei Lihuang and his cronies flew away via a transport plane at Dongta Airport after Zhao Jiaxiang cheated the stranded officers that more planes were coming. Wei Lihuang, ordered to be investigated for dereliction on Nov 10th, would stealthily fly to Canton in Dec for a fleeing to HK; Nationalist government's secret agents caught Wei and put him under house arrest in Nanking; Wei Lihuang would refuse to go to Taiwan after Li Zongren replaced Chiang Kai-shek as "proxy president"; and Wei Lihuang slipped away to Shanghai and onward to HK prior to CCP's crossing of the Yangtze River. Wei Lihuang was invited back to China on March 15th 1955 and was appointed on the board of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Committee.
 
Yingkou Retreat
 

 
 
Shenxi-Shanxi-Henan-Hubei Battleground
 

 
Li Xiannian's 16000 Troops & Wang Zhen's 3000 Troops Reduced to 200 Remnants Each
On June 26th 1946, Li Xiannian's Central Plains Communist Forces secretively converged upon Xuanhuadian of northeastern Hubei Province for a western breakout. The Central Plains Communist Forces, other than Li Xiannian's troops, also included Wang Zhen's two brigades which made their stealthy way to Guangdong-Hunan borderline in the wake of 1944 Japanese Ichigo Campaign but had to return north after failures to connect with Communist-controlled Dong-jiang Guerrilla Force of Guangdong Province. Alternative Communist records cited by Yang Bichuan, however, pasted a picture of resourceful Li Xiannian who faked illness in the presence of the Three-Person Truce Panel and then jumped up to issue the order of a western expedition right after the American and Nationalist Army representatives left the scene. On 29th, Li Xiannian breached Nationalist Army's defense line and arrived at Suixian & Zaoyang from Guangshui & Huaxian. Wang Shusheng, with a contingent, then split apart to cross the Han-shui River for Zhuxi from Nanzhang & Fangxi direction, by passing Mt Wudangshan and Danjiangkou Lake to the north. Meanwhile, Li Xiannian's bulk of the Communist troops, about 16,000, scurried towards Shaaxi-Henan borderline through Dengxian county [Dengzhou city of Henan Province].
 
After 53 days of fierce fighting along 700 kilometers of mountain roads and paths, Li Xiannian's 16000 troops and Wang Zhen's 3000 troops were reduced to 200 remnants respectively. Nationalist Army side incurred a casualty of 961 in comparison with 10,000 casualty for the Communist side, in addition to 2000 Communist prisoners of war [including a Communist-assigned provincial chair by the name of Yang Jingyuan]. Bounty included 50 machineguns, thousands of rifles and 130 horses and mules. Communist military leader Li Xiannian hence lost his chips for the civil wars and forfeited the chance to become a founding "marshal" of the PRC.
 
Hu Zongnan Routing Chen Geng's 40,000 Communist Troops In Southern Shanxi Province
In early June, right after the June 7th Truce Order, Chen Geng's Communist Tai-yue [Mt Taiyueshan] Military District of Southern Shanxi Province, with 9 brigades, launched a general strike at Nationalist Army positions in southern Shanxi, sacked Xiaoyi, and encircled Fenyang. By late July, Chen Geng sacked Jiangxian and Wenxi, paralyzed the southern segment of Tong-Pu Railway, and continued the attacks to both directions of the railway.
 
On Aug 7th, 47th Brigade defeated Chen Geng's Communist troops at Zhangdian-zhen, and restored Zhangdianzhen-Maojindu Highway. On 8th, 31st Brigade and 167th Brigade pushed north in parallel from Xiayi [Xiaxian], Anyi and Yuncheng. By 11th, 167th Brigade sacked Wenxi.
 
On Sept 1st, Hu Zongnan devised the campaign against Linfen. On 3rd, R1D [reorganized 1st Division], and R30D continued to push northward. 47th Brigade of R27D pushed north along Tong-Pu Railway. On 4th, 27B of R30D took over Dajiao-zhen, 78B of R1D took over Yicheng, 47B of R27D took over Zhaoqu-zhen. On 6th, 78B entered Linfen. Phase I of the campaign for securing southern segment of Tong-Pu Railway was completed. Communist forces retreated towards Hongdong, Zhaocheng, Huoxian [Huozhou] and Lingshi.
 
Liu Bocheng Attacking Long-Hai Railway

 
Relief To Yulin City In Northern Shenxi Province
On Oct 12th 1946, Communist troops launched an attack at Yulin of northern Shenxi Province, a lonely city inside of the Yellow River sheath but sitting right on the Great Wall line. Communist forces which withdrew from southern Shanxi Province also came across the East Yellow River Bend and attacked Yulin area together with 20,000 militia.
 
Taking advantage of Communist Yulin Campaign, Hu Zongnan suggested to airforce commander Wang Shuming and Chief of Staff Chen Cheng to initiate a direct raid into Communist base Yenan. However, when Hu Zongnan went to Nanking on Oct 21st, Defense Department instructed that Hu Zongnan's First Military District should consolidate the control in southern Shanxi Province and then pincer-attack Liu Bocheng's Communist troops in Changzhi area.
 
Pacification Of Qinling Ridge
In western Henan Province, Communist forces moved from Nanzhao on the east end of Mt Funiushan to Lushi the west end. Multiple bands of Communist forces were in the areas of Taoping & Manzhuang, including those under Huang Lin, Wang Shizhen, Mao Kai & Gong Defang.
 
Hu Zongnan, to dispel the Communist threats from Mt Funiushan and Mt Xiongershan, ordered that Wen Chaoji of Shangxian Command Center take charge of 84th, 17th, 135th and 24th Brigades in sweeping the area. From early Sept to mid-November, dozens of engagements ensued, resulting in the death toll of over 5000 for the communist forces. However, by late November, Communist forces re-assembled into 10,000 and more.
 
Communist forces had been able to scurry around without worries about supply and recruitment as a result of strict implementation of "neighborhood watch", i.e., a collective punishment system, designed to punish the family members or neighbors should they fail to supply grains or provide recruits. Stephen R. Mackinnon and Oris Friesen, in China Reporting, pointed out what John Fairbank had confessed in the 1980s as one of the weaknesses of American reporters in then China, namely, they did not speak Chinese and never got a chance to access a Chinese peasant to observe what the Communist revolution was like in the countryside. Stephen R. Mackinnon and Oris Friesen, like John Faibank, probably never knew that Communists had a system of using kids or the so-called 'young pioneers' as sentry to the extent that no stranger could slipped into Communist-held territory without detection. Nor did they know that in Communist-controlled area, all able-bodied males were drafted into war efforts, with only women running show, including restaurants and hotels where the Chinese tradition used to bar women from such service.
 
Raid Into Yenan
Hu Zongnan had been contemplating an attack at Communist base Yenan several times. The only hurdle lies in the presence of American military observers in Yenan. With "Three-Person Military Truce Panel" dissolved on Jan 30th, both the Communists and the Nationalists no longer had any restraints. On Jan 31st 1947, Communist troops suddenly attacked the blockade line again and defeated four columns of Shenxi Provincial Constabulary Regiment. The 2nd Battalion of 268th Constabulary Regiment incurred heavy loss. The Jan 31st attack was construed as pre-meditated since Communist troops at Tongguan-zhen boasted of four regiments, and those at Malan-zhen possessed the numbering of 3 separate divisions. In northern Shenxi Province, Communist side possessed about 70,000 militia and 60,000 troops in total, including 8th, 10th & 39th Brigades, Garrison 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th & 11th Brigades. Additionally, Communist troops which could easily cross the Yellow River Bend from Shanxi Province would be Wang Zhen's two brigades of 358th & 359th [rebuilt] or 7000 men, Chen Geng's three brigades of 10th, 12th & 24th or 15000 men, and Heh Long's three brigades or 10000 men.
 
On Feb 28th, Hu Zongnan moved his command center northwestward to Binzhou from Sanyuan for a planned attack at Qingyang of Gansu Province. On the same day, Hu Zongnan and Sheng Wen were called over to Nanking to brief Chiang Kai-shek on the 'Raid Into Yenan' campaign. On March 1st, at 10:00 am, in Defense Department, Liu Fei [Liu Weizhang], a Communist mole, expressed satisfaction with the campaign plan. At night, at 9:00 pm, Hu & Sheng visited Chiang. Consensus was reached for halting attacks at Qingyang-Heshui of Gansu Province, and general attacks would be delayed to March 14th. Hu Zongnan returned on March 3rd. (Sheng Wen recollections claimed that he had deliberately kept Liu Fei in the dark about the details of the "Raid Into Yenan", for which Liu Fei had expressed deep resentment thereafter. One more trick played by Hu Zongnan and Sheng Wen would be the recall of 1st Corps to Shenxi Province in the aftermath of Wazijie Battle while pretending to Liu Fei that they had no clue where the 1st Corps was in Henan Province.)
 
On March 4th, Communist troops launched an attack at 48th Brigade at Xihuachi. Brigade Chief Heh Qi was killed.
 
To scare away Americans from Yenan, about 94 planes were called over from Shanghai, Xuzhou & Xi'an for bombing the Communist positions around Yenan on 13th. General attack was launched at dawn of 14th as planned. Americans did not leave Yenan till the last minute, i.e., 12th/13th, after apparently serving as voluntary Communist 'hostages' for sake of having all Communist cadres in Shanghai, Nanking and Peking fly back to Yenan. Flying above Yenan, the last members of the Dixie Mission witnessed the blow-up of the Yenan airport as promised by the Communists.
 
(Jung Chang's labeling Hu Zongnan as a Communist spy being a fallacy, historians' pointing to the Communist mole Xiong Xianghui had no merit either. As illustrated above, the Communist mole Liu Fei had been responsible for having Hu Zongnan halt the Qingyang-Heshui Campaign in Feb and then personally went over the campaign draft with Hu Zongnan. The only reason Mao Tse-tung had to hastily vacate Yenan was his over-confidence in his garrison troops. Though Communist side always called it a fake as to Hu Zongnan's claim of taking about 9000 Communist prisoners of war, the one-week battles between the two sides, being never a blitz raid in nature as claimed in history books, were not merely a strategic retreat war for the Communists but a premeditated attack-and-defense engagement involving hundred thousand troops on two sides, respectively.)
 

 
Jung Chang called four names, Zhang Zhizhong, Shao Lizi, Hu Zongnan and Wei Lihuang, as communist spies. As numerous people recalled in their memoirs, Zhang Zhizhong appeared to be the only person daring to call Chiang Kai-shek by "Mr. Chiang" in post-1949 Communist China. However, Zhang Zhizhong, taking himself to be an erudite, repeatedly fell short of expectations. At the Battle of Shanghai in 1937, Zhang took a bike to the front to avoid the Japanese plane bombing, and later found an excuse to go to the hind to report to Chiang Kai-shek while people were looking for him at the front, which led to a rebuke from Chiang Kai-shek over the phone. Zhang then further had dereliction of duty while being empowered as chair of Hunan Province, under whose jurisdiction the scorched-earth policy was mal-executed in Changsha. However, we could not blame Zhang Zhizhong 100% for his being blindsided by the communist propaganda. The agriculturalist Liang Su-ming, i.e, China's last Confucian, for another example, was hoodwinked by the communists even though he himself walked across Japan-occupied territories to have witnessed the communist brigands' killing of his student-desciples who were waging guerrilla war against the Japanese behind the enemy's line. (Yang Xiufeng, an Europe/Moscow-returnee who later in 1947/8 ran the communist People's University to vivisect live government army captives [including one young Burma battle veteran who walked to the west from coastal Zhejiang as a teenager during the 1937 China's Dunkirk Retreat and did not return home to see his mother for next 12 years], was one such most notorious dupe who in 1935 returned to China to instigate anti-government activities in Tientsin, took advantage of the Ho-Umezu Agreement to rebuild the communist cells in North China, and from 1937 onward was responsible for the communist administration in Japan-occupied territories of North China. Unfortunately for numerous R.O.C. officials and officers, their cognizance of the monstrous nature of communists came too late, often at the time of massive executions in 1950s.)
 
For further comments on the validity of accusations against "four moles", please see Jung Chang's accusations against Zhang Zhizhong, Shao Lizi, Hu Zongnan and Wei Lihuang.

* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
* Stay tuned for "Republican China 1911-1955: A Complete Untold History" *

Republican China in Blog Format
While Westad, who read Freda Utley, concurred with the number of 9000 Communist prisoners of war, his common friends, i.e., Jung Chang and Jonathan Fenbie, were apparently left in the dark. All three definitely have no clue as to Hu Zongnan's battles against the Communists, like Campaign of Jing-he & Wei-he Rivers, Campaign of Ankang, Campaign of Wugong.
 
Dozen years later, Nationalist government officials were still debating whether Liu Fei was a Communist and/or when Liu Fei had become a Communist [since Zheng Jiemin confirmed that Liu Fei had attempted to instigate him for the Communist camp in HK in 1949], not knowing that Liu Fei had been converted while having overseas studies in Japan. This webmaster does not know how Liu Fei was converted, but does point out in Terror how Communists had married a 15-year-old girl to General Yang Hucheng, corrupted Xu Enceng [via Qian Zhuangfei's sex arrangement], and sent a young nurse to General He Yaozu, a practice adopted as recently as in 1971-2 when Mao Tse-tung repeatedly offered Henry Kissinger any number of Chinese women the American emissary might desire. Off the record would be how Wang Bing-nan's German wife seduced the American reporters [i.e., John Fairbank and Joe Stilwell gang] in Wuhan the "China's Madrid" in 1938. Up to year 2005, Li Wangshu, at huanghuagang.org/issue11/index_big5.htm, still put blame on Li Zongren & Bai Chongxi for having recommended Lie Fei for overseas studies and subsequent service under Chiang Kai-shek. See this webmaster's comments on "criticisms of Li Zongren's criticisms of Chiang Kai-shek". Should you ask what's the big deal here about Liu Fei, then this webmaster want to remind you that dozens of millions of Chinese had died in vain in 20th century, and many more will continue to become victims absent a correct cognizance of true historical events.)

 
Videos about China's Resistance War: China's Dunkirk Retreat (in English); 42 Video Series (in Chinese)
Stilwell, the slimy who itched "to throw down ... shovel and get over there and shoulder a rifle with Chu Teh" [i.e., the communist commander-in-chief], before his kickout from China, paid a visit to Mme Sun Yat-sen, the No. 1 Comintern agent in China. George Marshall quit his job twice, J.I.T (just in time), in anticipation of some pre-arranged phonecalls from Truman to tack on the jobs as 1) first the mediator in the Chinese civil war and ii) secondly as defense minister during the Korean War, respectively. George Marshall returned Zhou Enlai's address book to Zhou Enlai, while never alerting Chiang Kai-shek of communist spies like Xiong Xianghui. While Currie stopped German weapons from shipping to China and Truman dumped China's Lend-Lease weapons to Indian Ocean, Acheson and George Marshall personally pushed for the 1946-47 arms embargo against China and imposed three ceasefire onto Chinese government, on Jan-10-1946, June-6-1946, & Nov-8-1946. Marshall deliberately flew back to China in spring 1946 to stop Nationalist troops from chasing communists north of the Sungari River. This is how CHINA WAS LOST.
At this moment, commies had rallied henchmen against Mr Xin Haonian's book Which Is New China by repeatedly citing the writings of John Fairbank and the sort. This webmaster, though not agreeing with the said book on all accounts, does want to point out that
John Fairbank and most of the "Old China Hands", being anti-Chinese-nationalism in nature, were "fellow travellers" of the communists and British colonialists since the OSS/CIA days of 1940-50s. The best argument against the Chi-com would lie in continuing expositions of i) Russian/Comintern conspiracies against China, and ii) century-long American hypocrisy towards China & American manipulations of Chinese politics [e.g., Stilwell's instigating General Bai Chongxi, Stuart's instigating Li Zongren, and McArthur's instigating General Sun Liren].
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists. At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause
The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department) and ii) the communists. At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist "agrarian reformers".
Chinese communist agents on international arena would include Chen Hansheng [i.e., Owen lattimore's assistant]; Mme Sun Yat-sen [who acted as the intermediary between domestic and international communists]; Wu Kejian & Xie Weijing who orchestrated Chinese communist relief to the Spanish Civil War; and Wang Bingnan whose German wife "physically" won over the hearts of above-mentioned Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service. Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai.
After 60 years, the crap about corruption of the Chiang Kai-shek's regime was so deeply rooted in the American academics that even the publication of the VENONA scripts would not make someone to rethink. Some American senator talked about McCarthyism, while McCarthy had been proven to be right in 99% of the cases he prosecuted. Some other U.S. senator talked about "gung ho" recently, while not knowing what "Gung ho" was meant for. Let's be clear here: "gung ho" was not Evan Carlson's commando team in the Pacific Islands but a Comintern scheme to launder money to Yenan, totalling 20 million USD at minimum from Chen Hansheng's operations with the U.S. communist front organizations 1939 to 1941 plus more afterward, as well as a CCP underground tunnel (to use the same word as the American Black slaves' escape route to the north prior to the north-south war), on which road the CCP agents freely travelled around FREE CHINA by riding on the "gung ho" trucks; more, in Jiangxi, the anti-Japanese war base as well as the former Red Army enclave, the "gung ho" gangs were secretly training the cooperative workers to be anti-government insurgents to echo the raging civil wars that were going on along the Yangtze and in North China, which saw the communist Eight Route Army and New Fourth Army slaughtering hundreds of thousands of village elderlies, county magistrates, government guerrilla forces, and patriotic gentry-organized forces.
 
Now all this was done prior to the Pacific War. But due to Stalin's demand for maintaining the CCP-KMT collaboration scheme, Mao and the communists dared not publicly talked about civil wars. Should they secretly took out government guerrillas, they would make sure that no messenger would live to escape from the communist territory to tell the truth. Zhao Tong, and 200+ guerrillas, including his sister and dozens of female fighters, were run down by the communist cavalry, and killed to the last person while travelling towards Jehol. Who was Zhao Tong? He was the son of double-gun Mme Zhao, whom the same Wuhan and Chungking gangs, Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby's predecessors, had interviewed and talked about in the media both in China and over the world, a war hero fighting Japanese in Jehol since 1932-1933, and a Youth party member and later a statist member.
 
After the Pearl Harbor, Stalin no longer cared about China's role in WWII. So the order changed, which was to say that Comintern agents had the free hand to bad-mouth China, with no penalty as imposed before the Dec 1941 Japanese attack at the Pearl Harbor. Hence you see Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby, and the gangs, writing venomous articles against China. Theodore White was one of the top 3-4 playboys in wartime Chungking, and like John Fairbank, enjoyed "stalking" communist mouthpiece Gong Peng, the little black widow and Zhou Enlai's secretary, on the streets of Chungking. And you have Martens, the German communist, who provided one-on-one sexual service to those wartime American bachelors. I read through the craps by Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby just to find out who those guys cohorted with, and how they went around Free China, etc. My findings are the Theodore White gang always lived near the whorehouses, or one storey above the whorehouse, and this guy Theodore White at one time had a rendezvous with some Chinese general's concubine in a vacated hotel while the Japanese planes were dropping bombs over the whole city and people were fleeing to the bunkers. And another gang member was notorious in using the Hostel, a place the KMT government subsidized the international press rascals with a maximum cost of $1 and $3 for meals and lodging daily, as a daily party room to have fun with Chinese women. What you had were passages after passages of writings about the gang's whoring, and that's probably why Miles said he had thousands of pages of details on the gangs' antics and all those materials were locked up in the U.S. Navy's underground confidential room. From Rand's book, you could tell how those guys flew back and forth, between the U.S. and China, had liaison with the Comintern and CPUSA/CCP agents, like Yang Gang and Yang Zao brother and sister, even inviting the CCP "guest" to their home in New England; and of course the gang was responsible for hiring the CCP agents as translators and interpreters to work on the OSS watch and listen posts along the southeastern Chinese coastline. What a deal. Now, more to that. Almost all gang members were reaping profit by smuggling and selling scarce commodities, utilizing the black market rate of 1 USD to 120 CNC. The gangs made a killing and reaped huge profits, smuggling lipsticks for the sing-song women of Guilin, who were known to be Japanese spies. Some gang members purportedly had a "platonic" love club, with one CCP agent joining the drunkards' club to talk about love. While Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby returned to the U.S. to write a best-seller, arguing among themselves about who should put the name on the book and who should take the credit, the other gang members thought about having some fun in the outpost China and flew to the Chinese Turkistan to bad-mouth China which was defending itself against years of harassment wars conducted by Eastern Turkistan rebels and instigated by Stalin after China kicked out the Russians by taking advantage of the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
 
Like to ask you spend sometime on Khan, Rand and White's books, and see how those creeps joined hands with Comintern and CCP agents to sabotage China, and made China what it is today. And of couse read Dorn's book to know Marshall and Stilwell's scheme to assassinate Chiang Kai-shek.
 
American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the White Paper [Modified : Monday, 25-Feb-2013 22:00:00 EST]

* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
* Stay tuned for "Republican China 1911-1955: A Complete Untold History" *

 
Peng Dehuai's Three Minor Victories
On the 19th, the 167th Brigade pushed towards Yenan at dawn, and took over Mt Baotashan [treasure pogada mountain] by 7:00 am. the 78th Brigade took over the high hill on the southern bank of the Yan-he River. A commando company of the 1st Brigade, together with the 167th Brigade, walked across the Yan-he River, defeated the communist defenders at the citywall, and penetrated into Yenan. The Communist troops retreated towards the Wayaobao and Ansai directions. The Communist "Radio of Handan" in Hebei Province first acknowledged the loss of Yenan on the 21st. The bulk of the Communist forces hid themselves in Ganguyi-Qinghuabian area, to the northeast of Yenan. Hu Zongnan made a wrong judgment call, thinking that the Communist troops went to the northwest of Yenan, i.e., the Ansai direction. Hu Zongnan's biography claimed to have inflicted a total casualty of 16606 onto the Communist side and further captured 9625 Communist soldiers. Bounty included 30 machineguns, 2243 rifles, and 29 grenade-throwers. The Communist side subsequently discounted the Nationalist claim and claimed that they had abandoned Yenan strategically on March 19th. Mao Tse-tung himself, with about 200 staff and 3 companies of garrison troops organized themselves into a 'Kunlun Detachment', parted with Liu Shaoqi's half of the CCP Central which crossed the Yellow River for the Shanxi-Hebei Provinces. Mao's half CPC Central staff trekked towards Wangjiacun Village of Jingbian near the Ordos desert. The communists, who were overconfident of the defence of Yenan, did not get enough time to prepare for the pullout, with Mao's stuff still left in the cave house.
 
To the northeast of Yenan, the 92nd Regiment of the 31st Brigade was ambushed and surrounded in a valley around 10:00 am on the 25th while en route to Qinghuabian, with Regiment Chief Xie Yangmin and Brigade Chief Li Jiyun taken prisoners of war by the Communist side. The Battle of Qinghuabian would be the first Communist victory which was achieved by Peng Dehuai [the CCP Central's Deputy Chair for the Military Committee] & Xi Zhongxun [the CCP Northwestern Bureau Secretary] by combining the forces of the Independent 4th Brigade, the Teaching Brigade, the New 4th Brigade, and Wang Zhen's 358th Brigade of the 1st Echelon and the 359th Brigade of the 2nd Echelon. The Communist side claimed to have destroyed about 2900 Nationalist Army soldiers while their Independent 1st Brigade was set aside as reserves during the battle.
 
On the 6th, at Yongping-zhen, the R30D was ambushed by the Communist troops of the 359th Brigade, Teaching 1st Brigade & Independent 1st Brigade. After 24 hour fighting, the Communist troops retreated at dawn of April 7th. On the 8th, Hu Zongnan's 1st Corps converged towards Qinghuabian while the 29th Corps converged towards Panlong, i.e., two towns to the southwest of Yongping-zhen. On the 12th, the 1st Corps pushed against Mudanchuan [peony village]. On the 14th, the 1st Corps and 29th Corps fought against the Communist troops from morning to 9:00 pm at night. Meantime, four brigades of the Communist troops, headed by Wang Zhen & Zhang Xianyue, ambushed the 135th Brigade at Sanlangcha & Yangmahe while Heh Bingyan & Liao Hansheng's Communist troops were ordered by Peng Dehuai towards the Panlong area for impeding Hu Zongnan's relief army. 135th Brigade Chief Mai Zongyu and two regiment chiefs hence went missing in battle. The Communist side claimed to have destroyed about 2000 Nationalist Army soldiers at the Battle of Yangmahe per Yang Bichuan.
 
On April 15th, the 1st Corps and 29th Corps defeated the Communist troops led by Heh Bingyan & Liao Hansheng, and then pushed against Lijiacha & Wayaobao, respectively. On the 16th, the two corps of the Nationalist Army troops retook Wayaobao and Lijiacha subsequently. On the 18th, the two corps returned southward for grain supply. On the 19th, the 29th Corps, en route to Yongping, met with Peng Dehuai's Communist troops in the Xinch[]he-Cuishudou-Da(s)guicun area. The Communist troops consisted of Zhang Zongxun's 1st Echelon [the 358th Brigade, the Independent 1st Brigade & the Garrison 3rd Brigade] and Wang Zhen's 2nd Echelon [the 359th Brigade, the New 4th Brigade, the Independent 4th Brigade & Teaching 2nd Brigade]. Hu Zongnan's 1st Corps came to the aid of the 29th Corps. Fighting continued from 8:00 am of the 19th to 7:00 pm of the 20th. Altogether seven Communist attacks were repelled. Hu Zongnan claimed to have killed 1984 Communist troops.
 
During the Campaign of Suide, Wang Zhen led a circumvential attack at the Nationalist Army 84th & 167th Brigade at Qinghuabian and Panlong-bao in the south, respectively. First attack at Panlong-bao occurred at the night of May 2nd. Peng Dehuai was said to have invoked a Communist "military democracy" by holding soldier meetings for discussions on ways to breach the defense ditches around Panlong. The Nationalist Army relief army from Ganquan in the north was impeded at Qinghuabian. By the midnight of May 4th, Li Kungang's 167th Brigade had used up the ammunition. Li Kungang went missing after he and his remnants broke through the siege. With Panlong lost, the Nationalist Army troops lost a major logistics center. The Communist side claimed to have destroyed 6700 troops of the 167th Brigade per Yang Bichuan, which was possibly exaggerated since the defenders were merely a reinforced regiment.
 
Continuous Campaigns In Northern Shenxi Province
On June 4th, the 1st Corps retook Ansai, and the 29th Corps arrived at Zhanmengou. On the 5th, the 1st Corps took over Gaoqiao to the southwest of Ansai, and the 29th Corps retook Panlong. On the 7th, the 1st Corps arrived at the south-north division point of Pass Shengrenyaoxian [Xinyaoxian], and the 29th Corps arrived near Yanjiatai. On the 8th, the 1st Corps attacked the Communist troops near Bao'an, and the 29th Corps pushed towards the Communist troops at Qingyangcha. On the 9th, the 29th Corps took over Woniucheng. Hu Zongnan's troops took over Bao'an [Zhidan], inflicted a casualty of 5000 onto the Communist troops, captured 9 mountain guns, 200000 rounds of bullets and 40 bundles of cotton. Those Communist troops who went northwest then trekked towards the Huanxian county of Gansu Province.
 
Hu Zongnan then organized the campaign on the two banks of the Luo-he River. From the 14th onward, the 1st & 29th Corps sifted through mountains and valleys on the two banks of the Luo-he River. By the 15th, the bulk of the Communist troops, after a minor loss, dissipated for the northwest direction.
 
Meantime, on the 14th, the Communist siege of Huanxian county of Gansu Province started. The next day, the Communist siege troops converged into 10000 or more. On June 26th, Hu Zongnan implemented his traditional "regional sweep campaign" by carving up areas for his troops, with the 1st Corps in charge of the areas of Panlong-Longan-Longmianshi-Gaoqiao-Yenan, the 29th Corps in charge of the areas of Gaoqiao-Dingbianji-CHenjiazhifang and Dingbianji-Zhangjiawan-Fuxian-Ganquan, the R90D in charge of Heishuishi-Taibaizhen, and the 24B of R76D in charge of Wayaobao-Yanchuan-Qingjian. By the middle of July, the new approach of "using the Nationalist Army troops' stillness against the moving Communist troops" worked out after the Communist troops vacated Qingjian-Anding-Bao'an for Suide-Mizhi in the north. Xu Zhen, after discussions with deputy division chief Xu Liangyu, confirmed that the April loss of Panlong was due to Nanking's instructions even though 1st Division Chief Luo Lie repeatedly objected to a deep push towards Suide-Mizhi. The Political affairs committee came in to stabilize the villages and towns. Hu Zongnan made a visit to Yenan on July 16th and Ganquan on the 19th for firsthand observation of the revitalized communities and businesses in the pacified area, and attributed the accomplishment to efforts of 17th Division Chief Heh Wending.
 
The Siege of Yulin & the Battle of Shadian
Hu Zongnan then devised a three phase attack against the Communist troops, with an intent to have a duel by the West Yellow River Bend by pushing towards Longan-Liangdaowan-Jingbian for phase one, Anding-Lengyaobao-Longzhou for phase two, and Qilinzhen-Hengshan for phase three. Campaign started on Aug 3rd. Two days later, Peng Dehuai’s Communist troops took initiative in laying siege of Yulin & Xiangshuibao in the north with a combined force of 40000 consisting of the 1st, 3rd, 4th & 6th Brigades as well as the communist militia from Xinglin, Kelan [Shanxi], Huanglong & Tianshui [Gansu]. On the 12th, the R36D arrived at Baoningbao, and by previous midnight, the herald troops already arrived at Yulin. The Communist troops then withdrew the siege of Yulin on the 12th and went for the area of Shuanglinbao-Zhenchuanbao-Mizhi on the 13th.
 
Hu Zongnan ordered that Zhong Song led the R36D southward towards Guidebao, about half way between Yulin and Yuhebao. On the 19th, Peng Dehuai submitted the battle plan to Mao Tse-tung, i.e., surrounding and attacking the R36D around Shadian [Shajiadian]. At dawn of the 20th, the 165th, 55th & 123rd Brigades under Zhong Song were ambushed by the Communist troops at Longchuanbao-Shadian-Liupo-Shaping-Wulong. The three Nationalist Army brigades, cut off from each other by the Communist troops, fought their way out. Zhong Song and his 123rd & 165th Brigades fled to the east, while portion of the troops fled south. Till dusk, the Communist side claimed to have destroyed about 6000 Nationalist Army troops. By the time the Nationalist Army 29th Corps arrived at Shadian, the Communist troops had dissipated. Hu Zongnan, who wrote in his diary on the night of the 20th that he was worried about the fate of Zhong Song and his division command center, would be extremely delighted after receiving a telegram from Zhong Song on Aug 22nd. Zhong Song reported that he and the 84th Regiment were blocking Communist troops from fleeing across the Wuding-he River on the west bank, between Zhenchuanbao and Mizhi.
 
The Ambush Battle At Wazijie & the Siege of Yichuan
On Jan 25th, 1948, the Defense Department ordered that Hu Zongnan's pacification office moved to Luoyang of Henan Province, with a deadline of Feb 5th for launching a campaign against the Communist troops in Henan Province. Hu Zongnan, in order to put off Liu Fei's high order, would have Pei Changhui head a 5th Army Group in lieu of a move of the pacification office away from Xi'an. Pei Changhui, sitting in Shanzhou, would be in charge of the 78th & 167th Brigades of the R1D and the 123rd & 165th Brigades of the R26D. The 1st Brigade of the R1D and the 28th Brigade of the R36D would station in-between Shanzhou and Lingbao. Another three constabulary regiments were to be organized by Henan Province for defending the Yellow River line.

 
Jung Chang's "Mao The Unknown Story", which was built on top of Zhang Zhenglong's "Snow White, Blood Red" in the section on wars in Manchuria, had claimed to have dug out page 39 of Xu Zhen's writing on General Hu Zongnan. On page 39, Xu Zhen talked about the friendship of Hu Zongnan and Hu Gongmian during the early days of the Whampoa Military Academy; however, Hu Zongnan, like Dai Li, happened to be only two Chiang Kai-shek cronies who had set up the "disabled militarymen funds", which was illustrative of the human compassion the two had for their acquaintances no matter friend or foe. During the chase of the Red Army Fourth Flank, Hu Zongnan often inquired with the Communist prisoners of war as to the status of Red Army General Cai Shenxi, i.e., another Red who once served as a subordinate in the Whampoa times. It would not be strange that someone else who had perused pages of Xu Zhen's book had mentioned this matter before Jung Chang picked it up for her book. Hu Gongmian, who was possibly responsible for saving Chiang Kai-shek during the 1926 Zhongshanjian Warship Incident and had renounced the Communist membership during 1927 Purge, was fetched by the Communists for a persuasion against Hu Zongnan before the Ankang Campaign which would be hundreds of battles and campaigns ignored by the history and historians up to today. Though Jung Chang had provided an impressive bibliography of hundreds of books, this webmaster is utterly convinced that Jung Chang did not read Xu Zhen's book on Hu Zongnan but just the specific pages. Jung Chang's bibli, however, had listed the Chinese Communist side of the boastful and untruthful claims as to Peng Dehuai's three victories against Hu Zongnan as well as the so-called empty Yenan at the time Hu Zongnan sacked the Communist base. The fallacy of Luding Iron Chain Bridge being refuted by this webmaster separately, Jung Chang had committed the same mistake as the rest in repeating and ascertaining a so-called American 3 billion aid to Nationalist China, which this webmaster had discounted as "Acheson 2 Billion Crap", as well as the fake numbers of the Communist troops at the time of Japan surrender.
 
Jung Chang called four names, Zhang Zhizhong, Shao Lizi, Hu Zongnan and Wei Lihuang, as communist spies. As numerous people recalled in their memoirs, Zhang Zhizhong appeared to be the only person daring to call Chiang Kai-shek by "Mr. Chiang" in post-1949 Communist China. However, Zhang Zhizhong, taking himself to be an erudite, repeatedly fell short of expectations. At the Battle of Shanghai in 1937, Zhang took a bike to the front to avoid the Japanese plane bombing, and later found an excuse to go to the hind to report to Chiang Kai-shek while people were looking for him at the front, which led to a rebuke from Chiang Kai-shek over the phone. Zhang then further had dereliction of duty while being empowered as chair of Hunan Province, under whose jurisdiction the scorched-earth policy was mal-executed in Changsha. However, we could not blame Zhang Zhizhong 100% for his being blindsided by the communist propaganda. The agriculturalist Liang Su-ming, i.e, China's last Confucian, for another example, was hoodwinked by the communists even though he himself walked across Japan-occupied territories to have witnessed the communist brigands' killing of his student-desciples who were waging guerrilla war against the Japanese behind the enemy's line. (Yang Xiufeng, an Europe/Moscow-returnee who later in 1947/8 ran the communist People's University to vivisect live government army captives [including one young Burma battle veteran who walked to the west from coastal Zhejiang as a teenager during the 1937 China's Dunkirk Retreat and did not return home to see his mother for next 12 years], was one such most notorious dupe who in 1935 returned to China to instigate anti-government activities in Tientsin, took advantage of the Ho-Umezu Agreement to rebuild the communist cells in North China, and from 1937 onward was responsible for the communist administration in Japan-occupied territories of North China. Unfortunately for numerous R.O.C. officials and officers, their cognizance of the monstrous nature of communists came too late, often at the time of massive executions in 1950s.)
 
For further comments on the validity of accusations against "four moles", please see Jung Chang's accusations against Zhang Zhizhong, Shao Lizi, Hu Zongnan and Wei Lihuang.

* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
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Republican China in Blog Format

 
Meantime, Peng Dehuai's 50,000 Communist troops, after two months' political studies, made stealthy march towards Yichuan on Feb 23rd. The plan was to lay siege of the Nationalist Army 24th Brigade at Yichuan while ambushing Hu Zongnan's relief armies of four brigades at the Wazijie Valley next to Yichuan. The Communist troops, totaling 80,000, including troops from Shanxi Province across the Yellow River, dealt a total defeat onto Hu Zongnan's troops of about 28000. By March 2nd, the campaign was over with the fall of Yichuan which was defended by nthe ewly-organized Nationalist Army 24th Brigade which nevertheless inflicted a casualty of close to over 6000 onto the Communist troops. Hu Zongnan, absent his 1st Corps [which was routed to the Henan battlefield under the order of the undercover communist tactician at the defense department in Nanking], could merely wait to watch in agony the annihilation of Liu Kan's 29th Corps by the Communist troops. 27th Division Chief Wang Yingzun and two brigade chiefs escaped alive.
 
Campaign of the Jing-he & Wei-he Rivers
To build on top of the Yichuan Campaign, the Communist troops consecutively launched the Campaign of Jing-he & Weihe Rivers. Hu Zongnan promptly withdrew the 17th Division from Yenan. Two brigades of the Nationalist Army R65D were airlifted to Xi'an from Shandong Province. The Youth Army, which was disbanded at the time of the Japanese surrender, was invoked for defending the Jing-he River. The armies which were sent to Henan Province per undercover communist agent Liu Fei's order were recalled. After seventeen days of fighting, Hu Zongnan's army inflicted a casualty of 27000 onto Peng Dehuai's communist troops and captured 3800 prisoners of war. The situation in eastern Gansu Province and southern Shenxi Province hence stabilized.
 
Tactician Sheng Wen, being called to Nanking, was cleared of the wrongdoings after Chiang Kai-shek ascertained i) that it was the Defense Department which had relocated three divisions to Henan Province and ii) that it was the Defense Department which ordered the defense and relief of Yichuan. At one time, Chiang Kai-shek rebuked Sheng Wen as to the accusation that Liu Fei had acted like a Communist spy, saying how could his tactician of 11 years be a Communist.
 

 
 
Fu Zuoyi's Campaigns of Suiyuan, Datong, Jining, Ji-zhong & Zhangjiakou
 

 

 
 
Jiangsu-Shandong Battleground
 
With the June 1946 eruption of war resulting from Li Xiannian's scurrying for the Qin-ling Ridge from Henan-Hubei Provincial borderline, the Nationalist government issued a general attack by pushing northward towards the Long-Hai Railway from the Yangtze River, from Hankou of Hubei Province to Nanking-Shanghai. Per Mao Sen, Chiang Kai-shek personally went to Zhenjiang for directing the campaign. Tang Enbo, empowered as the commander of the 1st Army Group, was ordered to push across the Yangtze into Communist-held northern Jiangsu Province on July 12th. The troops consisted of those formerly from Gu Zhutong's 3rd War Zone [the 25th Division] and Wang Yaowu's 4th Front Army [the 73rd, 83rd & 11th Divisions], not Tang Enbo's original 3rd Front Army. The communists, who had sent the so-called crack 8RA and N4A troops to Manchuria in 1945, had rebuilt the troops in Shandong and Jiangsu by utilizing the one-year truce time.
 
The Campaign of Northern Jiangsu Province
On the 13th, Hu Lian's 11th Division, departing from Nantong in the east, engaged in fierce battles with the Communist troops at Baipu, while Huang Baitao's 25th Division fought against the Communist troops at Shaobo, about 15 kilometers to the north of Yangzhou. Shaobo, termed the "Iron Southern Heavenly Gate" by the Communists, was sacked by Huang Baitao in collaboration with Chen Shizhang per Mao Sen. On the 14th, Zhang Lingfu's 74th Division, i.e., the middle prong, encountered the Communist troops at Taixing. The first round of battles cost the Nationalist armies the defeat of the 118th [?brigade] from the 11th Division [formerly Chen Cheng's 18th Corps] and two regiments of the 56th Brigade from the 83rd Division.
 
After Shaobo, Huang Baitao's 25th Division parted with the 83rd Division for Xinghua to the northeastern direction, while the 83rd Division continued north along the Canal. By late July, the 83rd Division arrived at Gaoyou after a small battle. By the middle of August, Ding Zhipan's 6th Division incurred half loss at several villages to the east of Rugao, while two transportation police contingents, with trucks and motorcycles, were completely overwhelmed by the Communist troops.
 
After passing the Gaoyou-Xinghua-Dongtai line, the Nationalist troops no longer encountered any significant Communist forces. Near Liucang and Wuyou towns, to the south of Yancheng, the 25th Division fought against the Communists for half a month. While the 25th Division sacked Yancheng to the east, the 74th Division pushed against the Canal city Huaiyin to the west. On Sept 6th, Zhang Lingfu's 74th Division began to attack the heavily-fortified and trenched city. Then, two brigades of the 74th Division detached to attack Lianshui to the northeast. Lianshui was held at a casualty of about half on the part of the two brigades. Meanwhile, Huaiyin fell after ten days' bombardment, with a few Communist prisoners caught alive. Mao Sen, in his recollections, pointed out that Zhang Lingfu had replenished his troops with few thousand Communist soldiers who had turned their guns at the Battle of Menglianggu in May 1947. At Huaiyin, Tang Enbo's Army Group celebrated the Oct 10th National Day.
 
Battle of Caozhou
 
Li Mi's Campaign Along Qingdao-Jinan Railway
 
Battle of Laiwu
Ou Zhen's army group, with about eight divisions, pushed north against Linyi from Taierzhuang, Xinan-zhen and Chengdou. From the north, the Nationalist troops departed Ji'nan the provincial capital, including Li Xianzhou's divisions of the 73rd, R46D, 12th & 96th [96 ???? not listed in caibing baijiang pp 984]. Haan Liancheng's R46D, which was formerly Xia Wei's Guangxi Province Army, had just arrived in Qingdao in Jan 1947 and then transported to Boshan via the Qingdao-Jinan Railway.
 
On Feb 15th, Chen Yi & Su Yu abandoned Linyi, i.e., the Yenan Minor. The Communist forces, after the frustrations in the defense wars, had adopted the strategy of "mobile warfare" and "sudden assault warfare". On Feb 18th, the communist East China Field Army issued the No. 4 Order to attack Li Xianzhou's troops by calling the Communist 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th "zong dui" and the local auxiliary force. [The Communist propaganda claimed to have mobilized three "zong dui" for the Laiwu Campaign.]
 
To the northeast direction, Wang Jianan and Xu Shiyou launched a general attack at the Nationalist Army 77th Division and killed Tian Junjian during battle. On the night of the 22nd, the Communist force launched a general attack at Laiwu. The R46D engaged with the Communist 2nd & 7th "zong dui" in a hell of fire on the mountains and hills to the south of Laiwu. Li Xianzhou, after watching the fight on the citywall, then ordered a pullback of the R46D to the north bank of the Ru-he River so as to induce the Communist force to the river area for an annihilation. Once the Communist force was half crossing the river, Li Xianzhou ordered a bombardment and then have troops on the citywall and on the north bank launch a counterattack. Part of the 73rd Corps charged out of the city to fight the Communist force on the two banks of the river. After one night's fighting, the Communist force retreated back to the hills. At the west gate, the Communist force launched several unsuccessful attacks. To the northwest of Laiwu would be two hilltops, the western one of which was lost to the Communist force at midnight. Li Xianzhou dispatched portion of the 73rd Corps to circumvent to the northwest of the western hilltop for recovering the hilltop. By dawn of the 23rd, Li Xianzhou's troops wrestled back the hilltop under the cannon support. Then, Li Xianzhou ordered the evacuation by having the 73rd Corps and R46D retreat towards Tusikou along two Laiwu-Tusikou highways.
 
En route, undercover communist Haan Liancheng slipped away to hide himself in a blockhouse together with Yang Side, a Communist agent sent over to the R46D as a staff tactician. Shortly after vacating Laiwu, Airforce Deputy Commander Wang Shuming informed Li Xianzhou over the plane radio that the Communist forces were converging upon Tusikou. Back at Laiwu, the Communist 4th "zong dui" filled in the vacuum at noon. One hour later, the Communist forces descended upon Li Xianzhou's troops in a human wave attack. Li Xianzhou, having received a shot in the leg, passed out before finding himself among the soldiers shepherded by the Communist force. After four hours' fighting, 73rd Corps Chief and Deputy Chief Haan Junn and Li Yan, Division Chief Yang Ming & Xiao Chongguang all became the Communist prisoners of war. 175th Brigade Chief Gan Chengcheng of the 46th Division was caught alive while fleeing on a horse. Only N36D Chief Cao Zhenduo managed to flee from the battleground.
 
55th Regiment Chief Guan Yuheng from the N19D under the R46D, being left behind by the Communist force over battle wounds after an offer of some Communist currency, managed to walk five kilometers to the southwest where he encountered R25D Chief Huang Baitao. After arriving in Xuzhou, Guan Yuheng was escorted along to Bengbu of Anhui Province where Xia Wei was director of the 8th Pacification Region. Unexpectedly, Guan Yuheng found out that Haan Liancheng had arrived at Bengbu ahead of him, and then in Nanking, Haan Liancheng made arrangement for Guan Yuheng to stay in a hospital and then ship him to hometown in Guangxi Province. Haan Liancheng, after faking his story of 400 kilometer breakout, went to the Northwest where he continued his espionage activity on behalf of the Communist. It would be in early 1949 that the Guangxi clique figured out Haan Liancheng's liaison with the Communists when Hai Jingqiang, being one of the officers released as a show of goodwill for the 1948 peace talks, reported that Haan Liancheng was seeing him off at the Peking's airport. And, it would be during the 1960 amnesty that Li Xianzhou was told by Zhou Enlai of Haan Liancheng's Communist identity. (Haan Liancheng failed to lead R46D for an uprising because his three brigade chiefs, i.e., Hai Jingqiang [188B], Gan Chengcheng [175B] and Cao Wei [??? Jiang Xiong N19D], were either nephews of or related to Li Zongren & Bai Chongxi. However, Haan Liancheng, who disguised himself by begging Ma Hongkui for a pardon as to his desertation of the Northwestern Army over the Communist activity in early years, had deliberately requested with the National Defense Department for a Jan 1947 relocation to the Northern China battlefields from the Hainandao Island in the South under the Communist auspice. )
 
The Campaign of Linyi-Mengyin
On March 4th, 1947, Chiang Kai-shek revoked the pacification offices of Zhengzhou [Henan Province] and Xuzhou [Shandong Province], and conferred Gu Zhutong the post of commander for the Xuzhou Frontline Office of the Infantry General Command Center. Gu Zhutong's strategy would be to take control of southern Shandong Province and then press the Communist troops for a duel in central Shandong Province by taking advantage of Chen Yi's defeats at the Battle of Linyi and Liu Bocheng's defeats at the Battle of Yu-dong [eastern Henan Province].
 
By early April, Ou Zhen and Tang Enbo had cleared the Yanzhou-Linyi Highway, while Wang Jingjiu had cleared the Yanzhou-Jinan Segment of the Jin-Pu Railway and took control of Taian & Dawenkou. Chen Yi & Su Yu's Communist Eastern China Field Army, after measuring the distance between the three Nationalist army groups, attempted to launch an attack at Tang Enbo's 1st Army Group by relocating the communist troops to the south. Chen Yi & Su Yu then halted the southern move and turned the Communist troops to the Xintai-Mengyin area. On April 22nd, the Communist Eastern China Field Army attacked the Nationalist Army Reorganized 72nd Division at Taian, a city on the Jin-Pu Railway. Four days later, Taian was sacked. R72D Division Chief Yang Wenquan and 13th & 34th Brigade Chief Yang Bengu and Li Zeming were caught alive by the Communist troops.
 
On April 29th, Ou Zhen's 3rd Army Group took over Xintai and Mengyin. Separately, the R74D stationed at Jiebei-Mengyin Segment, and the R25D to the west of Yaoxu. The Communist Eastern China Field Army amassed four "zong dui" to attack the Nationalist armies at Qingtuoshi and Yaoxu. At Yaoxu, in-between Jiebei & Mengyin, Zhang Lingfu beat back waves of the Communist attacks by heavy cannons. On the southeastern tip of the Linyi-Mengyin Highway, however, about one and half regiments or 3000 soldiers from the R83D at Qingtuoshi, to the north of Linyi, were destroyed by the Communist troops.
 
The Battle Of Mt Menglianggu
Mao Sen, responsible for monitoring the morale of the Nationalist armies, had paid several visits to Zhang Lingfu. Mao Sen, in recollections while staying in HK dozen years later, had commented that Nanking had ignored the status passed on by Tang Enbo, and further pointed out that some people had said that it was the 3rd Division Head [i.e., undercover communist agent Liu Fei] of the Defense Department who had ordered Zhang Lingfu to death.
 
When Zhang Lingfu was ordered to cross the Wen-shui River for attacking Danbu, a town across the Jiehu Lake to the northeast, he complained to Mao Sen that someone wanted him dead. Mao Sen did not see the full order of the Menglianggu Campaign till the eve. Days earlier, Mao Sen had arrested quite some plaincoated people in the caves near Menglianggu. Having inspected the surroundings, Mao Sen determined that the road to Danbu was too capricious for Zhang Lingfu to take since there was no way to pull the heavy cannons across the mountain roads, not to mention to chisel or dig holdouts on the way. The Defense Department, however, further ordered that Li Tianxia, who was to the southwest of Mt Menglianggu, be the direct cover for Zhang Lingfu; Zhang Fu's Guangxi Province Army was ordered to travel 40 kilometers to the Jiehu Lake direction as the rightside cover from Tangdouzhen near Linyi; and Huang Baitao go to northern Yaoxu from Mengyin as the leftside cover. The geography on the map did not take into consideration the terrain on the ground.
 
Knowing that 200000 Communist troops were lurking in the Danbu area, Mao Sen immediately told Tang Enbo that Li Tianxia definitely could not cross the mountain to lend any aid to Zhang Lingfu whereas Huang Baitao, risking the loss of Mengyin, might not be able to penetrate the deep valley road from Mengyin to Taoxu to Duozhang. Tang Enbo immediately called Liu Fei at the Defense Department. Liu Fei replied that Chiang Kai-shek had already slept. Tang Enbo then called Gu Zhutong in Xuzhou. Gu Zhutong replied that Nanking's orders had been relayed to the division level and everybody just followed order in the morning. Tang Enbo, deeply worried about the situation, sent Mao Sen and deputy commander Li Yannian to the front. At dawn, Mao and Li rode on two trucks for Zhang Lingfu's troops. At the Y-shaped intersection at Duozhuang, Mao Sen made a phonecall to Zhang Lingfu who informed him that he was already ambushed by the Communist troops while crossing the Wen-shui River and that about ten Communist "zong dui" were encircling him, with one Communist prong going straight towards Duozhuang. Zhang Lingfu told Mao & Li to vacate Duozhuang immediately or converge towards him should the Communist troops cut off the return path at Duozhuang.
 
On the Shandong Peninsula, the CCP Eastern China Field Army (i.e., the original New Fourth Army under Commander Chen Yi), headed by Su Yu, launched an elimination campaign against Zhang Lingfu's 74th Division with advance information from both spies inside of the Nationalist Defense Department and on the ground. Five "zong dui" were to lay siege of Zhang Lingfu, while another four "zong dui" were to impede the Nationalist Army relief at Duozhuang. Zhang Lingfu was attacked right after he began to cross the Wen-shui River. On May 14th, Su Yu forced Zhang Lingfu onto Mt Menglianggu. Zhang Lingfu, while defending on the barren mountains, also suggested that the Nationalist armies converge upon Mt Menglianggu for a counter-encirclement. On May 15th, Li Tianxi and Huang Baitao still failed to get close to Zhang Lingfu. At 1:00 pm, on May 15th, the Communist forces launched a general attack. The Communist mortar caused heavy casualties onto the 74th Division with shrapnel and flying stones, while Zhang Lingfu's cannon-pulling horses ran loose. Almost every hilltops changed hands numerous times. By the afternoon of the 16th, Zhang Lingfu's remnants had held out on few hilltops. Communist commander Chen Yi personally called the frontline commanders to exert the full communist manpower to the battle, with a promise to refurnish any number of lost communist troops. The Communists, claiming a force of 100,000, totally destroyed 32,000 Government troops. Zhang Lingfu, and top lieutenants Cai Renjie and Lu Xing who followed Zhang Lingfu since the 1937 resistance wars, all committed suicide. Communist general Pi Dingjun was said to have buried Zhang Lingfu in a coffin. After the battle, Chen Yi was said to have commented on the communist casualties in saying that this was not a job for a man born by a mother. Right after destroying the 74th Division, the Communist troops retreated to the north. Mao Sen, at the battlefield, collected several thousand wounded soldiers. After Mao Sen submitted the drawings of the battlefield to Chiang Kai-shek, Li Tianxia was spared a court martial. Chiang Kai-shek, in deep remorse, renamed one of the British bribery warships by the name of Lingfu. (The British gave Chiang warships to put off China's demand for recovering Hongkong.)
 
The Communist Guerrilla War In Southern Shandong
 
The Battle Of Nanma
After the Menglianggu debacle, Chiang Kai-shek asked Deng Wenyi and Huang Jie to hold a regiment-level reflection session at the Nationalist Central Training School in Nanking. A three-prong Mt Yimengshan Campaign was launched to counter-attack Chen Yi's Communist troops for avenging on Zhang Lingfu's death. The Nationalist Army troops, despite two months of rains, continued to engage with and defeated the Communist troops.
 
In mid-July 1947, Chen Yi & Su Yu's Communist troops, taking advantage of the Nationalist army's troop relocation, decided to seek out one of the four remaining Nationalist Army reorganized divisions [9th, 11th, 25th & 64th] in the area for an elimination campaign by combining four "zong dui" [the 2nd, 6th, 7th & 9th], Chen Ruiting's special task "zong dui" [i.e., the cannons or in some cases the checmical weapons corps] and some regiments from the Communist Lu-zhong & Bohai military districts in Yishui-Yiyuan-Linqu area.
 
After taking Nanma on July 8th, a city next to the northern bank of the Yi-shui River, Hu Lian's Nationalist Army 11th Division was ordered to dig in around the city, construct thousands of block houses and below-ground traffic trenches, and clear out the surrounding buildings and crops. By dusk of July 17th, the Communist 2nd, 6th & 9th and cannons "zong dui" surrounded Nanma completely. On the 21st, knowing the coming relief of the Nationalist Army divisions of the 5th [Qiu Qingquan], 9th [Wang Lingyun], 25th [Huang Baitao], 64th [Huang Guoliang] and 75th [Shen Chengnian], Hu Lian organized a counter-attack to disrupt the Communist plan of a general attack. At dusk, Su Yu called off the communist siege of Nanma for a flee towards Linqu. During the Nanma Campaign, the Nationalist Army troops inflicted a casualty of 20000 onto the Communist side and caught alive 3000 Communist soldiers.
 
The Battle of Linqu
While the bulk of the Nationalist Army troops chased them towards the north, Li Mi's two brigades were ordered to come south from the Qingdao-Jinan Railway overnight and hinder the Communist troops by occupying the city of Linqu, a city just to the south of Qingzhou and the Qingdao-Jinan Railway. The Communist East China Field Army, totaling over 100,000, fought against Li Mi's R8D of about six regiments for the escape path.
 
At Linqu, the 3rd Battalion from the 308th Regiment of the 103rd Brigade, headed by Zhang Dechong, defended Mt Qushan which was to the south of the county capital over the Mi-he River. After round-of-the clock charge on the 27th, the Communist 19th Division abandoned the Mt Qushan target in lieu of committing the remnant 57th Regiment to the battle. Inside of Linqu, the 5th Division of the Communist 2nd "zong dui" breached into the city. After heavy lane-to-lane fighting for three days and three nights, the Communist troops, including 14th Deputy Battalion Chief Song Yannian of the Communist 5th Division, surrendered to Li Mi's Nationalist Army 8th Division.
 
Deng Wenyi, via a stop at Weixian, arrived at Linqu by plane to express solicitude to Li Mi's army. Outside of Linqu where thousands of the Communist soldiers' corpses still scattered unburied, Deng Wenyi met with the Nationalist Army troops which came from Mt Yimengshan, and then followed the Nationalist Army troops to the north for one month. Deng Wenyi, after checking with the locals, confirmed that the Communist troops, having incurred a casualty of over 10,000, had mobilized tens of thousands of shoulder-pole carriers for moving their wounded towards the Yellow River bank for consecutive days. Deng Wenyi suggested to Nanking to have the troops continue the push against the Communist troops at the Yellow River bank; however, Nanking never replied to endorse the chase. Chen Yi's Communist troops, other than a portion which fled towards eastern Shandong coast, crossed the Yellow River without harassment. Three months later, with the refilled-up rank and file, Chen Yi came back south to harass the Jin-Pu and Long-Hai Railways.
 
Huang Baitao Digging Up the Communist Underground Warehouses Stacked With the American Commodities (likely Stalin's August Storm goodies that were shipped over to China proper by the communists over the seas from North Korea or Dairen)
4000 bales of American cotton, with each package weighing 200 pounds between Xintai and Laiwu
piles of nitre and sulfur, was made at Jiangyu Valley in Changle, between Qingzhou and Weixian [Weifang].
brand new made-in-USA tires
large bundles of Communist currency from "North Sea Bank" and postal stamps from Communist "Shandong Military District"
In Fushan county, over 700 gold nuggets, weighing ten Chinese ounces, were located from double-walled hideout.
In Qixia-Penglai area, underground warehouse of shirts of wool and woolen fabric
After shirts would be American-made blue khaki clothes with slanted stripes and a red circle on the back, which was later construed to be possibly designed by Americans for having Japanese prisoners of war to wear.
From Qixia to Penglai, to Mouping, and to Fushan, more American goods were found, including American military caps for cold weather, nylon and flannel clothes, leather jackets, and leather vests.
 
The Defense Battle At Weixian [Weifang]

 
Siege Of Jinan, Defection Of Wu Hualong & Demise of Wang Yaowu Group
In July of 1948, Li Yutang's 6th Pacification Region defended the Yanzhou city. The Communist 3rd Field Army, i.e., the formerly East China Field Army, assembled over 80,000 troops for an attack at the city, which consisted of the 7th, 9th & 13th "zong dui" in addition to Cui Ziming & Zhang Guangzhong's Communist military district forces.
 
In August, Wang Yaowu, whose War Section Chief Liao Weiwen was a Communist mole, frantically relocated Wu Huawen's R84D to the provincial capital from Yanzhou. The Communist side then devised a strategy of encircling Yanzhou while ambushing the Nationalist relief army from Jinan. Over eight Communist "zong dui" were dispatched to the Yanzhou-Lincheng area, while about seven Communist "zong dui" encircled Ji'nan the provincial city of Shandong. Before Wu Hualong could arrive at Yanzhou, the Communists sacked the city, caught Huo Shouyi alive, and took hostage of the family members of Wu Hualong's troops. After the loss of Yanzhou, Wang Yaowu was in danger at the isolated Jinan city. Wu Huawen was asked to return to Jinan for the city defense. Nanking sent a telegram to Wang Yaowu on Sept 14th with information that Wu Hualong might defect to the Communist side. Wu Huawen, a filial son, had been forced to submit to the Japanese after the puppets and the Japanese caught Wu Huawen's family members to force a surrender during WWII. Wang Yaowu, upon receipt of the telegram, sought for opinions with his Third Section [i.e., War Section] Chief Liao Weiwen. Liao Weiwen immediately departed for the airport with the original telegram and military documents to instigate Wu Huawen into an immediate defection as Nanking's message would force him to stop wavering. By noon of Sept 16th, Wu Huawen agreed to the defection and moved his troops away from the airport for Southwestern Shandong Province. The Communist force, after taking over the airport and railway and highway points, then launched a general attack at Ji'nan on the night. (Wu Hualong, whose army later crossed the Yangtze to occupy the Presidential Palace in Nanking, would see his 20,000 troops perish on the seas on the occasion of attacking the Zhoushan Islands via wooden boats in July of 1949.)
 
By the night of the 17th, the constabulary force and gentry-organized force defending the city perimeter were defeated by the Communists. On the 18th, a plane with one Nationalist Army Regiment turned around after failing to get in touch with the Ji'nan Airport. With the outside aid cut, Wang Yaowu stubbornly persisted in the city defense till Sept 22nd. With the citywall broken on Sept 24th, Wang Yaowu was caught alive while sneaking out dressed as a civilian. Numerous memoirs recalled the communist troops' corpses stacking up to the city wall in the stroming of Ji'nan. In any case, the communists had laid siege of cities like Taiyuan, Anyang and Changchun etc by months and years. In the case of Changchun, the communist blockade led to starvation death of hundreds of thousands of people. It would be the Soviet-suplied artilleries that played the role in the communist victory over the nationalist army troops, namely, the flowers of China and the valiant defenders of the nation throughout the eight year resistance wars. The communist troops, if you don'[t know, were mere raw peasants forced into the amry through the terror land reform movements.
 
The Battle Of Laishui
 

 
 
The Presidential Election & Constitutional Government
 
Crony Embezzlement & Larceny

 
The Presidential Election
 

 
 
The Central Plains Battlegrounds
 
The Communist Siege Of Kaifeng & Luoyang
 
Retaking Kaifeng From Communist
 
Yu-dong [Eastern Henan] Campaign
Liu Zhi ordered that Liu Ruming and Sun Zhen hastily went to the relief of Kaifeng which was recovered on June 26th. Liu Bocheng fled to the south, while Chen Yi fled to the west. At Tiefusi and Tongwangdian area, to the north of Suixian county of Henan Province, Chen Yi encircled 6th Pacification Deputy Commander Ou Shounian's R72D, R75D and New 21st Brigade. Liu Zhi ordered the 5th Corps and R83D to the relief via Lanfeng and Qixian, but Liu Bocheng's Communist force managed to block the way and slow down the pace. Liu Zhi then ordered that Huang Baitao's Army Group, which was originally destined for the Yanzhou relief, turn around for the west to attack Liu Bocheng and Chen Yi's Communist force in cooperation with Qiu Qingquan. On July 2nd, Huang Baitao's army group, being encircled by the Communist force upon arrival at Diqiudian to the north of Suixian, fought their way into the Communist line by inflicting heavy casualty onto the communist side. Then, Huang Baitao attacked the flank of the Communist force which was facing Qiu Qingquan's army in the frontal confrontation. On July 4th, the Communist force collapsed in Suixian and Qixian counties. Wang Baitao, for his feats in the Yu-dong [Eastern Henan] Campaign, was conferred the Medal of Blue Sky and White Sun.
 
Retreat Of 5000 Henan University Professors & Students From Kaifeng To Bengbu
 
Abandoning Zhengzhou & Kaifeng For Xuzhou
 

 
 
The Xu-Beng Campaign
 
Zhang Kexia & Heh Jifen Steering Away 30000 Troops To Communist Side
 
Liu Ruming Winning Over Sun Liangcheng From Communist Captivity
 
Xu-Beng Campaign [Huai-Hai Campaign]
 
Destruction of Huang Baitao Army Group Around the Canal
 
Destruction of Huang Wei Army Group
 
Destruction of Qiu Qingquan Army Group
 
Destruction of Du Yuming Army Group
 
Communist Huai-Hai Campaign [Modified : Saturday, 05-May-2007 17:13:41 EDT]
 
 
The Ping-Jin Campaign
 
The Bloody Siege Of Tianjin 14 Hours Ahead Of Ultimatum
 
Communists Sacking Zhangjiakou
 
Fu Zuoyi Defecting To Communist Camp After Failing To Extract "Coalition Government"

 
Communist Ping-Jin Campaign [Modified : Friday, 12-May-2006 11:47:47 EDT]
 

 
TEN TRAINS EQUIVALENT AMERICAN LEND-LEASE WEAPONS THAT STALIN & RUSSIANS GAVE TO MAO & CHINESE CommunistS;
FORTY SHIPS EQUIVALENT QUANTITY OF TANKS & CANNONS, BOTH AMERICAN-MADE & JAPAN-MADE
3300 TONS OF PETROL FROM RUSSIANS IN 1947 ALONE; PLUS 2000 TONS OF DIESEL, 1000 TONS OF PLANE FUEL, & 2000 TONS OF MACHINERY OIL
DEATH OF MILLIONS OF YELLOW MEN, & POSSIBLY MORE IN THE FUTURE WAR AGAINST TAIWAN !!!!!

 
 
The Northwestern Battleground
 
Battle Of Linfen
 
Battle of Dali
By Oct 1948, Peng Dehuai's Communist troops, having recovered from the loss from Wei-he & Jing-he Campaign, mounted a north-of-Weihe-River campaign. On 6th, Communist troops crossed Luo-he River, with a plan to destroy Hu Zongnan's troops in the triangle area between the Luo-he River and the Yellow River and then link up with Chen Geng's Communist troops in Shanxi Province. On 10th, Hu Zongnan sent right and left prongs of armies to encircle the Communist troops. On 11th, fighting broke out at Renyicun, Xiqudou, Lijiapo & Dahaoying. Xu Zhen claimed that Nationalist Army troops, at own casualty of 10000 and death of 78th Deputy Division Chief Jing Chunjian, had inflicted a casualty of 30,000 onto Communist troops. Communist 1st "zong dui" was badly mauled while 2nd "zong dui" decimated.
 

 
 
Li Zongren's Peace Talks & Communist Yangtze Crossing
 
Communist Yangtze Campaign [Modified : Friday, 12-May-2006 11:47:41 EDT]
 
The KMT-CCP Peace Talk
 
Moving Gold, Silver & Foreign Currency To Taiwan - 2,600,000 ounces - Taipei; 900,000 ounces - Amoy; 380,000 ounces - USA; 200,000 ounces - Shanghai
 
Departing Nanking the Capital

 
Attacking Pukou Ahead Of Peace Talk Breakup & Crossing Yangtze

 

 
 
The Shanxi Battleground
 
The Battle Of Taiyuan
 

 
 
The Continuous Northwestern Campaign
 
The Campaign of Wugong
In mid-Nov 1948, Peng Dehuai's Communist troops came south again, attacked Weizhuang and laid siege of Yongfeng. On Feb 14th, Hu Zongnan withdrew his bulk of forces to the south of Wei-he River while leaving one division at Dali. On 24th, Hu Zongnan devised the defense plan of making Luqiao-Sanyuan the rightside position and Koudouzhen [Kouzhen] leftside position. On 27th, Communist troops attacked Koudouzhen and destroyed Zhu Jingya's division. On March 6th, Hu Zongnan ordered that 38th Corps and 135th Division attack Koudouzhen. On 11th, 90th Corps recovered Yaoxian county. On 17th, Tongchuan & Pucheng were recovered.
 
With Nanking lost to the Communists, Hu Zongnan abandoned Tongchuan and Pucheng for the south of Wei-shui & Jing-shui Rivers on April 26th 1949. Peng Dehuai's 1st & 2nd Army Groups attacked south, and on May 16th. On the night, Peng Dehuai crossed the Jing-he River, breached 65th Corps' defense positions, and pushed to northern Xianyang area. Meanwhile, Communist 18th & 19th Army Groups crossed the Yellow River at Tongguan and Hancheng, respectively. Hu Zongnan and Lanzhou office devised a plan to induce the Communist troops to Baoji area for a duel. The Defense Department approved the plan to fight Communist troops at Jing-he & Wei-he River Plains subsequently. At dawn of May 18th, Xi'an Pacification Office withdrew from Xi'an for Hanzhong. 17th Corps and Xi'an Garrison Commander Yang Deliang were left for city defense. By the afternoon, Communist troops took over Xianyang. On 19th, Communist troops mounted attacks at Xi'an. 17th Corps defended the city for two days and then evacuated towards Qin-ling Ridge.
 
Hu Zongnan planned to destroy Peng Dehuai's troops near Wugong area before Heh Long and other Communist reinforcements came over. Hu Zongnan obtained the cooperation of Ma Family's Long-dong Army Group and Ningxia Army Group in pincer-attacking Peng Dehuai's Communist troops. On 14th, Nationalist Army troops north of Wei-he River had recovered Wugong city. To the southeast of Xi'an, Sheng Wen's 3rd Corps, with 17th, 84th & 354th Divisions, defeated Communist 60th Corps to the north of Qin-ling Ridge from Duqu direction and closed in towards the east and south gates of Xi'an. With Communist troops crossing Wei-he River to the south, Li Zhen's 18th Army Group failed to push to Huxian county for encircling Xi'an. At Xi'an, Communist reinforcements from Hancheng & Tongguan converged with troops which came south from north of Jing-he River. On June 20th, Long-dong Army Group, after a defeat around Jing-he River, retreated towards Lingtai. On 25th, Ningxia Army Group retreated towards Binzhou without advance notice to Hu Zongnan. Hu Zongnan's troops on both banks of Wei-he River were hence surrounded by Communist troops. On July 11th, Peng Dehuai & Heh Long's Communist troops circumvented to Fufeng to attack Li Zhen's 18th Army Group.
 
During the Wugong Campaign, Hu Zongnan's troops, i.e., 65th, 69th, 36th, 38th & 90th Corps, incurred over half casualty. 144th Division Chief Fu Shufeng was killed in battle. 65th Deputy Corps Chief Zhang Shen, 165th Division Chief Sun Tieying, and 55th Division Chief Cao Weihan & Deputy Division Chief Shi Difei were seriously wounded.
 
The Battle Of Pingliang By Ma Hongkui's Ningxia Army Group
 

 
 
The Last Push by the Communist Army
 
The Campaign of Ankang
Communist troops, in lieu of attacking Qin-ling Ridge, went around to attack Ankang area from east, i.e., Shenxi-Hubei provincial borderline. On July 5th, about nine divisions equivalent of Liu Bocheng's Central Plains Communist troops, including Kong Congzhou's 17th Corps, Liu Jinxuan's 19th Corps, and Independent 142nd, 143rd & 144th Divisions of Western Hubei Military District, mounted attacks at Li Zhengxian's positions. By 17th, Communist troops sacked Zhushan, Zhuxi, Baihe, Xunyang & Pingli.
 
On 19th, Sheng Wen arrived at the west bank of Ankang, and ordered that 31st Division of 27th Corps defend Ankang city while 69th & 98th Corps defend the west and north banks of Han-shui River. At dawn of July 21st, 27th, 69th & 98th Corps crossed the Han-shui River to the south for a counter-attack.
 
On Aug 5th, Xunyang-Baihe-Zhushan-Zhuxi-Pingi counties were recovered. From July 21st to Aug 5th, Hu Zongnan's troops killed 5000, wounded about 9000, and captured alive 2700 Communist troops at an own casualty of 3100 and the deaths of three battalion chiefs. After the battle, 27th & 69th Corps could only reorganize as one division, respectively, while 98th Corps was reorganized into four regiments, only.
 
The Battle Of Lanzhou
 
The Battle Of Ningxia
 
The Battle Of Wuhan
 
Cheng Qian & Chen Mingren Defecting To Communist Camp
 
Bai Chongxi Hitting Back At Communist Forces At Qingshuping Ambush In Hunan Province
 
Chiang Kai-shek Frustrating Guangdong-Guangxi Defense By Withdrawing Forces to Hainan Island
 
The Battle of Chongqing
 
The Battle of Chengdu
 
The Battle of Xichang
 
The Campaign Of the Northwest
 
The Campaign Of the Southwest
 
Communist Marching To New Dominion Province
 
Defection of Government troops In Chinese Turkistan & Loyalists' Trek Through The Pamirs
 
Defection Of Lu Han In Yunnan Province For Rescuing Lu Junquan From Communist Captivity
 
The Battle Of Canton
 
The Battle Of Zhoushan Islands
 
The Battle of Amoy
 
The Battle of Quemoy
 
Chasing Towards Burma & Vietnam
 
KMT Guerilla Fighting In Sichuan & Yunnan Provinces
 
Retreat To Keetung & Communist Cession of the Golden Triangle To Burma
 
The Battle Of Hainan Island
 
Abandoning Zhoushan Island
 
Hu Zongnan's Guerilla Warfare Against the Coast
 
Abandoning Dachendao Island & the American Attempt At Stirring up the Third Force and Making Taiwan A Trustee Country
 
 

 

 


 
The Korean War: 6/25/1950 - 7/27/1953
 

 
The Vietnamese War
 
 

 
 
TO BE CONTINUED !
Armed Uprisings Against Manchu Qing Dynasty
Song Jiaoren's Death & Second Revolution
The Republic Restoration Wars
The Wars For Protecting 'Interim Agreed-Upon Laws'
Civil Wars Among Northern Warlords
Guangdong-Guangxi War & Sun Yat-sen's Return To Canton
Guangdong-Guangxi War & Li Zongren's Emergence
Li Zongren Quelling Guangxi Prov
Whampoa Academy & Chiang Kai-shek's Wars
Northern Expeditions & Unification Of China
Invasion Of Manchuria, Chaha'er & Jehol 1931-34
Mukden Incident - 9/18/1931 & Battle Of Jiangqiao
Shanghai Provocation - 1/28/1932
Battles of the Great Wall
China In Crises Of Internal Turmoils & Foreign Invasions
Japanese Invasion (1937-1945)
Marco Polo Bridge Incident & Battle of Tianjin-Peking
Campaign Of Nankou & Campaign of Xinkou
Air Battles Directed By Chenault & With Russian Pilots
Battles of Shanghai, Jiangyin, Si'an & Nanking Defence
Rape Of Nanking & The Great Rescue Of 1937
Eight Year Long Resistance War
Battles of Lanfeng, Wuhan, Nanchang, & Sui-Zao,
1st Changsha Battle, Kunlunguan, Wuyuan, & Zao-Yi,
Fatigue Bombing of Chongqing by Japanese
Aggression Against Vietnam & Southeast Asia
Yu-nan & E-bei, Shanggao, & Mt Zhongtiaoshan
2nd Changsha Battle, & Pacific Wars
3rd Changsha Battle, Zhe-Gan, Changde, & E-xi
Second Burma Campaign, & Phase II
[ revolution.htm & tragedy.htm]
Communist Armed Rebellions
Second Northern Expedition
War Of Chiang Kai-shek versus Gui-xi (March 1929)
War Of The Central Plains (May 1930)
Campaigns Against Communist Strongholds
The Long March
Xi'an Incident - Turning Point of Modern History
Demise Of Red Army Western Expedition
[ campaign.htm & terror.htm ] [ default page: war.htm ]

1945-1949 Civil War
Liao-Shen Campaign
Korean War
Vietnamese War
 
 
Written by Ah Xiang
 
 


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This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into a publication soon. The original plan for completion in year 2007 was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese traditions, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generations of the Chinese patriots, including to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thieve Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the goodness of the country.

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Republican China in Blog Format
Republican China in Blog Format
Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],