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Videos about China's Resistance War: The Battle of Shanghai & Nanking; Bombing of Chungking; The Burma Road (in English)
RED TERROR vs WHITE TERROR
China and the Chinese lived in 'Red Terror' since Peng Pai and Mao Tse-tung launched the rascal-proletariat peasant movements in 1927. Peng Pai had at one time claimed that the communist law would be simply the execution of landlords once they were caught. Mao Tse-tung, directly responsible for the rascal movement in Hunan Province in 1927, would be the red-handed culprits in the Purge of Anti-Bolshevik League during 1930-1931, the Purge of Trotskyites during 1937-1941, and the Rectification Movement during 1942-1945. Simply said, the CCP never stopped its bloody terror campaigns since inception in history, and its claws could be seen in the most recent crackdown on the Falungong practitioners. Wen Yu, in his 1994 book "The Leftist Catastrophe of China" (Cosmos Books Ltd., ISBN 9622577164, 1994, HK), summarized the leftist catastrophe of the Chinese Communist Party from 1927 armed uprisings (mutinies) to the 1978 Xidan Democracy Wall. Gao Hua, a Nanking University professor whose father fled the persecutions of the Cultural Revolution in Aug 1966, had presented the most comprehensive research into the communist red terror in the book "How Did the [Red] Sun Rise over Yan'an ? - A History of the Rectification Movement" (The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong, 2000 edition).
Dr. Sun Yat-sen, after 26 Jan 1923 Sun-Joffe Joint Declaration, had fallen into a de facto Soviet agent, sowing the seeds of struggles and conflict between the KMT and the CCP as well as the disasters of the Chinese people in the 20th century. In 1927, the Nationalist Party (i.e., the Kuomintang or the KMT), both the Right-Wing and the Left-Wing, purged or severed with the communists consecutively. In April, Chiang Kai-shek and Hu Hanmin's Nanking Government first initiated the purge of communists on the ground that the CCP had been pushing through the anti-imperialism agenda, intending to attack the foreign settlements to provoke a war between China and the foreign powers, organizing the armed workers' patrolling forces in Shanghai, acting as proxy of the USSR, and taking over control of the KMT government. In July, Wang Jingwei's Wuhan Government (i.e., the KMT Leftists) announced the separation of the KMT and the CCP under the pressure of the Nanking's government as well as internal opposition to the CCP's bloody land revolution in Hunan-Hubei Provinces. By late July of 1927, the CCP endorsed the armed rebellion which led to the August 1st Nanchang Mutiny. On August 7th, the two new Comintern representatives, who had come to replace Borodin and Roy, hosted the August 7th CCP Session and officially declared the start of the armed rebellion and land revolution (which was earlier suppressed by Borodin and Wang Jingwei for sake of appeasing the Wuhan military officials). The CCP deprived senior leader Chen Duxiu of the party leadership and claimed that China's revolution was not at the stage of the Russian 1905 Revolution but the Russian 1917 Revolution. Mao Tse-tung, who was dispatched to the Jiangxi-Hunan border area for organizing the Autumn Harvest Uprising (Mutiny), echoed the Comintern's opinion that China had reached the stage of the Russian 1917 Revolution. Bloody uprisings and crackdowns ensued, with the KMT and the CCP turning into sworn enemies till the CCP, with the full Soviet military and financial siupport, obtained full victory over the KMT in 1949.
Zhu Daonan, a CCP provincial leader in Shandong, wrote a book entitled "In The Torrents of The Grand Revolution" which was shot into movie "Da Lang Tao Sha" (i.e., Big Waves Washing the Sands). Zhu Daonan's account traced how he, with his Shandong natives (sworn brothers), left the Shandong Peninsula for southern China's revolutionary movements, witnessed the revocation of the British settlement in Hankow of Hubei Province, joined the Northern Expedition armies, underwent the KMT-CCP split in Wuhan of Hubei Province, joined Zhang Fakui's army for relocation to Nanchang of Jiangxi Province where the CCP staged the 'August 1st 1927 Nanchang Mutiny', rerouted towards Guangzhou (Canton) where the CCP staged the 'Guangzhou Canton (Mutiny)' under the leadership of Zhang Tailei, and finally retreated through the land of Haifeng and Lufeng where they tried to seek help from peasant sympathizers who once followed senior CCP leader Peng Pai. Zhu Daonan described how the two camps, i.e., the CCP [including the Communist Youth League members] vs the KMT members, constantly killed each other during sleep at night or when going to toilet at daylight, inside of the army camp. Sadly, patriotic and hot-blooded youth became the victims of ideological struggles.
The Peasant Revolution: Shen Dingyi, Peng Pai & Mao Tse-tung
On the matter of peasants, Mao Tse-tung (Mao Tse-tung) was not the only nor the first person who had heralded the peasants' movement. Per Harold Isaacs, "the peasants had also begun to stir and group themselves into organizations before the revived Kuomintang made its appearance in 1924. The modern Chinese peasant movement was cradled in Haifeng, in the East River districts of Kwangtung, by Peng Pai, one of the most appealing figures of the Chinese revolution." Peng Pai, similar to Mao, was born in a landlord's family. Peng Pai, originally a school teacher who lost his job due to leading his students on the May Day demonstration in 1921, joined the CCP and went back to the countryside where he organized the Haifeng Peasant Association. It was Guangdong military leader Chen Jiongming who time and again sponsored Peng Pai, first with money to send Peng Pai to Japan for studies, then with the appointment as county education official, and then with support for Peng Pai's communist activities in organizing the peasant associations that saw Peng Pai killing innumerable landlords and wealthy peasants in the coastal Haifeng and Lufeng area. Again, per Harold Isaacs, "thus begun, the organization spread rapidly to neighboring districts and the framework of a Kwangtung Provincial Peasant Association was already in existence before the middle of 1923... Peasant struggles against the landlords, against the magistrates, police, and soldiery, multiplied throughout the East River districts and ignited similar conflicts in the west and north of the province... Demands (for) reduction of land rent passed over almost immediately to demand for its total abolition. "
Per anthology "Seventy Year Wind & Cloud Records of CCP" (Chinese Periodical Publication Inc, San Gabriel, Calif, 1992 edition), the first peasant movement leader should be ascribed to Shen Dingyi who, a Shanghai CCP founder, donated his family fortune to the revolution and later returned to his native town of Yaqian-zhen Town, Xiaoshan-xian County, Zhejiang Province where he set up an elementary school and recruited 68-year-old peasant called Li Chenghu for establishing a peasant association on Sept 27th of 1921. Eight villages in Xiaoshan-Shaoxing area had imitated Yaqian in setting up the peasant associations within one month, with full set of Yaqian peasant association declaration and guidelines transcribed. The government cracked down on the peasants' movement for its demands like the "reduction in land rents", and Li Chenghu was arrested and tortured to death in prison on Jan 24th of 1922. The "New Youth" magazine and Shanghai newspapers had reports on this incident. (Shen Dingyi went on a four-person Dr Sun Yat-sen Delegation tour of the U.S.S.R. with Chiang Kai-shek. After communist leader Qu Qiubai seduced his daughter-in-law in 1924, Shen took another turn by joining the West Hill faction and joined the senior KMT leaders for a meeting in front of Sun Yat-sen's altar in Peking. Expelled from the CCP as well as disliked by Chiang Kai-shek's KMT, Shen Dingyi was assassinated in Aug 1928 under mysterious circumstances. See Keith Schoppa's "Blood Road: The Mystery of Shen Dingyi in Revolutionary China", Berkeley, 1995.)
Exploiting the land & peasant problems of China, Mao Tse-tung's Land Revolution (i.e., Peasant Revolution or Agrarian Revolution), which was supposed to strive for the happiness of the masses of people, had inflicted only pains on the Chinese peasants and enslaved the Chinese peasants into a caste of uneducated, obedient and poverty-stricken people who had been deprived of both their land and their right to leave the land. This caste society was covered in another section where we discussed the formation of 'agricultural cooperatives' three years after the victory of the communist revolution.
Beginning from late 1924, Mao Tse-tung delved himself into the peasants movement. Mao Tse-tung returned to his home-village, Shaoshan in Feb 1925, established a night school for peasants, organized peasant association, and set up the CCP Shaoshan Branch. Chen Yuansen stated that Mao Tse-tung, often depicted with an traditional Chinese oil-paper umbrella in early portraits, might have used the umbrella as a secret society signal in his tour of the countryside where he organized peasants into over twenty so-called 'peasant associations', a form of organization that was built upon the experiences of secret societies. Thereafter, Mao Tse-tung launched the movement of "stopping the landlords from exports of grains and forcing the landlords into disposal of grains to local peasants at the discounted price". When Hunan Governor-general Zhao Hengti cracked down on Mao's peasant associations, Mao Tse-tung, in Oct of 1925, fled to Canton where he worked under Wang Jingwei's KMT propaganda Ministry. (This episode about Mao Tse-tung's early activities in peasant associations could be a made-up. This webmaster read through the related writings about Mao, and found that Mao had in fact launched the anti-imperialism branches in commeoration of the 30 May 30 1925 nationwide protest movements against the Japanese and British imperialists. More, Mao sought shelter in hometown Shaoshan as a result of falling out of favor among the communists in the Shanghai party headquarters, not a mission as ordered by the CCP Central.)
In Canton, Mao Tse-tung wrote for the semi-monthly magazine "Revolution" an article entitled "An Analysis Of Various Classes In The Chinese Society" in which he first classified the Chinese people into different classes and raised the question as to friend versus foe during the class struggle.
Hunan Land Revolution By Rascal-Proletariat
After 20 March 1926 Zhongshanjian Warship Incident, Chiang Kai-shek forced the KMT leftist leader, Wang Jingwei, into an exile and re-organized the KMT executive committee after a compromise among Borodin, the CCP, the KMT leftists and the KMT rightists. Mao Tse-tung, being forced to abandon his propaganda ministry post, then worked as director or president of the "Peasant Movement Lecture and Practice School" and hosted the 6th Session for activists of the peasant movements on May 3rd of 1926. (Peng Pai was responsible for organizing five training sessions of activists prior to that.)
In Hunan-Hubei provinces, the communists organized massive worker and peasant movements. Per Chen Yuansen, the peasants' movements were in full motion by the time the Northern Expedition armies of the KMT government passed through the Xiangjiang River in June of 1926, and the peasant associations grew by 7-8 folds when Tang Shengzhi supported the peasant movement as a result of the peasants' active role in helping the northern expedition armies. Other than Tang Shengzhi, Borodin and the communists tried to win over the support of military leaders by conferring the governorship of Jiangxi Province onto Zhu Peide and that of Anhui Province onto Li Zongren. Chen Yuansen further stated that by Sept of 1926, Mao Tse-tung's graduates were dispatched to Hunan Province where they demanded that the landlords reduce the land rents etc and that as a result of the landlords' resistance, the peasants began to organize their 'self-defense military forces'.
Meanwhile, the CCP launched the First Shanghai Workers' Uprising on Oct 23rd, to be followed by two more in early 1927, prior to Chiang Kai-shek's advancement on the Shanghai city. Kang Sheng [i.e., Zhao Rong], a CCP from the communist-controlled Shanghai University, led the student movement in Shanghai; and Zhou Enlai was dispatched to Shanghai in late 1926 for leading the workers' uprising. The Soviets had secret instructions for the communists to stage the Paris Commune kid of rebellion to take over Shanghai before the northern expedition army was to arrive, while at the same time, the Soviet military advisers found pretexts to delay the move of the northern expedition army. In year 1926, the communist-led strikes totaled 535 across China, with the participation of about 1 million workers. After Chiang Kai-shek launched the northern expeditions, the union activities were restricted in the home base of Canton where Li Jishen was the garrison commander. Borodin, after the move to Wuhan of Hubei Province, would organize over 200 unions among 300,000 workers. When the merchants in Wuhan threatened a strike, Borodin would then inhibit the out-of-control worker movement in Wuhan. Per Zhang Yufa, the Wuhan citizens, on Jan 4th, 1927, had charged at the British settlement in Hankou for a recovery of sovereignty under the orchestration of Liu Shaoqi. Two days later, on Jan 6th, the Jiujiang citizens, in Jiangxi Province, recovered the British settlement. The British, under the impact of the Chinese nationalist movements, had adopted the strategy of giving up Hankow and Kiukiang and preserving Shanghai. The Soviets had devised the strategy of dividing Britain and Japan, with instructions to attack the British interests while leaving the Japanese alone for the time being.
In Nov 1926, Mao Tse-tung was dispatched to Shanghai as director for the CCP's peasant movement committee. In Hunan Province, each "xiang" [shire] had a peasant association, which basically acted as an autonomous local government with the "self-defense forces". The Peasant Associations upheld a slogan stating that "Whoever possessed land must be a grand landlord, and whoever behaved gentry-like must be a bad-behavior oppressor". The owners with 50 Chinese acres of land were automatically classified as the land-concentration landlords or 'grand landlords'. Hu Qiuyuan biographical account stated that "struggling against the landlords" was a direct consequence of Borodin's inflammatory speeches; that reluctant peasants were coerced into "struggling against the landlords"; and that in southern Anhui Province, the peasants self-organized "red spear society" killed lots of radical communists. On April 13th, scholar-landlord Ye Dehui was killed by the communist activists for writing a satiric poem. Hu Qiuyuan mentioned that the 3rd Comintern had secret order that each county must execute a "grand landlord" for fermenting the "revolutionary climax". Upon hearing the death of Ye Dehui & Wang Baoxin, famous scholar Wang Guowei committed suicide in Peking on June 2nd, 1927, claiming to deposed Manchu emperor Puyi that no other person had committed suicide within 20 years. Before Wang Guowei's death, student Wei Juxian had suggested an escape to the mountains of Shanxi Province. Hu Qiuyuan mentioned that in his native Huangpi county of Hubei Province, a landlord by the name of Li was paraded and killed in front of his family members. When one county was opposed to demolition of a Buddhist monastery, the Wuhan government dispatched Zhou Yanyong and the troops to the crackdown. Zhou Yanyong, a schoolmate of Hu Qiuyuan at the Wuhan University, later recalled how he was ordered to have soldiers fire on the peasants. (Zhou Yanyong and his pretty girlfriend, both communists, later transferred to Shanghai where Zhou Yanyong told Hu Qiuyuan that they had been trapped too deep into the CCP organization to leave it alive. Often visiting Hu Qiuyuan at Fudan University and sleeping in the dormitory for relaxation in 1928, Zhou Yanyong would disappear for good after one such visit.)
After Wang Jingwei, Borodin and the CCP rebuked the Hunan peasant movements as 'out of control', Mao Tse-tung toured the Hunan countryside from Jan 4th to Feb 5th, 1927. After touring Hunan Province for 32 days as secretary for the CCP's peasant movement committee, Mao authored an article, praising the rascals as the revolutionary forerunners and encouraging the violent acts against the landlords, including "parading the landlords for mass persecution, penalizing the landlords by slaughtering their poultry and confiscating grains, beating the landlords, ransacking the landlords' residencies, digging up the landlords' ancestral tombs, and expelling the landlords".
Chen Duxiu and Peng Shuzhi were against the radical communist approaches to the land revolution. Qu Qiubai wrote an article to rebut Peng Shuzhi. With the backing of Mao Tse-tung, the KMT's Hunan provincial party secretariat passed the "Act of Punishing the Land-Concentrating Owners & Bad-Behavior Gentry". In March of 1927, Mao authored for "Soldier Magazine" a counter-attack article entitled "An Inspection Report On The Peasants' Movement In Hunan Province" in which Mao Tse-tung, per Chen Yuansen, had even instructed the rascal-turned peasant activists in "daring to stamp your feet and rolling your bodies on the ivory-decorated beds of the daughters and concubines of the landlords". (What a mean approach that had inevitably turned on the rascal-proletariat in the countryside !)
On April 13th, Mao's crony, 19-year-old Liu Zhixun, hosted a public sentencing session in the name of the peasant associations in Changsha city and executed scholar-landowner called Ye Dehui on the spot. Comintern representative Roy and KMT agriculture minister Tan Pingshan (i.e., an CCP member) passed through Changsha en route to Wuhan from Canton and eulogized Hunan's peasant movements, and various county-level special courts were set up to try "'tu hao li shen'" (i.e., the land-concentrating owners & bad-behavior gentry), leading to the peasants-organized lynching events with massive scale torturing and executions of the landlords. About 1000 peasant activists under Liu Zhixun would mobilize 2 million Hunan peasants for this land revolution.
Chiang Kai-shek Purging the Communists
In Jan 1927, Chiang Kai-shek went to Mt Lushan in Jiangxi Province for a reconciliation talk with various KMT commissars. In Feb, Chiang Kai-shek conceded to the communist-controlled leftwing Wuhan KMT gang in having the National Government sit at Wuchang and the KMT party headquarters sit at Hankou.
The Nationalist army, having taken over Hangzhou of Zhejiang Province on Feb 18th, campaigned against Songjiang-Shanghai beginning in March, with two corps of the 19th Corps and 26th Corps. Lu-jun (the Shandong Province army), led by Chu Yupu, Zhang Zongchang and Bi Shucheng, marched southward to assist Sun Chuanfang. Bi Shucheng, however, also tried to obtain peace by negotiating with the Nationalist Army. Li Baozhang, a division chief under Sun Chuanfang of the northern warlord lineage government, expressed his wish to defect to the nationalist government as well as resist the Lu-jun army [the Shandong Province army]. Chiang Kai-shek conferred the post of chief of the 18th Corps onto Li Baozhang. On March 14th, Yang Shuzhuang, Shanghai's navy commander under Sun Chuanfang, was conferred the post of Navy Commander-in-chief by Chiang Kai-shek's nationalist government as well. Sun Chuanfang's army retreated to Fengjing of today's Jinshan-Songjiang counties, and Wuxing and Yixing near Suzhou. On Mar 15th, the national revolutionary army laid siege of Liyang of Jiangsu Province. The next day, Bai Chongxi ordered an attack at Songjiang & Shanghai. Bai Chongxi, to counter Sun Chuanfang’s Russian armored army, would arm a freight train with cannons for an attack at the Songjiang town. On Mar 21st, Songjiang was sacked. Seagrave, in his "The Soong Dynasty", had skipped the fight with the Russian mercenaries in Songjiang as if it never happened, claiming that Chiang Kai-shek waited out the communist defeat during Feb 19th-20th Strike/Uprising at about 25 miles to the west of Shanghai without regard for the truth that the Nationalist army had merely taken over Hangzhou of Zhejiang Province on Feb 18th.
The Communist-led Worker Uprising In Shanghai
Meanwhile, the CCP, having failed the 2nd Uprising [more a strike] on Feb 19th-20th, had conducted the Third Shanghai Workers' Uprisings on March 20th. Altogether, 50000 workers were organized into the picket columns to be headed by Gu Shunzhang, with 2000 selected for the military training in the French Concession territory. Musket type rifles were smuggled into Shanghai and 300 shooters were equipped. The Communists intended to take over Shanghai two days ahead of the scheduled arrival of Chiang Kai-shek's troops, i.e., the Whampoa lineage army which was already infiltrated by the communists.
Just prior to the uprising, American mayor Fessenden [Fei-xin-dun] was fetched by the French for a meeting with Du Yuesheng, which was for sake of approving the transportation of 5000 guns to the gangster forces through the "international settlement" zone. Further, the French, who received about 150000 dollar monthly kickback from the gangster's 6.5 million opium and cocaine trade, already knew in advance what the true intent of Chiang Kai-shek was, per Seagrave. With Zhou Enlai in charge of leading the 3rd uprising, 5000 workers' patrol army under the communists took over the center and outlying areas of Shanghai in small contingents by March 21st, defeating 5000 strong remnant northern warlord lineage army which already reached a truce with Chiang Kai-shek's northern expedition army to transfer Shanghai peacefully. Zhou himself the 300 rebels in sacking the police bureau. Later, on March 27th, the communists established an interim Shanghai municipal government consisting of Wang Shouhua, Yang Xinfo, Luo Yinong, Heh Luo, Zheng Shuxiu, Gu Shunzhang and Hou Shaoqiu et al. (Gu Shunzhang received training in the USSR after his exceptional performance during the 30 May 1925 movement in Shanghai.) The KMT elements who were nominally listed as Shanghai committee members did not attend the meetings, which led to communist secretary Chen Duxiu's decision to kick out the KMT members in late March. When Chiang Kai-shek arrived in Shanghai, he sent Hu Gongmian, a communist of Zhejiang native background, to seeing Chen Duxiu three times, with a suggestion to hold a top-level two-person meetings. Three times, Chen Duxiu declined the request since the communist secretary was in the zealous stage of solidifying the fruits of victory of the Shanghai Commune.)
The Nationalist Army 21st Division departed Wujiang for Suzhou, and took over the city by the afternoon. Meanwhile, Regiment Chief Hu Zongnan circumvented eastward to the Minhang area of Shanghai, crossed the Huangpu River, and attacked the Zhi-Lu (i.e., Zhili and Shandong) relief army and the White Russian mercenaries led by Bi Shucheng. After defeating the Russians, the nationalist army sacked Xinzhuang, Longhua and Shanghai's weapon depot. Yang Shuzhuang's navy attacked the Yangtze River hindside of Sun Chuanfang’s army and Lu-jun army. The Imperialist armies first dug the defense positions for impeding the revolutionary army, and then retreated into their domains after the revolutionary army mounted a protest. The revolutionary army pushed into Shanghai and dismantled Bi Shucheng's 8th Corps in the Zhabei area. On March 21st, the Nationalist Armies closed in to Shanghai after the communist insurgents, under the leadership of Zhou Enlai, effectively occupied Shanghai via a third armed uprising. Xu Zhen stated that the CCP had tried to provoke the "international incident" by sending mobsters into the extraterritories for pillage and arson. Mark Gayne, the future Soviet KGB spy who could be responsible for the death of President Kennedy, was sent to the Shanghai Bund as part of the Soviet and Comintern infiltration to start a revolution.
On the afternoon of Mar 22nd, Hu Zongnan assembled regiment/battalion officers and armed soldiers, rode on captured vehicles for a tour of the city, intruded onto the British/French territories, and drove by the Racing Course (i.e., today's People's Square of Shanghai) and through the Nanking Road. The British/French, daunted by the National Army's valor and the Shanghai citizens' fervor, dared not stop the parade. Chiang Kai-shek himself, departing from Jiujiang of Jiangxi Province, entered Shanghai's Gaochangmiao Dock on March 26th via Warship Chuqian-jian. Chiang Kai-shek ordered that Bai Chongxi disband the workers' armed forces; the CCP lodged a protest with the Wuhan government; and the KMT Wuhan government supported the workers as the policing force before Shanghai organized the KMT military police column. On March 28th, 1927, in Shanghai, the KMT supervisory committee members, like Wu Jingheng, Li Yuying, Cai Yuanpei, Zhang Renjie and Gu Yingfen, held a meeting and proposed a policy to have the CCP members purged from the KMT.
Chen Yongfa, apparently citing Zhang Yufa, pointed out that the CCP, by the time of Chiang Kai-shek's purge, had expanded to 58000 members nationwide, with 51% workers and 19% intellectuals. In Wuhan, Xu Xiangqian, lecturer at the Wuhan Central Military & Politics Academy (i.e., 2nd Whampoa Academy), officially enrolled in the CCP in March 1927. (Xu Xiangqian claimed that Chiang Kai-shek had visited the Wuhan Academy twice but failed to win over the hearts of the students. per ZLA, Tao Xisheng, while working as an editor in Shanghai's Commerce Publication House in early 1927, suddenly received a wire from Zhou Fohai who was secretary-in-chief & politics director of the Wuhan Central Military & Politics Academy, with the colonel-lecturer conferral letter bearing Chiang Kai-shek's signature.)
Hu Qiuyuan mentioned that slogans and posters began to surface in Wuhan in early March of 1927, calling for removal of Chiang Kai-shek. At the Wuhan University, Hu Qiuyuan and Yan Dazhu exited the Communist Youth League as well as the KMT Party as a result of resentment over the radical students who organized protests, parades, meetings and persecutions on campus. However, the KMT Party Apparatus, controlled by the CP and KMT leftists, continued to rely upon Hu Qiuyuan for authoring propaganda articles. Sometime in April of 1927, Qian Yishi invited Hu Qiuyuan in writing for the provincial representative meeting. "Chinese Students" magazine invited Hu Qiuyuan as editor-in-chief but exempted him from the routine communist meetings. After the Nationalist Army took over Nanking on March 25th, 1927, the Wuhan government issued an order in depriving Chiang Kai-shek of the post of commander-in-chief of the Northern Expedition Army, per Xu Zhen.
The Eastern Flank of the National Revolutionary Army continued to push northward, and attacked Zhenjiang of Jiangsu Province while the Central Flank sacked Nanking on March 24th. Sun Chuanfang fled across the Yangtze River to Yangzhou. On March 24th, 1927, the 6th & 2nd Corps of the Nationalist Army took over Nanking. Sun Chuanfang's army fled, and pillaging occurred in Nanking. Pearl Buck [Sai-zhen-zhu] had recalls about her ransacked residence in Nanking. Li Zongren memoirs stated that the soldiers from the communists-infiltrated 6th Corps and partial of the 1st Corps had attacked the British, American & Japanese interests in Nanking, injuring the British consul, killing deputy principal of Jinling University and principal of Cathay University. Zhang Yufa claimed that the Nanking citizens, under communist instigation, caused six dead and six wounded among the foreigners, which led to the Chinese casualty of dozens to thousands when the British-Americans bombarded Nanking as a revenge. The British and American warships fired cannon balls into the Nanking city from warships near the Xiaguan Wharf on the pretext of punishing the mobsters. Bombing led to a Chinese casualty of over 2000 people, i.e., the Nanking Bloody Incident. Seagrave, who had shifted focus to Chiang Kai-shek & gangsters for capsizing the Grand Revolution, had pointed out "that gangsters were invoked for cracking down on the unionists and workers; that leftists and communists hit back at the gangsters; Nationalist army entered the city; and that turmoil ensued in the city of Nanking, with few foreign consulate officials and priests killed, and one European woman attacked by three soldiers of unknown army units". Seagrave mistakenly cited the "American investigation" in pointing out that the northern lineage troops pillaged foreigners for instigating the international incident though the KMT rightists blamed the 1927 Nanking Bloody Incident on the communists. - Dorothy Borg and Leighton Stuart were adamant that it was the Chinese communists who perpetrated the crime of killing the Westerners in Nanking.
30 Million Guaranteed Loans To Chiang Kai-shek
Per Seagrave, on March 30th, in Hangzhou, the gangsters destroyed the offices of the unionists, with some killing; but, in Shanghai, the workers and communists were still hoping for a cooperation with Chiang Kai-shek. (Seagrave of course had no idea about the violent communist activities throughout southern and central China.) Chiang Kai-shek had expressed to Wang Jingwei quite some respect at the time the former opponent returned to China on April 1st. Merchants were said to have formed a consortium for loaning Chiang Kai-shek 3 million yuan for delivery on April 1st as a downpayment. Seven million followed. Then, another delegation promised to loan Chiang Kai-shek 30 million yuan currency for establishing a moderate government in Nanking. Zhang Yufa pointed out the Shanghai bankers offered Chiang Kai-shek 15 million and 30 million loans after the purge by citing primitive documents, like "Moscow & Chinese Communists" (Robert C. North, pp.97), "The Tragedy Of The Chinese Revolution" (Isaacs, p. 151-152), and "A History Of China" (Wolfram Eberhard, p. 315). Those were of course books written by the pro-communist Americans of the 20th century, not archives of neutral background.
Back on April 1st, Wang Jingwei returned to Shanghai from overseas at the invitation of Borodin, the KMT leftists and the CCP. Wang Jingwei had been asked by Chiang Kai-shek et al., not to go to Wuhan. When asked to adopt the same policy of purging the communists, Wang Jingwei said that it should be decided by the KMT full session. Historians concluded that Chiang Kai-shek had the determination for the coup d'etat as a result of winning over the Gui-xi [Guangxi Province] armies. On April 2nd, another meeting was held in Shanghai, with Li Zongren, Huang Shaohong and Chen Guofu participating. The KMT supervisory committee passed Wu Jingheng's purge proposal. On April 3rd, Li Zongren attended Chiang Kai-shek's meeting at Sun Yat-sen's former residency. Chiang Kai-shek was said to have obtained funds from the Shanghai business leaders in lieu of the Soviet aid. With financial backing from Shanghai as well as the military support from Gui-xi, Chiang Kai-shek was determined for a coup.
Wang Jingwei met Hu Hanmin on April 3rd and promised to stay the decrees of the Wuhan KMT's 3rd Plenary of the Second National Congress. Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin agreed upon the date of April 15th for a new KMT Congress to be held. On April 5th, Wang Jingwei made a joint declaration with CCP leader Chen Duxiu and then left for Wuhan. Xu Zhen claimed that Wang Jingwei-Chen Duxiu declaration contained words like 'campaign against the Nanking government'. Wu Jingheng, Li Yuying, and Cai Yuanpei went to see Hu Hanmin with the KMT supervisory committee's decision of purging communists and invited Hu Hanmin for a meeting in Nanking. In Nanking, Hu Hanmin proposed the guidelines for purging the communists and gave half a dozen categories of 'bad apples' (including the communists). Hu Hanmin advocated a unification of the KMT slogans to counter the CCP's slogans. Hu Hanmin would later write numerous articles expounding Sun Yat-sen's Three People's Principles to counter Marxism/Leninism and communism.
On Apr 6th, in Peking, 500 soldiers under Zhang Zuolin sacked the Russian embassy and arrested 60 communism activists including Li Dazhao and executed about 30 communists. Seagrave pointed out that twenty Chinese communists were arrested, including two daughters of Li Dazhao, with one such daughter hanged three years later the same way as her father. Zhang Zuolin adopted a concerted effort for two purposes: clearing the threat of communist insurgency in northern China as well as sending a message of cooperation to Chiang Kai-shek. In Shanghai, police of the International Settlement put up a cordon around the Russian consulate; and on April 11th, the British and Japanese searched the hideouts of leftists and communists, and handed over the suspects for execution by Chiang Kai-shek per Seagrave. Zhang Yufa claimed that Chiang Kai-shek was justified in purging the communists since the thousand pieces of documents confiscated from the Russian embassy in Peking had contained enough evidence as to the Russian attempt at planting communism in China. Similar evidence was collected during the April 7th search of the Russian organizations in Tianjin. Zhang Yufa cited MacNair's "China In Revolution" in pointing out that from Feb 28th to March 1st, search of the Russian ship Pamiat Lenina had yielded similar evidence.
Bai Chongxi of the Gui-xi Army closed down the Shanghai office of the National Army Politics Department, and Li Zongren directed his forces to Nanking from Wuhu in preparation for the purge. On Apr 9th, Chiang Kai-shek announced the office of the Song-hu Martial Law Enforcement, with Bai Chongxi conferred the post of commander. (Note that Yang Hu was the garrison commander of Shanghai.) On April 10th, Chiang Kai-shek made a public wire demanding the dismissal of the Wuhan KMT politics department. On Apr 11th, Chiang secretly ordered that all provinces must purge communists.
On April 12th, Chiang Kai-shek officially purged the communists. Per Li Dongfang, Bai Chongxi ordered that the 26th Corps disband workers' armed band at 2:00 pm on April 12th. In Shanghai, on April 12th, Chiang Kai-shek's army, including the gangster forces, sacked the CCP-controlled workers' patrolling force headquarters and disarmed the workers. Seagrave, with only knowledge of "green gangsters", claimed that the gangster-background army, upon the siren of Chiang Kai-shek's warship at 4 am, began the sweeping campaign against all communist strongholds and residencies, with an order to kill anyone carrying arms other than those wearing the arm-band of 'gong' [worker, i.e., those gangster-organized rivalry worker unions]. The Communist document claimed that Chiang Kai-shek first sent rascals into the workers' patrolling force headquarters for disturbance and then dispatched the army against the workers on the pretext of maintaining peace. Seagrave wrote down a story of Chiang Kai-shek's army pretending to stand on the same side of the workers but allowing the gangsters to kill the workers once they laid down the weapons. Back on the night of the 11th, when Wang1 Shouhua entered Du's residency at an invitation, the gangsters killed the driver and bodyguard, and abducted Wang1 Shouhua to the western outskirts for a secret execution. Back on April 5th, gangster leader Du Yuesheng sent an invitation to CCP leader Wang1 Shouhua. (Li Dongfang made up a purported court martial on April 15th which sentenced Wang1 Shouhua to death. But, what’s Wang Shouhua doing in gangster’s house? Wang Shouhua, a ‘great’ communist, was a gangster himself and was executed for his first loyalty to the CCP and second loyalty to the gang.)
Seagrave further pointed out that Zhou Enlai fled to the "Shangwu [commercial] Publishing House" where 400 Reds fought against 1000 Greens till the noon, and that about 400-700 workers could have been killed within nine hours. Seagrave apparently erred in stating that Zhou Enlai had fled again after the publishing house was sacked, not to mention the exaggeration of 1000 Greens. On April 13th, when Zhou Enlai organized 10,000 workers' protests, Chiang Kai-shek's army cracked down on the Shanghai workers, with over 100 people dead. Seagrave claimed that 300 dead filled up eight trucks during the crackdown. Zhou Enlai, doubtlessly caught by the KMT, would be released after Si Li, the brother of Si Lie [i.e., the 2nd Division Chief of KMT 26th Corps responsible for bloody crackdown on the communists on Baoshan Road], intervened by posting a public notice of "Wu Hao [Zhou Enlai] Severing Himself From the Communist Party". Zhou Enlai, in his talk with Edgar Snow, stated that about 5000 people fell victims to Chiang Kai-shek's crackdown. Seagrave cited Snow's account in estimating that 5000 to 10000 people could have died in Shanghai since Oct 1926. Writer Han Suyin further blamed Du Yuesheng on selling 6000-8000 wives and daughters of victims to prostitution or coolie labor. - What a mess Seagrave and Han Suyin was creating. The first crackdown happened in Anqing of Anhui Province right after Chiang Kai-shek's warship passed through, en route to Shanghai, after Chen Lifu gave the greenlight. The purge was meticulously designed by Chen Lifu by having the left-wing KMT members set up the opposing unions, student associations and peasant societies for sake of inducing the secret-identity communist members into an open argument, fights and sabotage. In Shanghai, the "gong jing hui" members set up the opposing unions. Only after distinguishing the communists did the purge begin. The bloody crackdown in Shanghai happened after disarming the workers' armed forces, i.e., the second day, when Zhou Enlai organized workers' strike in the attempt of wrestling back the confiscated weapons overnight. The communist demonstration column on the Baoshan Road, as numerous investigations had proven, had included dozens of former northern army soldiers as mercenaries to create chaos. The communists, who did the same in the charge against Duan Qirui's regent government in Peking in March 1926, apparently misjudged the possible response of teh government army.
Establishing The Nanking Government
Chiang Kai-shek further banned publication of the 'communist manifesto'. Purge extended to cities like Ningbo, Fuzhou, Xiamen [Amoy] and Guangzhou [Canton]. On the 15th, Chiang Kai-shek's KMT executive meeting failed to convene a meeting due to lack of committee members. On the 17th, the Wuhan government and left-wing KMT Central revoked Chiang Kai-shek's party membership; however, in Nanking, the right-wing KMT executive meeting declared Hu Hanmin as the chairman of the National Government. On April 18th, Chiang Kai-shek made Nanking the capital of the National Government and ordered the purge of communists nationwide. A ceremony was held at Dingjiaqiao the former site of the Jiangsu provincial parliament. In the name of the KMT Central Politics Meeting, the Nanking government called upon Waang Jingwei & Tan Yankai for a relocation to Nanking from Wuhan. Other than departments of the civil administration [Xie Wubi], diplomacy [Wu Chaoshu], justice [Wang Chonghui], finance [Gu Yingfen] and college board [Cai Yuanpei], the Nanking government stipulated a separate secretariat of which Niu Yongjian was in charge. Chiang Kai-shek was proclaimed to be the commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army, with Wu Zhihui acting as political commissar. Four clauses for the "National Revolution" were put forward, calling for i) a close cooperation between the revolutionary army and the people; ii) an upright and honest government; iii) a policy of protecting the domestic enterprises; and iv) a policy of guaranteeing and promoting the interests of peasants and workers. Additionally, Nanking issues a secret most-wanted list of communists and leftist-Nationalists including Borodin, Chen Duxiu, Xu Qian, Deng Yanda & Wu Yuzhang. On the 21st, Chiang Kai-shek announced that the military committee officially relocated to Nanking from Canton. The KMT leftists, with their headquarters in Wuhan of Hubei Province and in the name of the KMT Central executory committee and military committee, proclaimed a campaign against Chiang Kai-shek on the 22nd.
CHEN JIERU's ACCOUNT: To counter Wuhan, Chiang Kai-shek conspired with Mme Kong Xiangxi in instigating the defection of her brother [i.e., KMT finance minister Song Ziwen]. Chen Jieru claimed that Mme Kong Xiangxi, i.e., Soong Ai-ling, arrived in Jiujiang for a 24-hour secret talk with Chiang Kai-shek on board a ship owned by the Bank of China. It was during this talk that Soong Ai-ling demanded that 1) Chiang Kai-shek marry Soong Mei-ling, 2) Kong Xiangxi be offered the job as a prime minister equivalent, and 3) Song Ziwen be offered the post of finance minister in exchange for the financial support from the Song & Kong families and the financiers of the Shanghai Bund. Hence, Chiang Kai-shek forcefully sent Chen Jieru to the U.S. on the pretense of a five-year separation. To force out Chen Jieru, Chiang Kai-shek purportedly displayed the 'love letters' between Soong Mei-ling & Chiang Kai-shek dated March 19th, 1927. Thereafter, the "blue jacket" agents mounted an arson attack at the finance ministry in Wuhan for Song Ziwen to exit the Wuhan government as an excuse. Song Ziwen, after arriving in Nanking, began to run the mint factory around the clock for printing the paper currency [i.e., 'fa bi' or legalized currency]. Zhang Jingjiang was awarded the post of chairman for Zhejiang Province.
The Split of the CCP From the KMT Leftist Government
Having examined the land revolution in Hunan Province, one might derive an easy conclusion that it was Mao communists' fault to have provoked the KMT in the first place. Partially right. We have to bear in mind that Sun Yat-sen's KMT was mostly a loose organization of people with different agenda and that Sun Yat-sen was the only person possessing the necessary charisma for holding his party members together. The 'Zhongshan Warship Incident' on March 20th of 1926 had already revealed the irreconcilable differences between the USSR/CCP and Chiang Kai-shek's KMT Right Wing. It was Stalin/Borodin's superstitious belief in a so-called stage of bourgeois revolution that had held the rift together for the time being. Harold Isaacs mentioned that "the (CCP) Central Committee in Shanghai and the Kwangtung (CCP) party vigorously opposed" Borodin's concessions to Chiang Kai-shek and that "in Moscow, the Opposition led by Trotsky had already begun to demand the liberation of the Chinese Communists from the strait jacket of the Kuomintang". Trotsky, entangled in a power struggle against Stalin since Lenin's death on Jan 21st, 1924, had proposed a more radical approach by suggesting that the Chinese communists exit from the KMT institution immediately. The dissension between Stalin and Trotsky would spell over to China and the world communism to yield to similarly bloody confrontations between their followers. Wang Jingwei's KMT Left-Wing, however, suffered a dilemma as far as their party orientation went. Unwarranted being the case as to the CCP's ultimate armed rebellion against the Wuhan KMT leftist government, the irreconcilable differences between the USSR/CCP and Chiang Kai-shek's KMT Right Wing would be the same matter that existed between the USSR/CCP and Wang Jingwei's KMT Left Wing. The KMT Left Wing would later split into the communism-sympathizers like Song Qingling (i.e., Mme Sun Yat-sen) and the so-called 'gan-zu-pai' (the 're-organized KMT leftists'). When the communists first purged the political enemies in guerilla bases (i.e., rural enclave), it would be the Anti-Bolshevik League and the Re-organized KMT Leftists who would be exterminated. In the following, we will examine how the CCP split from and rebelled against the KMT Leftist Government of Wuhan.
The three month reign by the KMT generalissimo Wang Jingwei, from April to July of 1927, was a time period often shrouded in ambiguity. Prevalent writings often lumped together the purge of communists by Chiang Kai-shek's Right-wing KMT and Wang Jingwei's Left-wing KMT, i.e., "qing [purge] gong [communist]" versus "fen [split from] gong [communist]". Philosopher-turned Scholar Shan Shaojie, for example, had echoed Mao Tse-tung's generalization that the young communists of China had committed a grave 'subjectivist mistake of the Confucian-apprentice rank' prior to 1927 by paying attention to the mass movement, not the military movement. (See "Mao In Power (1949-1976)", Mirror Books, 2000, Carle Place, NY, ISBN 962-8744-31-3). The natural cause-effect, per Shan Shaojie, would be that the CCP central committee, during the Aug 7th emergency session in Wuhan, officially endorsed the policy of armed rebellion against the KMT's slaughter and massacre. (Xiang Zhongfa, a communist of worker background, attended the meeting.) Apparently left out here would be the context of August 1st, 1927 Nanchang Uprising that occurred before the Aug 7th meeting. Wen Yu, similarly, never reflected on the context of the so-called consecutive betrayals to the 'Grand Revolution' by Chiang Kai-shek and Wang Jingwei, respectively.
Recent communist disclosures pointed that the Chinese Communists had colluded with Outer Mongolia in organizing a military force from 1925 to 1927, as well as instigated the mutinies in Sichuan Province after the provincial military leaders agreed to be re-organized under the southern government. The separation of the Chinese Communists from the Wuhan government was triggered by Stalin's order to organize a military force among the workers and peasants. So to say that Shan Shaojie was wrong in assuming the innocence of the Chinese Communists as far as the mass movement vs military movement was concerned.
"KMT-CCP Land Act" By Wuhan's KMT Left-wing Government
Wuhan Government Holding a Second "Oath of Northern Campaigns"
Xu Kexiang Purging Communists In Changsha on May 21st
Comintern Rep M.N. Roy Disclosed to Wang Jingwei a Secret Document from Stalin
Zhu Peide's Courteous Expulsion of Communists From Jiangxi Province
Tang Shengzhi's Eastern Campaign against Nanking
August 1st Nanchang Uprising Wang Jingwei [Wang Ching-wei] Government in Wuhan, per Jiang Yongjing, did not have a real separation from the CCP till the outbreak of the 'August 1st Nanchang Uprising' in Jiangxi Province. However, by late July of 1927, Wang Jingwei already sensed an incoming uprising by the communists inside of the armies that the Wuhan government controlled, and Wang Jingwei ordered a real-sense purge of the communists that unfortunately came too late to stop the locomotive. On July 26th, Heh Long's 20th Corps arrived in Nanchang from Jiujiang after allowing Ye Ting's 24th division (subject to the 11th Corps) board the train for Nanchang earlier. On the same day, Wang Jingwei officially expelled Mao Tse-tung, Li Lishan, Zhou Enlai and Peng Pai et al., from the KMT, and wired to the Russian advisers as to the truth of the rumor about the possible communist uprising. Wang Jingwei's most wanted list issued on Aug 8th, 1927 would include 197 communist members.
More available at Nanchang Mutiny. (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
Chiang Kai-shek's Step-down & Re-gaining Power
On Aug 8th, 1927, Li Zongren, Bai Chongxi and Li Jishen et al., proposed that Wang Jingwei's Wuhan government converge with the Nanking government after sharing a common ground on the matter of purging the communists. Wang Jingwei stated that Chiang Kai-shek must step down before the Wuhan government could come to Nanking. On Aug 8th, Wang Jingwei's Wuhan government passed resolution as to purge of the communists and issued a most wanted list which would include 197 communist members. On Aug 12th (13th?), Chiang Kai-shek agreed to stepping down for party unity's sake. (Li Zongren memoirs stated that Chiang Kai-shek's personal emissary, i.e., Chu Minyi, had shuttled between Wuhan and Nanking numerous times, with an understanding that Chiang must step down to appease Wuhan. However, the rumor flied that Li Zongren, Bai Chongxi and Heh Yingqin had pressured Chiang into a step-down. Writer Liu Feng adopted this rumor which Li Zongren, in his memoirs, had claimed to have disputed with Chiang Kai-shek few times whereas Chiang Kai-shek dissuaded it by refusing to pierce it publicly.) Before the step-down, Chiang Kai-shek visited Chen Jieru in her mother's house in Shanghai on Aug 1st, with a request that Chen Jieru go to America for five years so that he could marry with Soong Mei-ling. Per Chen Jieru, Chiang Kai-shek cursed himself by stating that he would be willing to be banished overseas should he fail to retrieve Chen Jieru within 10-20 years.
On Sept 16th, the National Commissar meeting, on basis of the Aug 22nd Jiujiang Meeting, was held in Nanking for expanding the 47 person military commission to 96 members. The Nanking and Wuhan governments hence merged together. However, Hu Qiuyuan pointed out that Wang Jingwei & Tang Shengzhi maintained the KMT Wuhan Politics Sub-committee for preserving their independence. Chen Jieru boarded ship President Jackson on Aug 19th. On the same day, Reuters reported that Chiang Kai-shek had agreed to step down for his dereliction (i.e., Chiang Kai-shek's Defeat At Xuzhou) in the continuous campaigns northward; that Chiang Kai-shek would depart for Germany soon; and that the British dispatched 150 marines to Nanking for self-protection. On Sept 19th, 1927, in San Francisco, Chen Jieru first read about Chiang Kai-shek's denial of existing marriage with her, and on Sept 24th, in New York, Chen Jieru read about Chiang Kai-shek's plan to go to Japan for obtaining the approval from Soong Mei-ling's mother so that he could marry with Soong Mei-ling. On Sept 28th, Chiang Kai-shek left for Japan.
On Oct 6th, Zhang Fakui gave a public wire against the KMT special commission, and On Oct 21st, Tang Shengzhi declared that his Wuhan branch of the politics committee separate from the Nanking's National Government. On Oct 21st, Tang Shengzhi declared that his Wuhan branch of politics committee separate from the Nanking's National Government. On Nov 1st, Jiang Dingwen assumed the post of 1st Division Chief and departed for north of the Yangtze from Hangzhou. On Nov 4th, the military committee ordered that the Fourth Route and the Fifth Route, headed by Cheng Qian and Zhu Peide, campaign against Tang Shengzhi in the west. Li Jishen in Guangdong and Huang Shaohong in Guangxi echoed the National Government in campaigns against Tang Shengzhi. When Tang's two generals, Heh Jian and Li Pingxian, refused to follow order, Tang Shengzhi declared a step-down on Nov 12th and fled to Japan thereafter. The KMT's Western Expedition army took over Wuchang of Hubei Province.
On Nov 10th, Chiang Kai-shek returned to Shanghai. Chiang Kai-shek obtained the support of Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan in restoring his post as commander-in-chief. Li Zongren pointed out that Chiang Kai-shek had intentionally stepped down for sake of having Wang Jingwei exercise the control over Tang Shengzhi because Tang Shengzhi's "Eastern Campaign" held a slogan of getting rid of Chiang Kai-shek only. (Li Zongren memoirs stated that two generals under Tang Shengzhi, i.e., Liao Lei & Ye Qi, later disclosed that Tang had secret negotiations with Sun Chuanfang & Jiang Baili for a joint attack at Nanking from west and north. However, Sun Chuanfang launched an attack at Nanking without waiting for Tang Shengzhi in the attempt of "being a king as the first who sacked the capital". Li Zongren's conclusion is that Chiang Kai-shek stepped down with a good prediction of ultimate return after Wang Jingwei & Tang Shengzhi was to have their internal strife.) On Dec 10th, the KMT 4th Plenary of the 2nd Congress restored Chiang Kai-shek's post. See the Second Northern Expedition for details.
In early 1928, Xia Zhishi, a veteran of the 1911 Xin Hai Revolution, visited Nanking area in the hope of reviving his political career. After losing power in 1920 in Sichuan Province, Xia Zhishi had established a middle school called Jinjiang Public School [the name of which his wife Dong Zhujun, later on March 15th, 1935, appropriated to found the now famous "Jinjiang Restaurant" in Shanghai]. From 1920 to 1923, Xia Zhishi indulged himself in gambling and tacked on opium which eventually led to the divorce between him and Dong Zhujun. Incidentally, in 1923, Dai Jitao had an unsuccessful suicide by jumping into the Yangtze River while on his way to Sichuan. [Dai Jitao committed suicide again in Canton prior to the communist takeover in 1949.] Xia Zhishi and Dai Jitao spent quite some time together for sharing the same kind of "downturns in political careers". Dai Jitao [Dai Chuan xian], i.e., Jiang Huiguo's birth-father, would become stepfather of Dong Zhujun's children. Dong Zhujun, owning to her husband's acquaintances, often received the warlord visitors including Yang Sen who had a notoriety of killing two concubines for their "extra-marital affairs". Later in 1949, Dong Zhujun was responsible for persuading Yang Hu into giving up Shanghai to the CCP, while Yang Hu, having enjoyed a few days as the top guest of the communist government, ultimately died in the hands of the communists for his complex relationship, multiple concubines and rebellious character.
The CCP Armed Rebellions
Borodin, being on the verge of total disaster, did not forget to ask Wang Jingwei stamp out a 'performance report' for him to bring back to the USSR. Chen Duxiu refused to go to Moscow in July. On July 23rd of 1927, two new Comintern representatives, 29-year-old Lominadze (a Georgian native of Stalin's) and 25-year-old Nuo-yi-man (Heinz Neumann? a German), arrived in Hankou of Hubei Province, with a mission and a direct order from Stalin and Bukharin who had finally realized that the USSR had lost their case of an ally in the KMT. The two new guys would replace Borodin and Roy, deprive Chen Duxiu of the CCP leadership, blame all past errors and mistakes on Chen Duxiu's opportunism, and institute Qu Qiubai as the new CCP leader. (Qu Qiubai, a Jiangsu Province native, had visited the USSR in 1920 as reporter for Peking's "Morning Post", later transcribed the song 'Internationale' into Chinese, and firmly supported the Comintern during the 'grand revolution'. Li Weihan memoirs stated that Qu Qiubai was selected for his adamant criticisms of Chen Duxiu/Peng Shuzhi and Dai Jitao perspectives.) After the meeting, Li Weihan et al., repeatedly requested that Chen Duxiu go to Moscow; however, Chen refused to go and later on Nov 15th, 1929, Chen Duxiu, veteran secretary general for 5 CCP Sessions, was expelled from the CCP for splitting the CCP. Also going onto Trotsky path would be senior CCP activist Gao Yuhan, i.e., party admission witness for both Li Kenong and Qian Xincun [Ah Ying]. Ah Ying, who fled to Wuhan of Hubei Province from Wuhu of Anhui Province, would soon embark on another escape journey to Shanghai after the communist-led Nanchang Uprising was smashed in Jiangxi Province.
The Comintern, back on July 14th, had passed resolutions demanding that
2) the CCP re-initiates the land revolution,
3) the CCP fight the opportunists inside of the party etc.
On Aug 7th, 21 CCP members, including Qu Qiubai, Li Weihan and Deng Xixian [aka Deng Xiaoping], attended the meeting into which the Georgian and two Russians were brought inside one by one within three consecutive days for avoiding attraction by the outsiders. per WY, this meeting, having affirmed the new Comintern policies of land revolution and armed rebellions, also led to the start of the CCP extreme-leftist approaches, i.e., 1) continuous urban armed rebellions targeted at cities, 2) elevating the anti-bourgeois struggle to the same level as anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism, 3) emphasis on the importance of the CCP leadership's worker descent background, and 4) start of using individual CCP leaders as scapegoats. During the one day meeting, Mao made a speech as to the importance of armed rebellion, and Mao declined the entry into politburo by emphasizing his departure for leadership of the autumn harvest uprising.
On Aug 8th, Wang Jingwei's Wuhan government passed resolution as to purge of the communists and issued a most wanted list which would include 197 communist members.
On Aug 9th, the CCP interim politburo decreed that Qu Qiubai, Su Zhaozheng and Li Weihan be the members of the standing committee of the CCP central committee at the suggestion of Lominadze and that the CCP central committee relocate to Shanghai. The Aug 7th Meeting, basically stating that China's revolution had reached the stage of the Russian 1917 Revolution rather than the 1905 Revolution, would propagate the new party guidelines across China for launching into a full motion of armed rebellions as well as movements among the workers, students and women. (The Interim CCP Central, on Sept 19th, decreed to discard the 'flag' of the Nationalists, and promulgated the launch of the "Chinese Soviets".)
The Autumn Harvest Uprising
In Sept of 1927, Mao Tse-tung (Mao Tse-tung), conferred the title of 'special commissar', was dispatched to the Jiangxi-Hunan border for organizing Autumn Harvest Uprising, with an objective of attacking the Hunan provincial capital, Changsha. Mao Tse-tung had a short meeting with his wife Yang Kaihui who, together with his sons, went into hiding when Mao Tse-tung returned from Hubei after attending the CCP August 7th Meeting. Yang Kaihui accompanied Mao Tse-tung into Changsha on August 16th, and by the end of August 1927, Mao Tse-tung circumvented to Tonggu via Anyuan under the escort of Chen Zhi'an for leading the 'Autumn Harvest Uprising'. While on the road, Mao was at one time caught by two local gentry soldiers, and he somehow slipped away after bribing the captors with all his silver dollars. (This could be a made-up as new revelations show that Mao had betrayed the other Hunan communists to get released from captivity.)
Note Mao's autumn harvest uprising was not a pure peasants' rebellion, but a military action orchestrated under the leadership of 22-year-old Lu Deming, i.e., regiment chief for the Garrison Regiment of the Wuhan National Government. Lu Deming's Garrison Regiment was established in June 1927 under the sponsorship of Zhang Fakui, but at the suggestion of Ye Ting. Lu Deming, late for the Aug 1st Uprising, stationed his troops at Wuning of Jiangxi Province and then joined Mao in the autumn harvest uprising. Lu Deming, at Xiushui area, converged with the workers and peasants into the so-called First Division of the Workers and Peasants Army (WPA), with 4 regiments organized. Mao, as "te pai yuan" (i.e., special commissar), took over the leadership and directed the First WPA Division of 5000 men against provincial capital Changsha on the lunar calendar Mid-Autumn Festival. Mao, however, was recorded to have declined Zhang Ziqing's offer of a pistol by emphasizing his political functions. At Changsha city, 5000 workers had acted as internal support for the rebellion. Lu Deming died in action shortly thereafter though. Mao, by late Oct 1927, led remnants towards the Jinggangshan Mountain where he converged with the banditry of Yuan Wencai and Wang Zuo. (Yang Kaihui was caught by Heh Jian in Oct 1930 and executed on Nov 14th of 1930 for her refusal to denounce her husband.)
Wuhan Government, Nanking Government, & KMT Re-Organizers
On Sept 15th 1927, the Wuhan Government, the Nanking Government, and the KMT re-organizers in Shanghai held a three-party conference for organizing the "purging communist special commission" and officially deprived the communists of their party membership inside the KMT. As a precondition for the Nanking & Wuhan KMT governments to reconcile, Chiang Kai-shek stepped down and left for Japan on Sept 28th. Mao et al., however, would be restored membership in the KMT, without advance notice to the CCP, by the KMT censoring committee in June 1938 in the aftermath of the second cooperation between the KMT and the CCP.
Zhang Fakui, who had claimed to cooperate with the communists FOR EVER, would sever himself from the combined KMT government. On Oct 6th, Zhang Fakui gave a public wire against the KMT special commission, and On Oct 21st, Tang Shengzhi declared that his Wuhan branch of the politics committee separate from the Nanking's National Government. On Nov 1st, Jiang Dingwen assumed the post of 1st Division Chief and departed for north of the Yangtze from Hangzhou. On Nov 4th, the military committee ordered that the Fourth Route and Fifth Route, headed by Cheng Qian and Zhu Peide, campaign against Tang Shengzhi to the west. Li Jishen in Guangdong and Huang Shaohong in Guangxi echoed the Nanking National Government in campaigns against Tang Shengzhi. When Tang's two generals, Heh Jian and Li Pingxian, refused to follow order, Tang Shengzhi declared a step-down on Nov 12th and fled to Japan thereafter. The KMT's Western Expedition army took over Wuchang of Hubei Province. On Nov 10th, Chiang Kai-shek returned to Shanghai. On Nov 17th, 1927, in Canton, Zhang Fakui's Huang Qixiang army rebelled by announcing a slogan of 'Fighting the neo-Gui-xi Warlord'. Li Jishen and Wang Jingwei disagreed over the cause of Zhang Fakui's action. Meanwhile, Chiang Kai-shek obtained the support of Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan in restoring his post as commander-in-chief. On Dec 10th, the KMT 4th Plenary of the 2nd Congress restored Chiang Kai-shek's post.
CCP Going Straight To "Socialist Revolution"
On Nov 9th, the CCP interim politburo held an expanded meeting in Shanghai, attended by a new Comintern rep called Mi-te-kai-wei-qi who was sent over to replace the Georgian. This meeting passed Lominadze's resolution stating that China, not possessing the conditions for a transitionary stage of the bourgeois revolution, had to go straight to the socialist revolution. Qu Qiubai authored articles including "What Kind Of Revolution Is China's Revolution", "On Armed Rebellions", and "Was China's Revolution At Distressed Stage?".
The CCP Politburo hence ordered general strikes or general uprisings in such major cities as Guangzhou, Shanghai, Wuhan, Tianjin and Changsha. This would yield the following actions: the peasant uprisings in Yixing and Wuxi of Jiangsu Province, Shanghai peasant uprisings in Jinshan-Fengxian counties, Wuhan City Uprising, and Shunzhi Uprising in northern China. Chen Yun, after the April 12th purge, returned to his hometown of Liantang of Qingpu county [in today's Shanghai], bordering the Dianshanhu lake. Using alias Chen Ming, Chen Yun tacked on the post of the CCP party representative for the "peasant revolutionary army of the Songjiang segment of the Shanghai-Hangzhou Railway" in Jan 1928. After the aborted uprising, Chen Yun assumed the post of CCP party branch secretary for Qingpu county [of Jiangsu Province]. Per Tao Zhucheng, Wan Yijun, who put on drama "The Hatred Of the Koreans Over Loss Of Country". and acted as Korean assassin An Jung-geu [An Chongwen] during the 1919 May 4th student movement, died during the 1928 Yixing Uprising.
Rebellions near the outskirts of Shanghai, i.e., Fengxian-Jinshan counties, were led by early CCP leader called Liu Xiao. My late grandma mentioned how one communist insurgent, while attempting to throw a grenade over the high-rise wall of a landlord's home, died in front of her home, with intestines flowing out of the belly as a result of the self-explosion of a grenade. The peasants had burnt down the whole town during the uprising, and current township layout was completely rebuilt after the 1927 CCP arson. At the spot where this guy died, ghost was spotted, and township people used to offer some sacrificial food whenever their kids fell ill. (During my childhood, I often spent the summer breaks there and heard how the local people touted Liu Xiao as a hero who might someday humbly paid a visit to the countryside to give them some favor or save them from hardship. Having traveled across the entire Hangzhou Bay area, I had observed over a dozen dilapidated so-called 'wan ren keng', i.e., 10,000 people mass grave yards, with victims of innocent Chinese massacred by the Japanese invaders who landed on the muddy beach of Jinshanwei in 1937 to thwart the 3-month-long frontal Shanghai defense. In contrast with those dilapidated monuments, often in the shape of an electric pole, the CCP had erected a high-rise sword-shape revolutionary monument standing on a tall hill, something called the "people's hero monument" in remembrance of the martyrdom of the 1927 'nameless' insurgents.)
The Canton Uprising
In Guangzhou, Zhang Tailei, an early communism activist who followed Yang Jingzai to the Russian Far East for reporting China's communism activity to the Comintern in Spring of 1921 and later attended the Comintern Third Congress in Moscow in June of 1921, led an uprising against Zhang Fakui by taking advantage of Zhang Fakui's campaign against Li Jishen (chief of the 4th Corps) and other contesters. The uprising, originally scheduled for Dec 13th, pulled ahead due to divulsion of the scheme. Before that, Xu Xiangqian had arrived in Guangzhou (Canton) from Shanghai in late September and was responsible for training the workers' armed forces.
More available at Canton Commune. (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
Qu Qiubai's Policy Of Perpetuating Armed Rebellions
Rebellions, pronounced 'bao dong', was also a word often ridiculed by Hongkongers in reference to the Red Guards' attempts at overthrowing British rule in HK during the 1960s. Communist fervor in the uprising could be seen in one scene recalled by Xu Xiangqian: Peng Pai's wife, by the name of Xu, at one time put down her sibling and demanded that she joined her husband in the siege of Huilai city. Xu Xiangqian himself had deliberately allowed his wife [Cheng Xunxuan] to be arrested, interrogated and executed by Zhang Guotao clique during the second wave of the Anti-Bolshevik League Purge. Xu Xiangqian, having barely returned from abortive Red Army Second Western Expedition, would be subject to further suspicion and persecution in Yan'an, with most of his Red Army Fourth Flank followers executed for implication with Zhang Guotao. One more example to show how communists were made of "special material" would be Xiang Ying's personal shooting death in May 1938 of his former wife [Zhang Liang] who, being arrested together with Qu Qiubai in 1935 and suspected of having betrayed Qu Qiubai, had just returned to Xiang Ying after a release from years of KMT prison life. Communist men and women simply had no regard for their own lives as well as the others.
From Nov 9th to 10th of 1927, Lominadze hosted an interim CCP politburo meeting in Shanghai, proposing "uninterrupted [i.e., perpetual] revolution" instead of "two-stage revolution" for application to the Chinese case. This meeting passed Lominadze's resolution stating that China, not possessing the conditions for a transitionary stage of bourgeois revolution, had to go straight to socialist revolution. Qu Qiubai authored articles including "What Kind Of Revolution Is China's Revolution", "On Armed Rebellions", and "Was China's Revolution At Distressed Stage?".
In Wuhan, CCP Hubei Province branch and CCP Yangtze Area Bureau had already blamed Luo Yinong etc for missing the opportunity of uprising one month earlier, which was an attempt at taking advantage of Tang Shengzhi's entangles with and consequent defeat in the hands of Nanking Government. In Changsha, CCP Hunan Province issued an order on Nov 24th for a general provincial uprising. On Dec 1st, a decision was made for the start of a strike on Dec 7th. On Dec 10th, railroad workers began to strike under the personal supervision of CCP provincial commissar. A dare-to-die column, consisting of 200 men, would be mobilized for attacking the electricity company, the provincial military council and the provincial capital garrison headquarters. On the same night, the uprising was quelled after Zhang Fakui sent over a division.
Wen Yu pointed out that CCP's rebellion guidelines spelled out such clauses as burning and killing in Hunan-Hubei and Jiangsu provinces. In Hanchuan area of Hubei Province, CCP leaders were instructed to burn villages, towns and cities; in Hunan areas, CCP leaders were instructed to kill all KMT re-organizers (Wang Jingwei's faction), worker traitors, detectives, and reactionaries; and in Hubei extra-territories, CCP leaders were instructed to attack foreigners.
Turn-Of-The-Year Uprisings By Zhu De & Chen Yi
Conversion With Mao Tse-tung On Mt Jinggangshan
Qu Qiubai's Continuing Li Lishan's Centralized Control Over CCP
Uprisings On Hainan Island
Uprisings In Xiang-E-Xi [western Hunan-Hubei provinces]
Uprisings In E-Yu-Wan [Hubei-Henan-Anhui]
Weinan & Huaxian Uprising in Shaanxi Province
Canton Commune Remnants
In Dec 1927, after the failure of Canton Commune, Xu Xiangqian caught up with the retreating rebels at Taiheyu, and then marched on towards Huaxian county. They entered Huaxian county capital after defeating local gentry-organized forces and stayed put for 3 days. Local forces had hide-and-seek warfare with communists continuously. Xu Xiangqian stated that they had about 1440 persons left, with communists taking up 10-20% and KMT leftists taking up the rest. Further, only two, Xu Xiangqian and Wu Zhan, were from Whampoa Academy First Session. Ye Yong, who was made into division chief, was graduated from 3rd Session. The components of this army were mostly from Whampoa 4th Session and Wuhan Academy. They named it Red Army 4th Division, with Yuan Guoping acting as party commissar, and three regiments of 10th, 11th and 12th were organized. Red Army 4th Division was supposedly based on the fact that Zhu De's Nanchang Uprising army was 1st Division, another portion of Nanchang Uprising army which remained at Hailufeng was 2nd Division, and communist guerilla forces in Qiongya (Hainan Island) was Red Army 3rd Division.
Red Army 4th Division, having tried in vain to get in touch with Zhu De three times, decided to converge with Red Army 2nd Division in Hailufeng area. After crossing Dongiang River [East River], they captured county magistrate Qiu Guozhong at Zijin county and executed him. Along the road, local gentry forces set up signs stating 'welcome entry and welcome exit'. By Jan 1st 1928, they converged with Peng Pai's 2nd Division at Haifeng county.
Peng Pai, a graduate of Waseda University, had undertaken three uprisings from 1924 to 1927. With the help of Red Army 2nd Division, i.e., about 1000 soldiers who were led to the south by Dong Lang and Yan Changyi from Nanchang Uprising, assisted Peng Pai in attacking Haifeng and Lufeng in Oct 1927. CCP East River Bureau organized a 10,000 people welcome party for the 4th Division. At the meeting, Peng Pai claimed that CCP's laws would be execution of landlords once they were caught.
Xu Xiangqian would remain in this area till Jan 1929 when last remnants of Red Army 2nd & 4th Divisions were reduced to a dozen people and had to evacuate to Shanghai. This would not be Xu Xiangqian's last time of becoming "bald commander" as he would lose his Red Army during the Western Expedition for purpose of retrieving heavy weaponry that Comintern had transported to Russian Alma Ata [A-la-mu-tu] on the border of New Dominion Province. On the road to HK, Xu Xiangqian's team split into two halves, with the other half never making their way to HK. After arriving in Shanghai, Xu Xiangqian was dispatched to Hubei-Henan-Anhui border areas for organizing Red Army 4th Flank Base.
Pingjiang Uprising by Peng Dehuai & Zhang Yunyi (July 1928)
Bai'se Uprising by Deng Xiaoping (1929)
The KMT White Terror
On April 5th 1927, KMT supervisory [censoring] committee, on basis of April 2nd Wu Jingheng's purge proposal, ordered that Nationalist armies monitor communist activities in their respective domain. Li Zongren stated that wavering armies were relocated away from Shanghai, including Chiang Kai-shek's crony armies while Guangxi Province army, i.e., the only army that was immune from communist penetration, was deployed in Shanghai and Nanking area for checking on wavering armies as well as purging the communists. Huang Shaohong & Li Jishen immediately notified Guangxi and Guangdong provinces with the purge decision. In Guangxi Province, per Li Zongren, a cousin by the name of Li Zhenfeng was executed as a communist together with the rest of "leftists" and communists. (Li Zongren later blamed Guangxi Province for not following the "monitoring" guideline of the KMT supervisory committee decision and claimed that Guangxi Province had possessed more "leftists" and just a few communists.) On Oct 14th 1927, in Guangxi Province, 9 communists, including Xie Tiemin [i.e., Xie Hegeng's brother], were executed at Lize-men city gate of Guilin. In Nov 1927, Zhou Enlai organized CCP "special task force" for dealing with traitors, security issue, and KMT White Terror.
On Sept 15th 1927, Wuhan Government, Nanking Government, and KMT re-organizers, in Shanghai, held a three-party conference for organizing "purging communist special commission" and officially deprived communists of their party membership inside KMT. On Sept 16th, National Commissar meeting, on basis of Aug 22nd Jiujiang Meeting, was held in Nanking for expanding the 47 person military commission to 96 members. Nanking and Wuhan governments hence merged together. However, Hu Qiuyuan pointed out that Wang Jingwei & Tang Shengzhi maintained KMT Wuhan Politics Sub-committee for preserving their independence. On Oct 6th, Zhang Fakui gave a public wire against the KMT "special commissar commission", and On Oct 21st, Tang Shengzhi declared that his Wuhan branch of politics committee separate from Nanking's National Government.
Communists, who refused to repent over their deeds and belief, would be executed. Major communists caught and executed would include Chen Yannian [caught 6-26-1927], Zhao Shiyan [i.e., Li Peng's uncle-in-law, caught 7-2-1927], Chen Qiaonian [another son of Chen Duxiu, caught 2-17-1928], Xu Baihao [caught 2-17-1928], Peng Pai & Yang Yin [caught 8-24-1929].
Li Zongren gave the following observations about Chiang Kai-shek:
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White Terror Conducted By Provincial Warlords
Collusion With British/French Police In International Settlements
CCP Recuperating From KMT Purge
Chiang Kai-shek's No Mercy Policy
Cai Mengting Detecting CCP Assassination Plot In Wuhan
KMT Spy Agencies: "zhong tong" [centrally-led] vs "jun tong" [militarily-led]
The Investigation Section of KMT Social Organization Ministry, initially staffed by KMT Central Party Academy's June 1928 graduates, was first set up in February 1928. After Chen Lifu assumed the post of secretary of KMT Central Party Headquarters, Zhang Daofan [student returnee from France], Wu Dajun [student returnee from US], Ye Xiufeng [student returnee from US] and Xu Enceng [student returnee from US], consecutively within one year timeframe, took over the post of "investigation division chief". Chen swayed the actual power via the director post of KMT Central Organization Department, apost he succeeded from his brother in June 1931 because Chen Guofu was having tuberculosis. Chen Guofu exercised the control via his brother Chen Lifu for dozens of years except for an elapse of four years during WWII when Zhu Jiahua was put in charge of the Central Organization Department. (Qian Zhuangfei [Qian Zhuangqiu, aka Qian-chao] infiltrated into Social Organization Ministry as a graduate of Xu Enceng's wireless training school. With referral by Hu Di, Li Kenong [Li Jiaxuan] got acquainted with Qian Zhuangfei and entered a training school of KMT's wireless management bureau in Dec 1929. By July 1931, staff increased to around 50 persons.)
Resurrection Society, commonly known as the “Blue Shirts” for Liu Jianxu’s aborted attempt at standardizing the uniforms through a pamphlet in Peking in October 1932, was established in the wake of 28 January 1932 Japanese invasion of Shanghai. Prior to the Shanghai invasion, Chiang Kai-shek, on the verge of stepdown due to radical students’ strikes at the government for the passivity over the Manchurian Incident, had remarked to his Whmpoa desciples three times that his best students had all died, which prompted Heh Zhonghan and Zeng Kuoqing into the launching the society in imitation of the Russian GRU [not German-Italian fascisist organizations]. Liu Jianqun’s blue shirts suggestion never received actual endorsement. At the core of the Resurrection Society was the secret "Endeavour Society". Dai Li's special division, the 4th division under the Resurrection Society, maintained relative independence till it was re-organized under the Investigation & Statistics Bureau" of the KMT Central Military Affairs Committee in 1932.
On May 4th, 1935, the “Investigation & Statistics Bureau" was established under the KMT Central Military Affairs Committee for coordinating the espionage work between the Investigation Division of KMT Social Organization Department and the Resurrection Society. Three divisions were created under the Investigation & Statistics Bureau, with Chen Lifu and Chen Zhuo acting as bureau chief and deputy, Xu Enceng in charge of the first division - the Investigation Division of the KMT Social Organization Department, Dai Li in charge of the second division – the Resurrection Society, and Ding Mocun in charge of the third division – the postal and communications censorshop division. In the ensuing competition, Dai Li successfully wrestled over control over the third division.
In Aug 1938, KMT Central Committee established "Central Investigation & Statistics Bureau", later abbreviated as "zhong tong" or centrally-led, which was to make its secret operations appear semi-apparent. Xu Enceng, after covering up his dereliction in hiring Qian Zhuangfei, would hold his post at "investigation division" and "zhong tong" for 15 years.) (Later, in March 1938, Investigation & Statistics Bureau under the Military Commission of the National Government, i.e., KMT "jun tong" or militarily-led, was established on basis of special agents section of Dai Li's Resurrection Society. Chiang Kai-shek separated two departments of Military Commission of the National Government into i) Chen brothers' "zhong tong" and ii) Dai Li's "jun tong": "zhong tong" or centrally-led was built on top of 1st Division of Investigation & Statistics Bureau under the Military Commission, while "jun tong" or militarily-led was built on top of special agents section.)
Gao Hua stated that beginning from 1932, Chiang Kai-shek's KMT government began to revise the old policy of "bodily extinction" as to communists. In 1932, Li Shiqun, a member of CCP special task forces [i.e., 'zhongyang te ke'], was caught by KMT. Li Shiqun soon became an agent of KMT's Investigation Section of Social Organization Ministry.
In Feb 1933, Jiang Qing was enlisted as a member of CCP by her lover Yu Qiwei (aka Huang Jing), and in July of same year, Jiang Qing fled to Shanghai after Yu Qiwei was arrested by KMT. (Yu Qiwei, after split-up with Jiang Qing, later had two children, i.e., Yu Qiangsheng and Yu Zhensheng. Yu Zhengsheng was a widely exposed corrupt Chinese official, while Yu Qiangsheng initiated a 1985 defection to CIA that would lead to the arrest of Larry Wu-tai Chin, i.e., the top CCP mole inside of US and CIA since 1940s. Jiang Qing, together with Zhang Chunqiao, were said to be KMT agents under direct control of Dai Li. Additionally, in 1938, KMT "Three People-ism Youth League" was established.)
KMT Changing Policy Of Bodily Extermination
Wu Jimin attributed KMT's policy change to CCP Secretary Gu Shunzhang's surrender in April 1931. (Note that Xiang Zhongfa was subsequently arrested and executed two months later without the benefit from Gu Shunzhang surrender.) Gu Shunzhang left Shanghai on March 31st 1931 for arranging underground tunnel so that Zhang Guotao and Chen Changhao could enter Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet enclave. After seeing Zhang Guotao and Chen Changhao board the bus for Macheng on April 8th 1931, Gu Shunzhang indulged himself in joining the magician shows in Wuhan. (Gu Shunzhang, aka Li-ming, was at one time Borodin's bodyguard and had a magician master name of "hua [change] guang [grand] qi [strange]".) CCP traitor You Chongxin, sent to the downtown streets by Cai Mengting, recognized Gu Shunzhang from an advertising and subsequently caught Gu on the street on April 24th 1931. Gu Shunzhang immediately surrendered to KMT authorities. Before Cai Mengting sent Gu Shunzhang to Nanking, Cai Mengting transmitted six telegraphs to Xu Enceng for personal decoding. Unfortunately, Xu Enceng went to Shanghai with the sister of his mistress while CCP top mole Qian Zhuangfei deciphered the wires and immediately notified Shanghai's CCP Central of Gu Shunzhang betrayal. (Xu Enceng, a returnee of US college, was hired by Chen brothers as a crony of Wuxing native town of Zhejiang Province, while Qian Zhuangfei obtained the trust of Xu Enceng as a crony of Huzhou native town of Zhejiang Province. Zhou Enlai personally made arrangement for Qian Zhuangfei, Li Kenong & Hu Di [Hu Beifeng] to be under the direct leadership of Chen Geng, i.e., 2nd section chief of CCP's special task division.)
KMT certainly did not execute all CCP members who refused to surrender. After Marco Polo Bridge Incident of July 7th 1937, CCP reached an agreement with KMT on the matter of resisting Japanese invasion. Over 1000 CCP members were released from KMT prisons. They would include Huang Yaomian and Hui Yuyu who invariably underwent four stages of CCP investigations before being restored party memberships or assigned jobs.
KMT Routing Out Underground Communists & Comintern In Shanghai
Chinese communists often sought asylum in Tokyo when government crackdown extended to the safe haven of Shanghai’s foreign leased territories. After Chiang Kai-shek purged the Chinese communists in 1927, Chinese communists flocked to Tokyo for re-establishing party relationship as well as using Japan as a safe passage for the Russian Far East. Japanese government conducted two massive simultaneous roundups of communists in 1928 and 1932, respectively. Back in Shanghai's East Asia Doubun (Common Language) Academy, Wang Xuewen, a student of Japanese socialist-communist Kawakami Hajime, took an economics lecturer post at the Doubun Academy, established a book-reading society and a social science research society together with Tanaka Tadao of Shanhai Nippo (Shanghai Daily), and recruited dozens of agents who were to play significant in future Ozaki-Sorge spy ring. Under the Comintern auspice, the Pan-Pacific Trade Union Secretariat (PPTUS), staffed by mostly Americans, was set up in 1927, with its main activities focused on China. It would be in March 1929 that the Far Eastern Bureau of the Comintern (FEB) followed the lead of PPTUS to be “in full composition” in Shanghai, with a full house of notable agents such as Ignatiyi Rylskii (chief), Gerhart Eisler, George Hardy (in charge of Profintern), and Alex Massy (in charge of Communist Youth League, CYL or KIM)
Chinese Leftist Writer Alliance
Mt Jinggangshan & Mt Donggu - Mao Tse-tung's Guerilla Warfare, A-B League Purge
Mao Tse-tung, per http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/3/10/1/51936.html, re-routed towards Jiangxi Province at the suggestion to Song Renqiong by CCP Jiangxi Provincial Secretary Wang Zekai. On Sept 19th 1927, Mao Tse-tung's autumn harvest uprising remnants, totaling about 1600 men, led by division chief Yu Sadu, regiment chief Su Xianjun and Commander Lu Deming, were still debating whether they should attack major cities like Liuyang, Pingjiang and Changsha. Mao Tse-tung proposed a retreat to the south to have a conversion with Heh Long & Ye Ting's Nanchang Uprising remnants in Guangdong Province. On Sept 20th, autumn harvest uprising remnants departed for Pingxiang from Wenjiashi. On Sept 23rd, communists suffered a loss and dispersion of 700 persons, including the death of Lu Deming, in the hands of two KMT regiments under Zhu Shigui. On Sept 25th, autumn harvest uprising remnants, less than 1000 men, took over Lianhua-xian county, driving off local gentry forces without a fight. Around noon, Song Renqiong, previously a worker-peasant army leader in Liuyang, caught up with Mao Tse-tung with Wang Zekai's letter stating that autumn harvest uprising remnants could go to Ninggang of Jiangxi Province.
On the way to Mt Jinggangshan, Mao Tse-tung encountered peasant forces led by Heh Zizhen family and in a few days took over Heh Zizhen [age 18?] as his woman without slight regard for his wife Yang Kaihui. (Wasn't true that Song Dynasty's big bandits in "Water Margins" invariably grabbed some women as so-called "madam for quelling the citadel"? Later, 43 year old Zhu De took in 17 something Kang Keqing in a similar fashion.) Also on the road, Mao Tse-tung tactically won over the banditry of Yuan Wencai and Wang Zuo. In Oct 1927, at Sanwan of Yongxin-xian County, Mao Tse-tung re-organized his army by instituting CCP party branches at the level of a company after reflecting on CCP's old approach of instituting CCP party branches at the level of a regiment within Ye Ting's so-called Iron Army. Mao Tse-tung standardized the oath ceremony for enrolling soldiers as CCP members. (per GH, Mao Tse-tung renamed party commissar into 'political commissioner' in 1929 and re-designated company-level 'political commissioner' into 'political instructor' in 1931.)
In March-April 1928, Mao Tse-tung (i.e., Mao Tse-tung) personally led two regiments of Worker-Peasant Army [WPA] off Mt Jinggangshan for aiding Zhu De in Hunan Province. Zhu De's army successfully relocated to Jiangxi Province. On Mt Jinggangshan of Jiangxi Province, CCP boasted of 1000 men under Mao, 600 men under Yuan & Wang (banditry), 2000 men directly under Zhu De, and 8000 men under various Hunan divisions and regiments. On May 4th, Mao & Zhu declared the formation of Red Army 4th Corps, with three divisions of 10th, 11th and 12th or eight regiments, later to be reorganized into 6 regiments of 31st (Zhang Ziqing, formerly Mao's autumn harvest remnants), 28th (Wang Erzhuo, formerly Zhu De & Chen Yi division), 32nd (formerly Yuan & Wang banditry), 29th (Hu Shaohai, formerly Yizhang WPA division), and 30th and 33rd (two regiments based on peasants from Hunan Province but later asked to go back to Hunan for lessening the economic burden on Mt Jinggangshan). Also in May 1928, Mao Tse-tung held the First Meeting of "CCP Representatives In Jiangxi-Hunan Border Area" at Maoping of Ninggang County and made himself into a leader of both the Red Army and the regional CCP committee. http://www.humanrights-china.org/meetingchina/Meeti2002114164646.htm stated that "after the 1928 Conference [second Maoping Conference] emphatic efforts to enlist the support of the peasantry were made, and eight rules were added to the three disciplines.
In June of 1928, CCP held its 6th Session in Moscow and elected Mao Tse-tung as one of the commissars in absence as an appreciation of Mao Tse-tung's success in establishing a communist military base in Jiangxi Province. Xiang Zhongfa, a communist of worker background, was made into "general secretary" at the meeting. Zhou Enlai, in Moscow, was said to have worked very close with Xiang Zhongfa. Wang Ming [Chen Shaoyu] acted as an interpreter at the time. However, Qu Qiubai lost his brother Qu Jingbai in a mysterious disappearance in Moscow as a result of his conflicts with Comintern and Wang Ming faction, per Wu Jimin.
On June 4th, CCP Central Committee wrote to Zhu De & Mao Tse-tung from Shanghai, criticizing the lack of workers in the Red Army as well as the assignment of local Soviet leadership by the army rather than an election from the communist enclave. CCP Hunan Provincial commissars, including Yang Kaiming and Du Xiujing, continued to criticize Mao Tse-tung's dual leadership of both the army and the party. CCP Central Committee also advised that Zhu De & Mao Tse-tung revoke the commissar system and establish politics department within the red army in the attempt of alleviating Mao Tse-tung's control.
In Aug 1928, Zhu De was ordered to attack Hunan Province in accordance with CCP Hunan Provincial Bureau instructions. Zhu De's campaign failed, while CCP's regional leadership in Jiangxi-Hunan Border Area collapsed as a result of the vacuum left by the Red Army's departure. CCP's regional leadership was re-established when the Red Army returned in Sept.
On Feb 25th 1929, CCP Hunan Province commissar Yang Kemin accused Mao Tse-tung of making CCP into a "peasant party". Yang Keming claimed that Mao's CCP was composed of large portion of secret society members from Hong-hui [Qing-hong-bang gangster] as well as was organized as a patriarchy of families and clans. In 1929, Mao Tse-tung and Zhu De had a dispute in regards to military leadership to be under the frontline commissar committee of Red Army 4th Corps or to be under CCP military commission. Mao Tse-tung, at one time, left the Red Army Fourth Corps for a post as regional CCP leader. Feng Zhijun, in "Mao Tse-tung & Liu Shaoqi" (Huangfu International Publishing House, HK, April 1998 Edition), stated that Mao Tse-tung had fared nothing in particular by hiding on Mt Jinggangshan till Zhu De's arrival and that it was Zhu De & Chen Yi who had proposed a breakout to western Fujian Province & southwestern Jiangxi Province for establishing CCP's Soviet enclave in Jiangxi. Feng Zhijun added that Mao Tse-tung, in 1929, had continued his Autumn Harvest "leftist venturism" by proposing the takeover of Jiangxi Province within one year.
CCP records claimed that Mao Tse-tung was first "repressed" by Li Lishan's "leftist opportunism" in July 1929. However, alternative blame on Li Lishan "Leftist Venturist" Path was for the time period of June - Sept 1930, during which time Li Lishan assumed leadership by taking advantage of Zhou Enlai's departure for Moscow in March 1930. By late June 1929, Red Army had sacked Longyan of Fujian Province for the 3rd time, and a so-called Red Army Fourth Corps's 7th party representative meeting was held. There was a so-called CCP Central "February Letter" that was cited for revoking Mao Tse-tung's post of frontline secretary for 4th corps.
In July, Chen Yi personally traveled to Shanghai to report the dispute to CCP Central Committee. Three months later, CCP Central ordered that Red Army Fourth Corps relocate to Guangdong-Guangxi provinces in the south for establishing a base. Liu Liang wrote that Mao Tse-tung, though deeply sick as a result of diarrhea, demanded that soldiers shouldered him to Longyan by "stretch on two poles" [i.e., wooden litter]. Mao returned to Shanghang after Zhu De refused to listen to him. While Chen Yi was visiting Mao at Longyan, the two argued about the southern campaign. Chen Yi claimed that he, having just returned from CCP Central's meeting in Shanghai, would for sure follow the resolution to fight in Guangdong Province. Chen Yi, for his hitting the tables, would cause Mao's face pale all of a sudden. Mao finally said he would refuse to go south. In Sept 1929, Zhou Enlai, from CCP headquarters in Shanghai, drafted a so-called "September Letter" and supported Mao Tse-tung, i.e., former CCP secretary of frontline commissar committee, in recovering leadership over Red Army 4th Corps. In Dongjiang [Eastern River] area of Guangdong, Red Army Fourth Corps lost one regiment after being attacked by three divisions from KMT's 19th Route Army. Once Chen Yi returned to Jiangxi from his second trip to Shanghai, both Chen Yi and Zhu De followed CCP Central Committee instructions in retrieving Mao as leader of Red Army Fourth Corps. (Mao, however, had never forgiven anybody who had offended him in history, with Chen Yi to fall a victim in the cultural revolution of 1960s.)
By the Gutian Meeting of 1929, Mao Tse-tung had established his absolute authority over the Jiangxi Soviet territories. Mao Tse-tung's Red Army Fourth Corps at one time penetrated southward to Guangdong Province, returned to western Fujian Province in Nov 1929, and arrived in Gutian of Shanghang county in Dec 1929. Lai Chuanzhu memoirs pointed out that Red Army Fourth Corps possessed 4 echelons by that time and Mao intended to launch Gutian Meeting for rectifying the thoughts of soldiers and officers, especially those of 4th Echelon which was comprised of turncoat armies from KMT 8th Corps and 3rd Corps. (http://www.humanrights-china.org/meetingchina/Meeti2002114164646.htm stated that "part of Chu Pei-teh's min-t'uan [gentry-organized militia] mutinied and joined the Red Army. They were led to the Communist camp by a Kuomintang commander, Lo P'ing-hui [Luo Binghui],*** who was disillusioned about the Kuomintang and wanted to join the Red Army.")
A dozen days later, KMT launched 3-province combined siege of the Red Army. Mao ordered that 1st, 3rd and 4th echelons relocate to Jiangxi while he himself commanded 2nd echelon in Longyan of Fujian Province to attract KMT forces and then made a sudden leap towards Jiangxi Province. Luo Ronghuan was commissar for 2nd echelon. While conducting 'mobile warfare', Mao still instructed that his soldiers study the Gutian Meeting guidelines and CCP members take party principle classes. Gutian Meeting was said to have endorsed Red Army's discipline song 'Three Major Disciplines and Eight Attentions".
Beginning from 1930, Mao Tse-tung's unchallenged leadership over Jiangxi Soviet territories began to wane as a result of CCP Central Committee's shifting towards Jiangxi from Shanghai as well as continuing influx of CCP returnees from Moscow. CCP records claimed that Mao Tse-tung was, for a second time, "repressed" by Li Lishan's "leftist opportunism" in June 1930. Back on April 3rd 1930, Li Lishan ordered that Red Army Fourth Corps abandoned the base in Fujian-Guangdong-Jiangxi provinces for the Yangtze River area for sake of conquering major cities [i.e., Nanchang, Jiujiang and Wuhan]. Mao dissuaded Zhu by claiming that KMT possessed 10 divisions in Wuhan while CCP might only possess 200 underground agents and 150 union members there. When Mao Tse-tung and Zhu De refused to follow Li Lishan, CCP Central issued a so-called June 15th 1930 letter rebuking Mao and Zhu as "opportunists" with peasant mindsets. Li Lishan "Leftist Venturist" Path would be the draft "New Revolutionary Climax & Victory In One Or Several Provinces" during June 11th 1930 CCP Politburo meeting. To deflate CCP Central, Mao Tse-tung authorized a fake attack at Nanchang. Red Army 4th Corps crossed Ganjiang River, took over Gao'an, and dispatched Luo Binghui's platoon to Niuhang Train Station to fake an attack at the city. Thereafter, Mao Tse-tung ordered an attack of Liuyang and Changsha of Hunan Province to the west instead. At Wenjiashi, near Liuyang, Red Army destroyed a KMT brigade. At Yonghe of Liuyang, 4th Corps converged with Red Army 3rd Corps-Conglomerate into so-called Red Army First Front [i.e., Red Army Central Front] which boasted of 30000 soldiers in total. (http://www.humanrights-china.org/meetingchina/Meeti2002114164646.htm stated that "Early in 1929 several groups of partisans under Li Wen-lung and Li Shao-tsu were reorganized into the Third Red Army, commanded by Wang Kung-lu, and with Ch'en Yi as political commissar.")
In Moscow, on June 12th 1930, Stalin met with Qu Qiubai, Zhou Enlai, Deng Zhongxia and Su Zhaozhenge etc, and instructed that China's revolution was a "bougeoisie democratic revolution", not a "socialist revolution", nor a "perpetuating revolution". While Stalin claimed that China's revolution was at its low tide, Li Lishan cronies countered Stalin by claiming it was in high tide which Stalin likened to merely some high waves in a low tide. Bukharin met 21 CCP leaders on 14th & 15th in regards to CCP opportunism. The next day, CCP 6th Session was held in Moscow, lasting till July 11th. Bukharin and Qu Qiubai made speeches on 19th & 20th, for CCP members to discuss, and Zhou Enlai, as secretary-in-general for the meeting, made a speech on 27th in regards to distinction between "bougeoisie democratic revolution" and "socialist revolution". On June 30th, Zhou Enlai claimed that Chiang Kai-shek's White Terror had caused a death of 310,000 to 340,000 communists and revolutionaries, imprisonment of 4,600 people, and a reduction of unions to 81 from 734. While Zhang Guotao and Qu Qiubai were arguing against each other, Bukharin rebuked them both, claiming that workers should replace intellectuals as leadership of CCP. Wang Ruofei was criticized for defending Chen Duxiu during the meeting. Liu Bocheng and Xiang Zhongfa made speeches on Red Army, peasants, and workers, respectively. On July 19th, CCP held First Plenary of 6th Session and the second day, declared the politburo consisting of Xiang Zhongfa, Zhou Enlai, Su Zhaozheng, Cai Hesen and Xiang Ying. Xiang Zhongfa, a worker-rascal, was appointed the highest post as a result of Moscow insistence on worker leadership.
In late July, Peng Dehuai sacked Changsha city at one time, and in early August, Li Lishan advocated continuous rebellions and uprisings in major cities like Wuhan, Nanking & Shanghai.
Battle Of Huangyangjie On Mt Jinggangshan
Death Of Yuan Wencai and Wang Zuo
Li Lishan "Leftist Venturist" Path (June - Sept 1930)
Loss Of Mt Jinggangshan Base
Purge of the Anti-Bolshevik League: Phase I
Through Salisbury's "New Long March", in 1984, I first gained some insight into the Purge of Anti-Bolshevik League (i.e., AB League). However, the general impression at the time was that Mao Tse-tung merely removed Jiangxi communists with his Hunan communists. Gao Hua's "How Did The [Red] Sun Rise Over Yan'an ? - A History Of The Rectification Movement" did a splendid job of tracing all communist terror to the initiator, i.e., Mao Tse-tung. Gao Hua pointed out that Mao Tse-tung was the culprit for initiating the Purge of AB League; that Xiang Ying (i.e., secretary for CCP Central Bureau) had tried very hard in correcting Mao Tse-tung's wrongdoing; that CCP Central Committee toppled Xiang Ying's decision and collaborated with Mao Tse-tung in pushing the Purge of AB League into Phase II; and that CCP Central Committee had stopped cooperation with Mao Tse-tung as a result of the need for correcting the worsening situation due to the purge. (Mao Tse-tung, on Mt Lushan and in 1959, attacked Peng Dehuai by invoking the death of his senior son in Korea in Nov 1950, and exclaimed a famous comment: "Wasn't it true that whoever manufactured the first prototype of pottery figurine [i.e., launching the Korean Relief War] would be doomed in losing his lineage?" -- Mao was the real prototype creator of all terrors.)
Li Wenlin Asserting Control Over Southwestern Jiangxi Province
More available at Anti-Bolshevik_League.pdf (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
On Dec 10th, at Donggu's 20th Corps headquarters, Li Shaojiu instructed that Corps Chief Liu Tiechao and commissar Zeng Bingchun sort out AB League members. 174th Regiment Commissar Liu Di, a native of Li Shaojiu, was suspected to be an AB League member. However, Liu Di slipped away by pretending to be obedient to Li Shaojiu via Changsha dialect. On Dec 12th, Liu Di colluded with battalion chief Zhang Xing of detached battalion in raiding Li Shaojiu and the corps headquarters. Liu Di arrested Li Shaojiu and Liu Tiechao, and freed hostage Xie Hanchang. Commissar Zeng Bingchun slipped home. Li Shaojiu later escaped during arrest. Thereafter, Liu Di led the detached battalion to Futian and surrounded provincial Soviet government. Liu Di set free 70 AB League members including Duan Liangbi and Li Kaifang. Gu Bo and his wife, Zeng Shan, and Chen Zhengren's wife escaped. Xia Hanchang and Liu Di then relocated Red Army 20th Corps to Yongxin-Lianhua-Anfu areas, to the west of Ganjiang River, and established Jiangxi Soviet Government. Duan Liangbi was ordered to carry gold to Shanghai's CCP Central Committee for arbitration of the Purge of AB League and Futian Incident.
To counter Mao Tse-tung, Xia Hanchang and Liu Di obtained the support of CCP regional secretary Wang Huai [i.e., secretary in the west of Ganjiang River] as well as fabricated Mao's letter as a dissension to win over generals under Mao Tse-tung. Peng Dehuai, commander for Red Army 3rd Corps-Conglomerate, personally expressed loyalty to Mao. With the backing of Peng, Mao, on Dec 20th, insisted that Southwestern Jiangxi Province CY/CY organizations were full of AB League members; that should those guys not belong to AB League members, why couldn't they patiently wait for the truth to come out; and that Futian rebellion proved that the AB League conspiracy was real. Further, Mao authored a 16-line double sentence campaign poem against Futian rebels. AB League Purge was followed by Xiang Ying's four month rectification when Xiang Ying assumed the post of deputy secretary for CCP central politburo in lieu of Mao Tse-tung's general frontline commissar and general frontline secretary.
Re-organized KMT Leftists ('gan-zu-pai')
Quelling Internal Enemies Before Resisting Foreign Invaders
Chiang Kai-shek strictly enforced the policy of 'quelling internal enemies before expelling external invaders'. On Sept 18th 1931, with three relief divisions from Korea military garrison, Japanese Kwantung Army which stationed in Manchuria provoked the 'Liutiaogou Incident' and attacked Chinese armies inside of army camps in Shenyang city. on Sept 18th 1931, Japanese Kwantung Army blew up railway tracks at Liutiaohu and then accused Chinese troops of sabotage. Japanese Kwantung Army used the blast as the signal for charge. Populace across the country rose up in protests. In Shanghai, Dong Zhujun and her daughter fought with extra-territory police which cracked down on the protesters. Shortly afterward, Dong Zhujun participated in publishing a short-lived magazine called "Drama & Music" with Zheng Shamei & Xie Yunxin (aka Zhang Min).
Xie Hegeng, a junior brother of communist martyr Xie Tiemin, left for Peking to attend China University in May 1930 and subsequently joined underground communist organizations. Xie Hegeng joined the Alliance of Chinese Social Scientists in March 1931 and the Grand Alliance For Countering Imperialism thereafter. In 1932, the League (Alliance) for Protecting Civil Rights of China was established in Shanghai, with Yang Xingfo, Song Qingling, Lu Xun and Cai Yuanpei in charge. Yang Xingfo was the vice chairman.
Dai Li was authorized to form Fuxing [Resurrection] Society on basis of "secret investigation team" under military commission. In 1932, Chiang Kai-shek, for making a public cover for secret agent operation, conferred Dai Li the post of second section chief inside of Chen Lifu's Investigation & Statistics Bureau under the Military Commission of the National Government. Later, in March 1938, Investigation & Statistics Bureau under the Military Commission of the National Government, i.e., KMT "jun tong" or militarily-led, was established on basis of special agents section of Dai Li's Resurrection Society.
In autumn of 1932, Xie Hegeng was asked by Xuan Xiafu to go to Cha-ha-er Province for assisting Feng Yuxiang and Ji Hongchang's Northwestern Army. Xuan Xiafu held the post of 5th division chief under Ji Hongchang's 2nd corps. In Dec, with 10 yuan fund from Du Keming, Xie Hegeng, as representative of Peking students, arrived at the camp of Northwestern Army and assisted in establishing the Cha-ha-er Populace Anti-Japanese Allied Army. In Feb 1933, Xie Hegeng was accepted into CCP as a member. Having developed into over 100,000 people, Ji Hongchang's army pushed against Duolun, and by July, Ji Hongchang drove the Japanese and collaborators out of Cha-ha-er Province. By late July, Feng Yuxiang and Ji Hongchang established at Zhangjiakou the committee for recovering the four provinces of the Northeast.
Chiang Kai-shek, seeing that communists had dominated the Anti-Japanese Alliance Army, mobilized 16 divisions against Feng Yuxiang and Ji Hongchang. Surrounded by Chiang Kai-shek and Japanese on all sides, Feng Yuxiang resigned his post, while Ji Hongchang fought on for a while before stealthily seeking asylum in Tianjin's extraterritory in Jan 1934. In Mar of 1934, Ji Hongchang traveled to Shanghai where Xuan Xiafu officially presided over the ceremony for Ji Hongchang to join the CCP. On April 24th, Ji Hongchang established the "Great Anti-Fascism Alliance of Chinese People" in Tianjin, with Feng Yuxiang, Li Jishen, Fang Zhenwu and Ren Yingqi echoing support elsewhere in the country. Chiang Kai-shek's agents injured Ji Hongchang in an assassination on Nov 9th, and colluded with French police in extraditing Ji Hongchang for execution in Peking on Nov 24th. Ji Hongchang, originally destined for Nanking, was re-routed to Peking after Ji Hongchang cronies destroyed a segment of railroad tracks for rescuing Ji Hongchang. Ji died sitting on a chair without a cloth on his eyes.
After the abortion of Northwestern Army campaign, Xie Hegeng was dispatched to Southwestern China by CCP in the autumn of 1934 for instigating Bai Chongxi's rebellion against Chiang Kai-shek. Xuan Xiafu was dispatched to the south at the same time as an auxiliary.
In Beijing, He Yingqin ordered that Zheng Jiemin assassinate Zhang Jingyao for preventing a possible collusion with Japanese. Zhang Jingyao was shot to death on May 7th of 1932 by an assassin called Bai Shixiong. On June 18th of 1933, Yang Xingfo was assassinated by Dai Li. Shen Zui was responsible for spying on Yang. On Nov 14th of 1934, Shi Liangcai, "Shen Bao", was assassinated by Dai Li's agents on the Hangzhou-Shanghai Highway.
The Red Terror & the Chinese Soviet Republic
CCP made Shanghai its party headquarters for a reason: Shanghai's extraterritory provided a safe haven for communism activities. However, British and French police often colluded with KMT authorities in extraditing CCP activists. After Chiang Kai-shek's purge of communists, Shanghai fell into the claws of so-called 'White Terror'. In Nov 1927, CCP Central, under Zhou Enlai, organized special task forces [i.e., 'zhongyang te ke'] for executing traitors and providing security as a show of 'Red Terror'. (Zheng Yi, in "Seventy Years Of Espionage Between KMT & CCP", pointed out that CCP Central established a "special agent department" in Wuhan in late May 1927 to deal with Chiang Kai-shek's 4-12-1927 betrayal; after failure of 8-1-1927 Nanchang Uprising, CCP Central moved to Shanghai in Sept 1927; and that Zhou Enlai arrived in Shanghai in Nov 1927 and established CCP Central's special work committee that oversaw the special task force division. Zhou Enlai's cover was antique shop "songpo [pine] zai [shop]" owner Wu-hao. Within two years, CCP Central's special work committee, other than setting up over a dozen businesses, would infiltrate into police bureaus of international settlements, Shanghai garrison command center, Shanghai municipal government, court houses, embassies and news agencies.)
CCP special task forces originally had three sections, with Hong Yangsheng's 1st Section in charge of meeting, leasing, guarantee and postmortem arrangements for communist martyrs. When Luo Yinong died in April 1928, Hong Yangsheng collected the body. Section 2, under Chen Geng, was in charge of espionage and information collection, while Section 3 was code-named 'action section' which Gu Shunzhang, Tan Yubao & Wang Zhuyou had supervised, consecutively. The most famous of "red terrors" would be those orchestrated by Zhou Enlai, as in the case of shooting death of traitor Bai Xin and the killing of traitor Gu Shunzhang's whole family. Later, section 4 was added for telegraph service.
KMT "white terror", by the means of bodily extinction, was prevalent in the aftermath of Chiang Kai-shek betrayal to the Grand Revolution. Kang Sheng [i.e., Zhao Rong], later equivalent of China's Beria during the Purge of Trotskyites & Yan'an Rectification Movement (1937-1945), was rumored to have surrendered to KMT after being caught by KMT in 1930. (In June 1938, Kang Sheng executed someone called Zhang Xing for accusation as to Kang Sheng's enrolment in Trotskyite organization after capture by KMT, and in 1969, Kang Sheng also ordered that Lu Futan be executed during the cultural revolution for disclosure that Kang Sheng was caught by KMT in 1930. Lu Futan, a 1931 CCP interim politburo member who surrendered to KMT, disclosed that Kang Sheng had betrayed CCP members while under arrest in 1930.)
CCP special task forces, per GH, could have originated from Kang Sheng's "dog beating column" during 1927 uprisings. When Chen Yun transferred to CCP Consolidated Unions in 1932, Kang Sheng [aka Zhao Rong and original name being Zhang Yun] became the direct supervisor of the special task force till he left for Moscow in July 1933. During the interval, Kang Sheng's special task force, nicknamed "hong dui" (i.e., red terror column") had assassinated Shi Jimei (aka Ma Shaowu), an agent of KMT's Investigation Section of Social Organization Ministry (i.e., "zhong tong" or centrally-led against KMT "jun tong" or militarily-led). Kang Sheng team, comprising of Wang Shiying, Xiang Xingnian [Xiang Yunian], Kuang Hui'an and Li Shiying, had also assassinated lots of communist-turned pro-KMT folks.
Assassination Of Bai Xin
On Aug 24th 1928, British police broke into Jingyuanli Lane of Xinzhalu Road and arrested such CCP members as Peng Pai, Yang Yin, Yan Changyi, Xing Shizhen and Bai Xin while those communists were convening a military meeting under CCP's Jiangsu Province commissar committee. Two days later, Peng Pai was extradited to KMT authority. Chen Geng, under Zhou Enlai's order, immediately dispatched Yang Dengying (i.e., a top CCP mole inside KMT in Shanghai) for checking out the cause of this arrest. On the same day of Peng Pai's arrest, CCP discovered that Bai Xin was the traitor.
CCP failed to rescue Peng Pai from KMT transportation for missing the schedule in an ambush. CCP instructed Yang Dengying in checking out the whereabouts and itineraries of Bai Xin and finally shot him dead. Both Kuang Jixun and Xiang Xingnian were members of the hitters in this action.
Wang Ming's Ascension To Power Within CCP
Extermination Of Gu Shunzhang's Family
When Gu Shunzhang was captured by KMT and consequently surrendered to KMT in April 1931, CCP Central special task forces underwent a re-organization, with Chen Yun, Kang Sheng and Pan Hannian etc to lead a "CCP Central Special Task Committee" overseeing the activities of special task forces. Gu Shunzhang was a veteran CCP member who led the workers' uprising with Zhou Enlai in 1927, while Kang Sheng [i.e., Zhao Rong] enrolled in CCP in 1925 and later participated in the 1927 uprisings.
More available at Murder Of Gu Shunzhang's Family. (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
Wang Ming's Line Of Control Over Soviet Territories
CCP Central Overturning Xiang Ying's Mediation At Futian Mutiny
Though far away from Jiangxi Province's Soviet Republic, CCP Central in Shanghai directly involved itself in the adjudication of "Futian Mutiny", i.e., a CCP internal strife arising from over-implication in the Anti-Bolshevik League Purge. On Feb 13th 1931, CCP Central Committee in Shanghai discussed "Futian Mutiny". Gao Hua stated that CCP Central Committee might have first learnt of this mutiny from messenger Liu Zuowu who was asked to bring gold to Shanghai by Duan Liangbi. Duan Liangbi personally made a trip to Shanghai in Feb-Mar 1931 to report to Bo-gu on the "Purge of AB League Incident" and "Futian Mutiny Incident". On Feb 13th, Zhou Enlai reshuffled Jiangxi Soviet Central Bureau into Xiang Ying, Ren Bishi, Mao Tse-tung and Wang Jiaxiang. Ren Bishi was made into director for CCP Central Bureau's organization department. On Feb 20th, Zhou Enlai, Ren Bishi and Wang Jiaxiang concluded that "Futian Mutiny" was a reactionary act conducted by AB League members and decreed that Ren Bishi lead a CCP Central Committee delegation to Jiangxi, hence overthrowing Xiang Ying's reconciliation decision.
On March 4th 1931, Ren Bishi, Wang Jiaxiang and Gu Zuolin, as so-called "troika", left for Jiangxi Soviet consecutively, with major task of cleansing the policies of CCP 3rd Plenary of 6th Session as enforced by Xiang Ying. Gao Hua speculated that Zhou Enlai might have drafted March 28th Resolution in regards to "Futian Mutiny". Ren Bishi, Wang Jiaxiang and Gu Zuolin entered southern Jiangxi via western Fujian Province in April. On April 17th, Ren Bishi hosted at Qingtang of Ningdu an "expanded meeting of Jiangxi Soviet Central Bureau", overthrew Xiang Ying's March 18th speech in regards to Futian Mutiny, established a trial committee headed by Zhou Yili, executed Liu Di immediately, tried and executed Southwestern Jiangxi leaders (i.e., Xie Hanchang, Li Baifang, Jin Wanbang, Zhou Mian and Ye Yunzhong etc), and restored Mao Tse-tung's post of frontline general secretary over Red Army First Flank in May by depriving Xiang Ying of the interim posts for both the Red Army and CCP.
Further, when Red Army 20th Corps under Zeng Bingchun and Xiao Dapeng (i.e., successor to Liu Tiechao) returned to Yudu county from west of Ganjiang River in July 1931, the whole corps were disarmed, and army officers from corps chief to platoon deputy chief were all executed as AB League members. As to local communist leaders of Southwestern Jiangxi, over 90% were classified as AB League members under extortion via 100 different kinds of cruel tortures.
On Aug 3rd 1931, CCP Soviet Central Bureau was established with Zhou Enlai, Xiang Ying, Mao Tse-tung, Ren Bishi, Gu Zuolin, Deng Fa & Zhu De on board. Ren Bishi's delegation spent honeymoon time period with Mao Tse-tung. On Aug 30th, CCP Central in Shanghai remarked that Jiangxi Soviet was still in the path of Li Lishan's "reconciling-ism", "rightist opportunism" and "rich peasant path". Zhou Enlai, however, advised against 'simplification' and 'over-implication' on Aug 30th 1931 after he listened to the report by Ouyang Qin who was dispatched back to Shanghai by Ren Bishi. Ren Bishi hence read out Zhou Enlai's letter during the First Congress of Representatives of Soviet Territories held in Yeping of Ruijin during Nov 1st-5th 1931, an incident which made Mao hate Zhou for life. Feng Zhijun pointed out that "troika" also accused Mao Tse-tung of following "rightist opportunism", "rich peasant path", "guerilla-ism" and "narrow-minded empiricism". Xiang Ying was asked to replace Mao Tse-tung as interim secretary of CCP Soviet Central Bureau.
On Nov 7th [Nov 1st? per Liu Liang] 1931, CCP held the so-called Gan-nan [southern Jiangxi] Meeting, i.e., the First National Congress of Representatives of the "Chinese Soviet Republic of Workers and Peasants", with Mao Tse-tung elected chairman for both the executive committee and people's committee of the Soviet republic. Zhang Guotao and Xiang Ying assumed vice chair posts. CCP called upon overthrow of KMT government as well as armed defending of USSR. At the meeting, Mao Tse-tung was heavily criticized as following "rich peasant path" and "narrow-minded empiricism" per Liu Liang. On Nov 27th, Red Army 3rd Corps-Conglomerate sacked Huichang.
On Dec 5th 1931, Ren Bishi proposed a correction of so-called "purge-centrism". It would be in mid-Dec that Zhou Enlai, passing through western Fujian territories while en route to Jiangxi from Shanghai, discovered the truth of another bloody purge movement, i.e., the "Purge of Socialist Democratic Party". Zhou Enlai thus began the immediate brake on the AB League Purge.
In Jan 1932, 24-year-old secretary general Bo-gu of CCP's Interim Central Politburo came to Ruijin from Shanghai. Bo-gu, i.e., Qin Bangxian, advocated for "Bolshevik-ization" of party and army as well as proletarianization of people inside Soviet Republic. Liu Liang stated that Mao Tse-tung was asked to have a vacation at a monastery on Mt Donghuashan. In early 1932, Peng Dehuai lead Red Army First Flank [Red Army First Front or Central Front] for four futile attacks at high-walled Ganzhou. When Red Army failed to sack Ganzhou, Zhou Enlai of the CCP Central dispatched Xiang Ying for fetching Mao Tse-tung from Mt Donghuashan as an adviser. When Mao Tse-tung called off the campaign against Ganzhou, Bo-gu was recorded to have deprived Mao Tse-tung of his posts for over-stepping his duties.
Purge of Socialist Democratic Party - Western Fujian Province,
Purge of Socialist Democratic Party (SDP), which first started in early 1931, had led to 6352 victims and two similar mutinies termed Kengkou Mutiny on May 27th and Fu Bocui Rebellion. (Fu Bocui was a finance minister of western Fujian Province Soviet who severed himself with CCP in an armed confrontation.) Purge of SDP went into peak around March. After the purge, communist members had dwindled to 5000 from 8000 in Western Fujian Province.
More available at Purge of Socialist Democratic Party & Kengkou Mutiny. (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
Kengkou Mutiny - Western Fujian Province,
Fu Bocui controlled his hometown Gujiao area. In Oct 1930, Fu Bocui was accused of possessing "third party viewpoints". In Feb 1931, Deng Fa revoked Fu Bocui's CCP membership and dispatched Red Army against him. On March 6th, Western Fujian Soviet Government issued Notice No. 23, accusing Fu Bocui of being a leader of Socialist Democrats. On May 27th, a mutiny termed Kengkou Mutiny ensued when communist column chief Li Zhen of Hangwu-xian County arrested Luo Souchun (i.e., secretary for Western Fujian Soviet Government) for implicating about 200 communists in the Socialist Democrat Party. Li Zhen set free Heh Dengnan (CCP district secretary of Hangwu county) and Chen Jingyue (i.e., commissar for the 3rd armed column of Hangwu county), lay a siege of county Soviet government, and dispatched soldiers to Baisha to have his remnant 3rd district members released by means of a handwritten note from Luo Souchun. On May 29th, Deng Fa dispatched Red Army 12th Corps against Hangwu (today's Shanghang county) and executed majority of 3rd district communist members. On June 1st, per GH, 2nd district members of Hangwu also rebelled against Deng Fa. Similarly, rebellions had occurred in Yongding county where CCP leaders like Xie Xianqiu, Lu Zhaoxi and Zeng Muchun were executed for refusing the purge order. Deng Fa, Zhang Dingzai (chairman for Western Fujian Soviet) and Lin Yizhu cracked down on all of them.
More available at Purge of Socialist Democratic Party & Kengkou Mutiny. (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
Chinese Communist Party Selling Out Widows
During days of underground operations in Shanghai, Zhou Enlai gave Zhang Wenqiu to Richard Sorge [Zuo-e-ge] for sex, while Richard Sorge transferred the woman to his German assistant [Wu Zhaogao in Chinese spelling] later. Zhang Wenqiu was a widow whose two daughters later married Mao Tse-tung's two sons.
CCP notoriety also included another story involving a widow. In 1936, in Xi'an of Shenxi Province, CCP underground agent Liu Ding established a so-called "Zhang Xueliang Dental Care Center" with invitation of Xia Ming, i.e., the widow of CCP cadre Deng Zhongxia, as dental assistant to a German dentist. Here is a usual CCP dirty game in giving their widows to European communist or sympathizers for sex as a way of retention of service. Well-known case is peasant woman Xiao Yuehua's immediate allocation to Otto Braun on sexual demand. (Another well-known example would be Cambodian Prince Norodom Sihanouk's being offered numerous Chinese women by CCP throughout 1960-80s.)
During the resistance war time period, communist cadres had a 'change of wife' movement in Yan'an after the influx of young educated females. Widows, unfortunately, fell out of favor. In late 1940s, communists instructed a female college student [Shen Chong] in seducing an American GI for sake of launching the nationwide anti-American student protests. (See Jin Zhong's recollections at http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/3/11/7/54717.html.) After Japanese surrender, communists deliberately dispatched a female communist to the reception of Robert Shapiro, which naturally turned into a husband-wife relationship thereafter.
Communist Establishing Soviet Banking System
Similar to Japanese manipulations of Republic of China's Foreign Exchange System during WWII, Chinese communists modified its old policies of abducting wealthy landlords for ransoms by printing "Soviet paper money" or fabricating Nationalist government currency. http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/4/11/25/76272.html cited CCP Southwestern Jiangxi Province special commissar Liu Shiqi's letter dated Oct 1930 in pointing out that CCP had been able to print tens of thousands of yuan worthy of Soviet paper money via "Donggu Bank" on a daily basis. Communist had established the Soviet Banking System to solve fiscal difficulties as a result of i) depletion of wealthy landlords, ii) KMT's economic blockade. By forcing people in Soviet territories into redeeming the KMT "fa [legalized] bi [currency]" into Soviet money, communists reaped tremendous wealth for purchasing goods and commodities from KMT-controlled areas.
By the time Japan invaded Manchuria on Sept 18th 1931, Soviet territories expanded across 21 counties in western Fujian and southern Jiangxi provinces. Donggu Bank was expanded into "National Bank of the Soviet Republic of China". Separate rulings and laws were stipulated for arresting and executing whoever contradicted the Soviet currency policies. Song Ziming, at http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/4/11/25/76272.html, cited "Red China Newspaper" in listing multiple names of persons who were executed by the Soviet government from 1931 to 1934.
Purge of the Anti-Bolshevik League 1930-1931: Phase II
On Jan 15th 1931, at Xiaobu of Ningdu, CCP Central Bureau For Soviet Territories was established, with Xiang Ying assuming the post of deputy secretary for CCP central politburo in lieu of Mao Tse-tung's general frontline commissar and general frontline secretary. Xiang Ying also assumed the post of chairman for Central Revolutionary Military Commission, with Zhu De and Mao Tse-tung as deputy chair. Xiang Ying hence began four month long rectification in regards to the Purge of Anti-Bolshevik League. Xiang Ying's entry into Soviet territory and ascension to power was a result of Stalin instructions when Zhou Enlai attended the executive meeting of Third Comintern in Moscow in 1930 and met Stalin in July 1930. On Aug 22nd 1930, Zhou Enlai emphasized the need of building a strong Red Army as well as strengthening CCP's control over the Red Army. On Oct 31st, three member standing committee of CCP politburo, comprising of Xiang Zhongfa, Zhou Enlai and Xu Xigeng, made a resolution that Xiang Ying and Zhou Enlai be dispatched to Jiangxi Province for leading the army, administration and army in Soviet territories. A continuing influx of CCP returnees from Moscow, including Huang Huoqing and Zhang Aiping etc, were dispatched to Jiangxi, and returnees like Liu Bocheng, Ye Jianying, Fu Zhong and Li Zhuoran, were ordered to translate Soviet Red Army documents into Chinese. Wu Defeng was made into chief of transportation bureau for delivering returnees to Jiangxi, and telegraph service between Comintern in Moscow and Comintern Far East Bureau in Shanghai. (Comintern Far East Bureau in Shanghai was headed by a German called Luo-bo-te [Robert?] who in early 1930 accused Li Lishan of trying to pull USSR into China's civil war. Telegraph service between CCP Central Committee in Shanghai and CCP in Soviet Jiangxi were established via HK relay by autumn of 1931.)
Xiang Ying Mediation At Futian Mutiny
Xiang Ying, a CCP veteran who first enrolled in the party in Wuhan in 1921 and later participated in CCP 6th Session in Moscow in 1928, departed Shanghai in late Nov and arrived in Jiangxi by late 1930. On Jan 16th 1931, Xiang Ying issued Soviet Central Bureau Notice No. 2, revoking party membership from Duan Liangbi, Li Baifang, Xie Hanchang, Liu Di and Jin Wanbang and calling for reconciliation with Southwestern Jiangxi Province provincial commissar committee/Red Army 20th Corps. On Feb 4th, Xiang Ying wrote letters to invite Wang Huai and Ye Yunzhong etc (i.e., Southwestern Jiangxi Province CCP branch to the west of Ganjiang River) for a resolution meeting. On Feb 19th, Xiang Ying issued Soviet Central Bureau Notice No. 11, acknowledging possible mistake in the Purge of AB League and pardoned all people except for five persons (i.e., Duan Liangbi, Li Baifang, Xie Hanchang, Liu Di and Jin Wanbang). Xiang Ying fetched Red Army 20th Corps political commissar Zeng Bingchun from his exile at home and dispatched him across the Ganjiang River for persuading Red Army 20th Corps into a return.
In April 1931, Li Baifang, Xie Hanchang, Liu Di and Wang Huai etc followed Xiang Ying's call and returned to Ningdu for a meeting. Red Army 20th Corps crossed the river, too. However, a new round of bloody killing awaited them.
Back on Feb 13th 1931, CCP Central Committee in Shanghai discussed "Futian Mutiny", and on Feb 20th, Zhou Enlai, Ren Bishi and Wang Jiaxiang concluded that "Futian Mutiny" was a reactionary act conducted by AB League members and decreed that Ren Bishi lead a CCP Central Committee delegation to Jiangxi, hence overthrowing Xiang Ying's reconciliation decision. (Gao Hua cited Zhou Enlai's March 27th speech in speculating that Comintern Far East Bureau might have changed to the same viewpoint in regards to "Futian Mutiny" as CCP in March.) On March 4th 1931, Ren Bishi, Wang Jiaxiang and Gu Zuolin left for Jiangxi consecutively. Gao Hua speculated that Zhou Enlai might have drafted March 28th Resolution in regards to "Futian Mutiny".
Ren Bishi Adjudicating 'Futian Mutiny' As Reactionary
Ren Bishi, Wang Jiaxiang and Gu Zuolin entered southern Jiangxi via western Fujian Province in April. On April 17th, Ren Bishi hosted at Qingtang of Ningdu an expanded meeting of Jiangxi Soviet Central Bureau, overthrew Xiang Ying's March 18th speech in regards to Futian Mutiny, established a trial committee headed by Zhou Yili, executed Liu Di immediately, tried and executed Southwestern Jiangxi leaders (i.e., Xie Hanchang, Li Baifang, Jin Wanbang, Zhou Mian and Ye Yunzhong etc), and restored Mao Tse-tung’s post of frontline general secretary over Red Army First Flank in May.
Red Army 20th Corps, while fighting to the west of Ganjiang River, had cooperated with Red Army 7th Corps which relocated from Deng Xiaoping's Guangxi Zuo-jiang [Left River] & You-jiang [Right River] communist base. Further, when Red Army 20th Corps under Zeng Bingchun and Xiao Dapeng (i.e., successor to Liu Tiechao) returned to Yudu county from west of Ganjiang River in July 1931, the whole corps were disarmed, and army officers from corps chief to platoon deputy chief, numbering 700-800, were all executed as AB League members except for possibly two survivors. Red Army 20th Corps ceased its code numbering, and its soldiers were interspersed among Red Army 4th Corps and Red Army 3rd Corps-Conglomerate. As to local communist leaders of Southwestern Jiangxi, over 90% were classified as AB League members under extortion via 100 different kinds of cruel tortures.
Zhou Enlai Correcting Purge
Zhou Enlai would realize the seriousness of the purge till he arrived in Western Fujian Province in Dec 1931. While en route to Yongding from Changting, on Dec 18th, Zhou wrote an urgent letter to CCP Central Committee in Shanghai, and on Jan 7th, Zhou hosted the CCP Jiangxi Soviet meeting, calling for a correction of "guideline mistake" in the purge. Prof Chen Yongfa stated that Zhou Enlai had executed a few communist cadres for appeasing the angry people who were persecuted during the purge movement.
In Jan 1932, 24-year-old secretary general Bo-gu of CCP's Interim Central Politburo came to Ruijin from Shanghai. Liu Liang stated that Mao Tse-tung was asked to have a vacation at a monastery on Mt Donghuashan. Deng Fa was rebuked in Jan 1931 and was recalled to Ruijin of Jiangxi as director for "political safeguarding bureau" of the Chinese Soviet Republic in 1932. Zhou Enlai dispatched Li Kenong to Fujian in March 1932 for correcting the purge. Ren Bishi was downgraded to deputy secretary while Zhou Enlai himself assumed the post of secretary for CCP Soviet Central Bureau. As for Mao's cronies, Zhou issued a punishment of 6 month party retention on Jan 25th 1932. Prof Chen Yongfa stated that Zhou Enlai would come to respect Mao Tse-tung after Peng Dehuai failed to sack Ganzhou city in four separate attacks in early 1932. In early 1932, Peng Dehuai lead Red Army First Flank [Red Army First Front or Central Front] for four futile attacks at high-walled Ganzhou. When Red Army failed to sack Ganzhou, Zhou Enlai of the CCP Central dispatched Xiang Ying for fetching Mao Tse-tung from Mt Donghuashan as an adviser. When Mao Tse-tung called off the campaign against Ganzhou, Bo-gu was recorded to have deprived Mao Tse-tung of his posts for over-stepping his duties.
However, "political safeguarding bureau" still went ahead in executing Li Wenlin, Zeng Bingchun and Wang Huai etc as 'AB League culprits' on May 30th 1932, to be followed by execution of 200 more reactionaries. Gao Hua pointed out that CCP began to utilize "political safeguarding bureau" as its apparatus for purging reactionaries in lieu of various military and administrative organs. However, in June 1932, a so-called Worker-Peasant Drama Society Incident occurred, and on Aug 13th, Deng Yingchao, i.e., Zhou Enlai's wife, accused Zhang Aiping, Wei Gongzhi and Zuo Quan etc of propagating Chen Duxiu & Trotsky thoughts for simply mentioning the slogan of "socialist revolution".
Li Rui, i.e., Mao's personal secretary, had once commented that CCP had killed about 100,000 own party members from Futian Mutiny to the Anti-Rightists Movement. During 1930-1931 alone, possibly 70,000 were executed as AB League members, 20,000 executed as KMT re-organizers [i.e., "gai zu pai], and at minimum 6,352 executed as Social Democrats from 1931 to 1932.
Purge In the Hubei-Henan-Anhui [E-Yu-Wan] Communist Base
Purge In the Western Hunan-Hubei [Xiang-E-Xi] Communist Base
The First Wave Purge
The Second Wave Purge, i.e., "Purge While In The Line Of Fire"
The Third Wave Purge & The Death Of Duan Dechang & Wang Bing-nan
The Fourth Wave Purge
Campaigns Against the Communist Strongholds
Ningdu Rebellion By Northwestern Army
Fourth Encirclement Campaign
Relocation Of Hubei-Henan-Anhui Borderline Soviet
Ambush Battles At Huangpi
KMT Routing CCP Underground Network In Shanghai
Fifth Encirclement Campaign
Interruptions By Anti-Japanese Allied Army & Mutiny of 19th Route Army
CCP's Political Movement Against Luo Ming
Drain Of Resources Inside Of Jiangxi Soviet
The Red Army's Long March (Oct 1934 - Oct 1936)
Three Preliminary Breakouts
Xiangjiang River Crossing (Nov 25th to Dec 3rd)
7000 Communist Prisoners of War
Wu-jiang River Crossing
Zunyi Meeting (Jan 1935)
Crossing Chi-shui [Red Water] River Four Times
Planned Conversion Of 1st & 4th Front Armies
Crossing Jinsha [gold sand] River
Luding-qiao Iron Chain Bridge
Climbing Great Snow Mountain
Zhang Guotao's Challenging Zunyi Meeting Decisions
Luhua Meeting & Maoergai Meeting
Shawo Meeting & Grasslands of Qinghai
Split of Mao Tse-tung's Red Army From Zhang Guotao's
Zhang Guotao's Defeat At Baizhangguan Pass
Conversion of Red Army 2nd & 4th Fronts
Official Completion Of The Long March
Who Authorized First Western Expedition?
Re-organizing Red Army Western Route
Purge In the Shan-Bei [Northern Shenxi Province] Communist Base - 1935
In northern Shenxi Province, CCP propaganda stated that the Oct 1935 arrival of Mao Tse-tung's Central Red Army saved the lives of Liu Zhidan & Gao Gang [Shenxi-Gansu faction] who were imprisoned by Zhu Lizhi & Guo Hongtao [northern Shenxi faction].
Liu Zhidan was accused of being a rightist and consecutively a reactionary. Inside of Red Army 26th Corps, all officers above battalion level were arrested, cadres from CCP Northwestern Military Commission, county level CCP secretaries, and county level secretaries from Shan-Gan [Shenxi & Gansu] Soviet government were arrested.
Chen Yongfa pointed out that Xu Haidong's Red Army 25th Corps, which first arrived in Shenxi from E-Yu-Wan, assisted the "northern Shenxi faction" in purging the "Shenxi-Gansu faction" in the name of purging reactionaries. Chen Yongfa wrongly stated that Liu Zhidan was executed by "northern Shenxi faction" prior to Mao Tse-tung's arrival. However, historical facts pointed to Liu Zhidan's death during the campaign across the East Yellow River Bend. Anti-CCP writings, which often cited the original song of "tai [grand] yang [sun] hong [red]" as an eulogy of Liu Zhidan, came up with a conspiracy theory stating that Liu Zhidan was deliberately sent across the East Yellow River Bend for a secret execution. There was also a writing of rounding up hundreds of officers of Red Army 26th Corps as well as Shenxi Province CCP cadres for execution.
Again, Oct 1935 arrival of Mao Tse-tung's Central Red Army was cited as a liberation of those persecuted CCP members. Chen Yongfa stated that Mao Tse-tung, after releasing the "Shenxi-Gansu faction", did nothing against the "northern Shenxi faction" as a result of possible liaison and amicableness between "northern Shenxi faction" and Moscow returnees. Prof Chen was insightful in pointing out the Moscow link. Jung CHang, citing Otto Braun repeatedly [including the telegraph set story during the long march], claimed that it was Mao who sent the special commissars to Shenxi to "soften" the hold of local communist leaders. The truth was that northern Communist bureau, as well as defunct Shanghai bureau, flocked to Shenxi as a last enclave of Chinese Communist military revolution months ahead of Mao making the decision to go to Shenxi. The purge of Liu Zhidan was part of an internal Chinese Communist feuds dating to the Wars of Central Plains of 1930 and Chahar Allied Army of 1933.
The Communist Instigation & Guangxi Province Trotskyites
Xie Hegeng was dispatched to Southwestern China by CCP in the autumn of 1934 for instigating Bai Chongxi's rebellion against Chiang Kai-shek. Xie Hegeng was selected for the task for his father's connection with Bai Chongxi's uncle. For secrecy's sake, Xie Hegeng was ordered to have vertical contacts with several communist leaders, only, including Zhou Enlai, Dong Biwu, Li Kenong and Xuan Xiafu. Xuan Xiafu, who planned to continue his work inside of Northwestern Armies [i.e., the armies controlled by Sun Dianying & Sun Liangcheng], was ordered to go to southern China to assist Xie Hegeng. Xuan Xiafu obtained a recommendation letter from Ji Hongchang. "June 1st Movement"
Murdering Ethnic-Japanese Drugstore Owner
Communist Infiltration Into Southwestern China
"Guangxi Province Trotskyists"
More available at Communist_Instigation_in_Southwest_China.pdf (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
The Communist Infiltration Into Shanxi Province
CCP's Red Army invaded Shanxi Province in the name of "eastern campaign against Japanese" on Feb 21st 1936, withdrew from Shanxi on May 3rd, and issued May 5th Promulgation as well as Aug 25th open letter to KMT. Yan Xishan, to counter the communist forces, had requested for Chiang Kai-shek's KMT Central Army to come into Shanxi Province. Thereafter, Yan Xishan would collude with communists in getting rid of Chiang Kai-shek's forces. Communists ended up to be a winner in the final.
Prof Chen Yongfa stated that Mao Tse-tung, to solve the financial bankruptcy, personally led a campaign against Shanxi Province by crossing the Yellow River in the spring of 1936 [Feb 20th]. Xu Xiangqian, however, hinted an internal CCP documentation about Suiyuan-Mongolia linkage. Red Army defeated Zhou Yuanjian's Shanxi Province army at Guanshangcun Village after crossing the river. Red Army looted Yan Xishan's Shanxi Province money that was equivalent to 550000 yuan "fa [legalized] bi [currency]". In addition, 7000-8000 new recruits were brought back to Shenxi from Shanxi when CCP retreated in face of KMT Central Army relief to Yan Xishan. Chen Cheng's KMT Central Army relief to Yan Xishan entered Shanxi Province on March 25th 1936. Hu Zongnan sent one regiment to Chen Cheng for driving communists out of Shanxi. Chiang Kai-shek also dispatched the troops of Tang Enbo, Guan Linzheng, and Shang Zhen to Shanxi Province as well, with an exaggerated number of 150,000 in total.
Red Army withdrew from Shanxi on May 3rd, and issued May 5th Promulgation calling for "truce for peace, and concerted resistance war against Japan". http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/3/11/5/54576.html pointed out that Yan Xishan might have reached a deal with communists in ridding of KMT Central Army by means of a persuasion of communist forces back to Shenxi Province. Yan Xishan might have agreed to CCP launching a "secret office" in Taiyuan on the matter of further cooperation. Communist records pointed out that Wang Shiying, who relocated CCP Central Interim Bureau to Tianjin from Shanghai in 1935, later worked under Liu Shaoqi's CCP Northern Bureau and helped establish a Red Army Taiyuan Office by colluding with Shanxi Province's Governor Yan Xishan.
On Sept 18th, 1936, Yan Xishan, on the 5th anniversary of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, organized a 10,000 people gathering in Taiyuan and announced the establishment of "Allied Society Of Sacrifice For Sake Of Rescuing The Nation". Top communist cadre Bo Yibo was invited by Yan Xishan from Peking for developing the "allied society". In late Oct, Bo Yibo assumed the post as "standing secretary" of the "allied society" as well as secretary of Yan Xishan's Taiyuan Office For Pacifying & Quelling the Communist Banditry. Hence, communist organizations went into prosperity under a legal cover.
For further details on the communist activity in Shanxi Province, please refer to the "duel column" and "Shanxi Province new army" organized by the "Allied Society Of Sacrifice For Sake Of Rescuing The Nation" and the CCP after the July 7th, 1937 outbreak of resistance war. After the outbreak of the 1937 resistance war, the communists instigated Yan Xishan into launching a New Year as a parallel to the former provincial armu which was referred to as the 'Old Army'. Later, in 1939, the communists conducted a mutiny to instigate the New Army into defecting to the communist camp. Refer to THE ENEMY FROM WITHIN for details.
Xi'An Incident - the Turning Point Of Modern History
On Dec 4th, 1936, Chiang Kai-shek personally went to Xi'an [i.e., Sian] of Shenxi Province to give lectures to General Zhang Xueliang and General Yang Hucheng on the matter of quelling the communist rebellion. Chiang Kai-shek, who flew to Luoyang from his Nov 17th visit to Yan Xishan in Taiyuan, was deliberately invited over to Xi'an by Zhang Xueliang as part of the setup. Zhang Xueliang, i.e., deputy commander-in-chief of the nationalist army, went to Luoyang of Henan Province on Dec 3rd for petitioning the release of the so-called seven patriotic gentlemen of Shanghai (i.e., Shen Junlu et al.). There is no doubt about a clear communist conspiracy in light of the fact that senior CCP leader Xu Xiangqian revealed on page 357 of "History In Retrospect" that the CCP Central had ordered in Nov/Dec 1936 that the Western Route Red Army stay put in the Western Corridor [west of the Western Yellow River Bend] as a result of Zhang Xueliang's promise that he would turn around the tide within a matter of "one to two months", i.e., the Xi'an Coup of Dec 12th, 1936.
General Zhang Xueliang and General Yang Hucheng, whose Northeastern Army and Northwestern Armies had been infiltrated with communist agents, would stage a coup to have Chiang Kai-shek abducted on Dec 12th, 1936, on which day Chiang Kai-shek personally sat in at the Huaqingchi Pond of Lintong for lecturing the Northeastern Army officers. This is the so-called Xi'an Incident which would force Chiang Kai-shek into stopping the civil war against the communists for a second alliance [i.e., the Second United Front].
The Northeastern Army vs the Red Army
The Northeastern Army, after retreating from Manchuria in 1931, had been dispatched to northwestern China mostly, with Yu Xuezhong's 51st Corps stationed in Gansu Province and Yu himself acting as chairman for Gansu, Miao Chengliu's 57th Corps stationed at Xifengkou Pass, Wan Fulin's 53rd Corps retained in Northern China, Wang Yizhe's 67th Corps stationed at Pingliang area of Gansu Province, and Heh Zhuguo's cavalry corps stationed at Guyuan area of Gansu Province [in today's Ningxia]. Zhou Fucheng's 129th division was reassigned to the 67th Corps from the 53rd Corps for fighting the communist forces which converged around Wayaobu (Wayaobao) area.
In late 1935, the Northeastern Army suffered a setback when the communists defeated, at Ziluozhen Town, two divisions of Heh Zhuguo's cavalry corps, i.e., Niu Yuanfeng's 109th Division and Heh Lizhong's 110th Div, without fighting any significant shots. Yao Liyuan pointed out that when Niu Yuanfeng's 109th Division and Heh Lizhong's 110th Div, numbering 24,000 men, were surrounded by communists, the communists played the ancient tactic of "singing to Xiang Yu's army the native songs of Chu-guo Principality". The Communist forces moved the Northeastern Army soldiers to tears by singing about "My home was on the bank of the Sungari [Songhuajiang] River in Manchuria". Niu Yuanfeng, Heh Lizhong, tactician Pei Huancai, and six out of eight regiment commanders all committed suicide when soldiers refused to raise their weapons. (Communist records pointed out that they captured and executed Niu Yuanfeng.) Gao Fuyuan, the only regimental commander caught alive, was released by the communists for carrying a letter from Mao Tse-tung to Zhang Xueliang.
Before the siege, Mao Tse-tung had written at least three letters of "surrender", with two letters sent to Chiang Kai-shek while the Red Army was at Zunyi in Guizhou Province and in Sichuan during long march, respectively. (Yao Lifu cited Peng Zhaoxian in stating that Tan Zhen learned from Chiang Kai-shek that Mao Tse-tung had dispatched a Hunan native to Nanking for sending the surrender letter. The second letter was sent to Hu Zongnan by Xu Xiangqian while the two camps were fighting each other in Songpan of Sichuan Province. Note that Hu Zongnan's army, which suffered a high death toll due to the severe winter weather, successfully beat back the Red Army and caused the Red Army to take the route of the grasslands for escaping towards the northwest.) Provincial Chair for Shenxi Province, Shao Lizi, who later defected to the CCP to be a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Committee, had received a letter from Mao Tse-tung right after the Red Army relocated to Shenxi Prov; Shao Lizi dared not submit the letter to Chiang for fear of possible implication with the communists since Chiang had already declined Mao's requests twice; and Shao later signed to Peng Zhaoxian that Chiang Kai-shek had basically forfeited a good opportunity of "closing it when the situation was favorable" (i.e., "jian hao jiu shou"). Mao's 3rd letter stated that he would be willing to go overseas to assure Chiang that his Red Army was willing to be re-organized under the KMT leadership for sake of fighting the Japanese aggression. The conclusion is that it was always the CCP's top agenda to make Chiang Kai-shek stop the war against the communists and that Chiang Kai-shek's tough stance towards the communists might have doomed China's future. (In another word, without Chiang Kai-shek, China would have been communized as early as 1926-1927.)
Communist Infiltrations Into the Northwestern Army
Communist infiltrations into the Northwestern Army could be seen in the communist identity of General Yang Hucheng's wife, i.e., Xie Baozhen. It was said that Xia Baozhen married with Yang Hucheng in Jan 1928 under the communist auspice. Previously serving under Yang Hucheng would be under-cover communist Zhang Hanmin [i.e., brigade chief of the 3rd Policing Brigade of the 17th Route Army] who was ambushed and executed by the Red Army. Among Yang Hucheng's advisers would be communist agent Wang Bingnann. The communist seeds laid in the works of Liu Zhidan's CCP Shenxi Province special commissar committee.
In Nov 1935, Wang  Feng, a CCP cadre who had served under Liu Zhidan's CCP Shenxi Province special commissar committee, was ordered by Jia Tuofu to go to Fuxian county from Wayaobu (Wayaobao) for seeing Yang Shangkun. Yang Shangkun, busy dispersing bounty from the Battle of Ziluozhen Town, told him that Mao Tse-tung and Zhou En-lai wanted to see him. Mao Tse-tung ordered that Wang Feng go inside of Yang Hucheng's Northwestern Army [i.e., the 17th Route Army] for instigation, with instructions that the CCP should change the policy of eliminating landlords and adopt the new approach of uniting open-minded gentry, middle-class, regional factions, intellectuals, national bougeoisie, and warlords for sake of re-establishing a united front. Wang Feng informed Mao Tse-tung that inside of the 17th Route Army, the CCP Shenxi Province special commissar committee still possessed numerous underground agents as well as communist sympathizers (i.e., Du Bincheng). Mao Tse-tung wrote a letter with attention to Yang Hucheng, Du Bincheng and Deng Baoshan. Thereafter, Wang Feng sneaked out of the Soviet territory by passing through Lanyichun Village which was under the jurisdiction of 'Guan-zhong [west of Xi'an] sub-bureau of the CCP Shenxi Province special commissar committee".
Near Changwu county, Wang Feng was stopped by two plaincoats; however, Wang Feng, using the letter attentioned to Yang Hucheng, coerced the two guys into delivering him into the hands of county magistrate Dang Bohu, a communist sympathizer as well as a crony of Yang Hucheng. Wang Feng was escorted to Xi'an for seeing Yang Hucheng. For the first week, Yang Hucheng instructed that two officials, Wu Huairen and Zhang Yizhong, make arrangement for Wang Feng to stay in a custodial facility. Wang Feng stated that Zhang Yizhong was an old acquaintance who had participated in the CCP's Wei-Hua Uprising under the leadership of Liu Zhidan, and that Zhang Yizhong had inquired into the status of Liu Zhidan at one time. Yang Hucheng, when seeing Wang Feng, rebuked the CCP's Red Army Fourth Front and Xu Haidong's Red Army 25th Corps for breaking promise and trust on the matter of 1) attacking Sun Weiru's army of the 17th Route Army in Hanzhong & Tianshui area; and 2) ambushing the 3rd Policing Brigade of the 17th Route Army and executing brigade chief Zhang Hanmin (undercover communist). Yang stated that he had shielded Zhang Hanmin numerous times even though Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Lifu and et al., had once and again warned him that Zhang was a communist agent. Wang Feng argued that i) the Red Army Fourth Front had attacked Sun Weiru's army for distracting Hu Zongnan's 1st Division away from the west bank of the Jialingjiang River, and ii) the Red Army 25th Corps, with an original plan for re-organization in the Shenxi-Henan area after a fatigued breakout from the Hubei-Henan-Anhui enclave, had to engage themselves with 17th Route Army's Liu Yanbiao brigade and Zhang Hanmin brigade. Wang Feng added that Xu Haidong's Red Army 25th Corps could not get in touch with the CCP Central for validating Zhang Hanmin's true communist identity; however, the execution, in Wang Feng's words, could help Yang Hucheng in fending off Chiang Kai-shek's accusation. Thereafter, Yang Hucheng instructed that his secretary Wang Juren continue talks with Wang Feng.
With the help of Zhang Yizhong, Wang Feng got to meet Du Bincheng. Du Bincheng promised to help Wang Feng in meeting corps chief Deng Baoshan who was in Sanyuan area. Zhang Yizhong and security bureau chief Pang Zhijie informed Wang Feng that Yang Hucheng had a secret order of protecting Wang Feng's safety as well as killing him in case Chiang Kai-shek agents laid hands on him. After one month stay, Yang Hucheng instructed that Pang Zhijie escort Wang Feng and Wang Shijie (i.e., Yang Hucheng's senior military tactician and personal rep) back to the CCP territories via Chunhua town which was guarded by 2nd special regiment chief Yan Kuiyao, an undercover communist. Company chief Lei Zhanru, also a CCP, escorted them back to Lanyichun Village. Wang Feng's memoirs pointed out that Wang Shijie and Pang Zhijie were all underground CCP agents. Chen Yongfa pointed out the CCP and Yang Hucheng had basically reached a non-aggression pact.
Zhang Xueliang's Collusion With the CCP
They Communists claimed that they evacuated to Yan'an from Wayaobu (Wayaobao) for winning over the Northeastern Army since Zhang Xueliang had to conduct some superficial campaigns for appeasing Chiang Kai-shek. The fact was that Northeastern Army's Wang Yizhe cavalry corps held the territory of Fushi (Yan'an) till after Dec 1936 Xi'an Incident.
Northeastern Army officers and soldiers, being indignant over the Japanese occupation of their homeland, often antagonized Chiang Kai-shek over the policy of "quelling the communist insurgency before countering the Japanese invasion". In Dec 1935, Zhang Xueliang dispatched a secret emissary to Shanghai for meeting with Li Du, i.e., a general in charge of Manchuria's "People's Righteous & Brave Volunteer Fighters". (Li Du was validated to be a CCP underground agent in recent revelation, and could have been converted after return to China from exile in the Soviet Union in the aftermath of the defeat of the volunteer army at the turn of 1932-1933.) Zhang Xueliang wanted Li Du, a former Northeastern Army officer, to connect him with the CCP leadership for a possible united front against Japan. Hence, Dong Jianwu, a "red" priest at St. Peter's Church as well as an underground CCP, under authorization of Mme Sun Yat-sen, made a trip to Xi'an from Shanghai in the name of an "Northwestern Economic Special Commissar" under Kong Xiangxi's Finance Ministry. (Dong Jianwu and Song Ziwen were classmates at St John's University in Shanghai in early years.) Confusing accounts from the CCP sources also claimed that Song Ziwen intended to dispatch a messenger to the communist territory in Yan'an for talks. Hence, Liu Ding and Dong Jianwu, who did not know each other's communist identity, had traveled to the Northwest together. In the city of Xi'an, multiple organizations were at work, including "jiu guo hui" [society for rescuing China] by the so-called seven gentlemen, the "Third Party" [i.e., Deng Yanda's party], and the "united student associations".
Dong Jianwu, failing to secure a car for entering northern Shenxi in snowy winter, requested with Zhang Xueliang for assistance. Zhang Xueliang ordered that a plane fly Dong Jianwu & Zhang Zhihua to Fushi [Yan'an] county where a company of cavalry troops escorted them onward to CCP's Wayaobu (Wayaobao) domain. Zhang Zhihua, ironically, was another special emissary dispatched by KMT's Zeng Yangfu as a companion of Dong Jianwu. (See Zeng Yangfu operations below.) Dong Jianwu arrived at the post of CCP border commander Li Jinglin on Feb 27th 1936, and did not depart Wayaobu (Wayaobao) till March 5th 1936. After that, Zhang Xueliang personally went to Luochuan for meeting with CCP spy master Li Kenong, apparently encouraged by KMT Central's initiatives in contacting CCP. Luochuan was guarded by General Wang Yizhe's 67th Corps. Chen Yongfa pointed out that General Wang Yizhe's 67th Corps and Red Army reached a non-aggression pact in March 1936. Again, it shows how KMT lacked both strategy and tactics in dealing with communists, and Zhang Xueliang's slipping into CCP traps could be construed as having been triggered by Chiang Kai-shek cronies in the first place. http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/3/12/25/57309.html carried an article stating Zhang Xueliang's possible enrolment in CCP as well as another CCP mole [Song Li] by the side of Zhang Xueliang.
Once Dong Jianwu returned to Shanghai, he was asked by Mme Sun Yat-sen to meet with a "Mr. Zhou" using a hotel as a liaison place. This "Mr. Zhou" would be CCP special task force member Kan Zunmin who was offered sanctuary by Rewi Alley and Agnes Smedley. Wu Tianyao, in "Liu Ding & Xi'an Incident", stated that in March 1936, Smedley asked Liu Ding to meet a friend in a hotel, i.e., "red" priest Dong Jianwu. Liu Ding, whom Dong Jianwu was already acquainted with before, accepted the task. Hence, Li Du wired to Zhang Xueliang with a message that "the friend you had sought for had been located". Zhang Xueliang, though himself already in touch with CCP spy master Li Kenong, still dispatched Zhao Yi for fetching Kan Zunmin who now adopted the alias Liu Ding.
On March 20th, Liu Ding, with medicine that Smedley had asked for relay to CCP, was assigned temporary residence inside of the home of Shenxi Province opium banning bureau chief. The second day, Liu Ding met with Zhang Xueliang who wanted him to forward to CCP several questions, including: "Why did the Red Army hit his Northeastern Army so hard?" and "Why did the CCP call him a collaborator with Japanese when he resisted Russian's attempt at grabbing China Eastern Railroad?" Zhang Xueliang and Liu Ding then went to Luochuan together, stayed there for one dozen days, and had dinner and lunch together on daily basis. Zhang Xueliang wrongly guessed that Liu Ding [Kan Zunmin] could be CCP renowned Moscow returnee Wang Jiaxiang.
On the afternoon of April 9th 1936, Zhang Xueliang, Liu Ding, Wang Yizhe, and bodyguard chief Sun Mingjiu flew to Fushi [Yan'an] where they held a secret meeting with Zhou Enlai & Li Kenong inside a catholic church under the foot of Yan'an Bao-ta [treasured pagoda]. Meeting lasted through to 4:00 am the next day. Zhang Xueliang gave the CCP a new color map of China as a gift, while CCP promised to i) help train Northeastern Army officers, ii) establish joint army for resisting Japanese invasion, iii) organize "Northwestern National Defense Government", and vi) ally with USSR for military assistance. (See Wu Tianyao's "Liu Ding & Xi'an Incident".) Liu Ding then made a trip to Red Army at Wayaobu (Wayaobao) where he was given a suitcase of Shanxi Province money for currency exchange into Chiang Kai-shek's "fa bi" (i.e., legalized currency). (Red Army looted Yan Xishan's Shanxi Province money when they initiated an eastern campaign across the East Yellow River Bend earlier. Chen Yongfa stated money looted was equivalent to 550000 yuan "fa [legalized] bi [currency]". In addition, 7000-8000 new recruits were brought back to Shenxi from Shanxi when CCP retreated in face of KMT Central Army relief to Yan Xishan.) Liu Ding and Li Kenong prepared two sets of telegraph codes for future liaison. When Liu Ding returned to Fushi [Yan'an], regiment chief Zhao of Northeastern Army trucked him over to Wang Yizhe's corps headquarters in Luochuan the next day. Liu Ding handed Zhang Xueliang a letter written by Zhou Enlai on April 22nd, which was to have Zhang Xueliang retain Liu Ding as an aid by his side. Days later, Zhang Xueliang personally flew the plane back to Xi'an. In Xi'an, Liu Ding revived two "rescuing to-be-lost county [China]" societies and supported magazine "Culture Weekly" by having a Shanghai leftist writer Wu Baoru take charge.
Chen Yinan, at http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/3/10/13/52803.html, provided a comprehensive review of the intricacy of Xi'an Incident by pointing out that it was Stalin & Communist International which had forced CCP, KMT Leftists (i.e., Song Qingling) and Zhang Xueliang/Yang Hucheng into releasing Chiang Kai-shek. Chen Yinan pointed out that Zhang Xueliang paid a secret visit to Zhou Enlai in Yan'an on April 9th 1936 and applied for CCP membership with Liu Ding (CCP rep stationed inside of Zhang Xueliang's army) on June 30th, and that two months later 67th Corps Chief Song Yizhe also applied for CCP membership. Chen Yinan also pointed out that Zhang Xueliang secretly delivered to the Red Army 10,000 sets of winter uniforms, more than 10,000 pairs of shoes, lots of grains, and 100000 yuan worthy of currency. (In Oct, Zhang Xueliang gave CCP 670000 yuan "fa [legalized] bi [currency]", per Chen Yongfa.) Comintern records from USSR disclosed that Stalin had rejected Zhang Xueliang's request for communist membership over the 1929 War of China Eastern Railroad. Chen Yongfa pointed out that Comintern's Aug 15th instructions emphasized to CCP the unreliability of warlord Zhang Xueliang.
Communists, in May 1936, announced a cease-fire in accordance with Comintern's strategy of a united front against imperialism. Mao Tse-tung authored a letter to the nationalist "soldier brothers" for a unite front against the Japanese. Around this time, Mao Tse-tung's long time unofficial wife, Heh Zizhen, gave birth to a daughter called Li Min. Heh Zizhen had gone through few abortions during the one-year-long Long March. Also in May 1936, Edgar Snow slipped into communist territory, with a purported recommendation letter from Mme Sun Yat-sen, for interviewing Mao Tse-tung.
There ensued a so-called Guangdong-Guangxi Incident in June-July of 1936. Chiang Kai-shek pacified the rebellion by means of military buildup as well as financial assistance. Chen Yongfa stated that Zhang Xueliang had become cautious about cooperation with CCP after seeing the dissipation of Guangdong-Guangxi Incident.
In early July, Zhang Xueliang, prior to his departure for Nanking's KMT 2nd Plenary of 5th Congress, ordered that Liu Ding fly to CCP immediately to report on his Nanking trip. The second day, Liu Ding flew to Fushi [Yan'an] and then walked to Ansai where communist leaders had gathered together in the hope that Zhang Xueliang or Wang Yizhe could have also come. Wu Tianyao's "Liu Ding & Xi'an Incident" stated that Mao Tse-tung instructed Liu Ding that Zhang Xueliang should tolerate Chiang Kai-shek instead of falling out against him. Liu Ding then traced Zhang Xueliang's footsteps by going to Nanking and Shanghai area, consecutively. Back in Xi'an, Liu Ding established a so-called Zhang Xueliang Dental Care Center with invitation of German dentist Herbert Wen-qi (? Smedley's referral) and dental assistant Xia Ming (CCP member as well as the widow of CCP cadre Deng Zhongxia). (Here is a usual CCP dirty game in giving their widows to European communist or sympathizers for sex as a way of retention of service, and another well-known example would be Cambodian Prince Norodom Sihanouk's being offered numerous Chinese women by CCP throughout 1960-80s.) Dental Care Center was used as CCP liaison center, a medicine supply transition center (which shipped Smedley and Alley's Shanghai goodies over to CCP), and a CCP radio amplifier center [under CCP agent Tu Zuochao's operations]. Besides, Liu Ding bought a limousine for transporting high-ranking CCP officials (Pan Hannian, Deng Fa, and Ye Jianying etc) and international sympathizers (Edgar Snow, Agnes Smedley, and George Hatem). Liu Ding told Edgar Snow that should Snow write about him and blow up his cover, then they would not be "good friends" any more.
In the autumn of 1936, Northeastern Army participated in a Chiang Kai-shek campaign against the communists, with Wang Yizhe's 67th Corps and Liu Duoquan's 105th Division acting as the thrusting forces. Tang Junyao, chief of 2nd brigade under 105th Div, chased the communists to Panlongzhen Town, 50 kilometers distance to the north of Fushi [Yan'an]. Tang Junyao was further ordered to march to Guyuan where Tang recovered Qiying & Maqibao (Maqibu) and rescued Ma Hongbin's cavalry regiment from the communist encirclement.
Secret KMT-CCP Direct Contacts In Multiple Channels
Throughout 1935-1936, emissaries for peace or ceasefire talks shuttled between KMT and CCP in secrecy. Chiang Kai-shek's KMT was also in talks with USSR. In early 1935, Chiang Kai-shek dispatched "Yan Huiqing cultural delegation" to USSR, and later, Chiang Kai-shek dispatched Deng Wenyi as military attaché to Moscow. In autumn of 1935, Deng Wenyi returned to China and briefed Chiang on Stalin's support in the fight against Japan. In the winter of 1935, Deng Wenyi, after return to Moscow, was authorized to contact CCP's Comintern rep Wang Ming in Moscow. After several talks between Deng Wenyi and Wang Ming, CCP Comintern delegation sent Pan Hannian back to China for working on bilateral party talks. Before departing Moscow, Pan Hannian met with Deng Wenyi.
More available at Plots & Conspiracies Behind Xi'an Coup. (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
The Riddle Deepens
Zhang Ling'ao memoirs pointed out that Zhang Chong, i.e., the youngest KMT executive commissar elected in 1935 at age 31, had been sent on an inspection trip to Italy, Germany & USSR in the spring of 1934. After return to China, Zhang Chong first proposed the possibility of allying with USSR against Japan by joining an anti-fascist front. (In early 1935, Chiang Kai-shek dispatched "Yan Huiqing cultural delegation" to USSR. In Aug, CCP, with Moscow input, published so-called Aug 1st Proclamation in regards to establishing a united anti-Japan front. In autumn of 1935, Deng Wenyi, i.e., KMT military attaché to Moscow, returned to China. In the winter of 1935, Deng Wenyi, after return to Moscow, was authorized to contact CCP's Comintern rep Wang Ming in Moscow.) Zhang Ling'ao further stated that in Dec 1935, Chen Lifu, with Chiang Kai-shek approval, went on a secret mission to USSR with Zhang Chong by disguising themselves among Cheng Tianfang & Feng Ti's embassy to Germany. After ship Potsdam arrived in Italy, the two contacted Stalin who declined an invitation over possible Japanese reactions. Meanwhile, Japan's news agency repeatedly claimed that KMT top representative Chen Lifu was sent to Moscow. Chiang Kai-shek hence recalled Chen & Zhang, and pierced Japanese "rumor".
More available at Plots & Conspiracies Behind Xi'an Coup. (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
On The Eve Of Coup D'etat
Tang Junyao was recalled to Pingliang from Guyuan as the sole commander in charge of wars with communists while the rest of Northeastern Army officers converged onto Huaqingchi. Tang Junyao, however, was fetched over via plane to Xi'an by Zhang Xueliang (i.e., Northwestern Theater Deputy Commander-in-chief) on the late afternoon of Dec 11th 1936.
On the same day, Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng hosted a banquet with invitations of all Chiang Kai-shek entourage including Jiang Dingwen, Chen Cheng, Shao Yuanchong, Wei Lihuang, Chen Jicheng and Jiang Baili. On the early morning of Dec 12th, the hotel where those guests stayed would be stormed by Yang Hucheng's soldiers. Shao Yuanchong was killed when he intended to jump off a window. Presidential attaché chief Qian Dajun, who was injured at Huaqingchi, was shipped over to the Xijing Hotel after the coup d'etat at Lintong. They would not find out what happened till newspapers arrived with reports about Xi'an Coup and Zhang-Yang Eight Point Proposals.
Chen Yinan pointed out that Huang Yong'an, i.e., Northeastern Army 6th cannons brigade chief, defected to Chiang Kai-shek's KMT Central Army on Dec 12th at the news of the abduction. Hence, Zhang-Yang Eight Point Proposals did not get known in the press till Nanking Government fully sanitized the incident. Zhang-Yang Eight Point Proposals included clauses such as 1) Re-organize national government and allow multi-party to be responsible for rescuing the country; 2) Stop all civil wars; 3) Immediately release patriotic activists arrested in Shanghai; 4) Set free all political prisoners nationwide; 5) Open up bans on national patriotic movement; 6) Guarantee freedom of assembly and other political liberty; 7) Earnestly follow Premier Sun Yat-sen's instructions and will; and 8) Convene a meeting about rescuing the country without delay.
In the wire, Zhang & Yang mentioned the shooting death incident of teenager boy by Chiang Kai-shek's military police during a student protest in Xi'an the day before. Zhang & Yang also accused Chiang Kai-shek of being surrounded by a circle of "xiao ren" (i.e., non-gentlemen or cunning men). Kong Xiangxi, who received a separate wire from Zhang Xueliang, pointed out that eight points had nothing to do with resisting Japan but to do with communist agenda.
Tang Junyao Abducting Chiang Kai-shek At Lintong
Tang Junyao was received by Division Chief Liu Duoquan and waited for Zhang Xueliang at Zhang's home till Zhang returned from Huaqingchi meeting at 9:30 pm. Zhang Xueliang told Tang Junyao that he had requested with Chiang Kai-shek in Oct 1936 for approval to lead his Northeastern Army to the east for joining General Fu Zuoyi's battles with Japanese at Bailingmiao. Two months earlier, Zhang Xueliang attended Chiang's birthday party in Luoyang. Zhang Xueliang stated that Chiang Kai-shek did request with Yan Xishan (aka Yan Baichuan) for Northeastern Army to go to northern Shanxi Province to fight Japanese, but Yan Xishan declined the offer. Yan Xishan, however, later requested Zhang Xueliang for sending Northeastern Army to Shanxi after Japanese sacked Bailingmiao. However, Zhang Xueliang stated to Tang Junyao that Chiang Kai-shek, hitting the desk in anger, rebuked Zhang as a 'counter-revolutionary' should Zhang asked for fighting Japanese again. Zhang Xueliang further said that he had kneeled down in front of Chiang Kai-shek, he had requested time and again for fighting Japanese, and he had written 10,000 character petition to Chiang Kai-shek, but all to no vain. Zhang Xueliang instructed Tang Junyao to conduct a coup d'etat by going to Lintong to abduct Chiang Kai-shek. After Tang Junyao questioned Zhang several times and raised the issues, Zhang agreed to hold an inner circle meeting to inform the Northeastern Army senior officers. Zhang Xueliang stated that Yang Hucheng would take charge of the matter inside of the city of Xi'an and instructed that Sun Mingjiu, a regiment chief in charge of special agent column, follow Tang Junyao in going to Lintong the next morning. Zhang Xueliang left for meeting with Yang Hucheng thereafter, and Tang & Sun selected a company of soldiers from 2nd battalion of the special agent regiment for the task. Separately, regiment chief Du Weigang, an engineering team, was ordered to blow up Huayin Bridge for sake of preventing the KMT Central Army from possibly coming to the aid of Chiang Kai-shek should conflict erupt after the abduction.
At 6 am, on Dec 12th 1936, Tang & Sun led the special task force to Lintong via trucks and cars. With a casualty of a dozen soldiers, special task force broke into Huaqingchi without returning a single shot. Tang Junyao shouted towards Chiang's military police for ceasefire, retrieved Qian Dajun from Huaqingchi, ordered a subordinate officer (Liu Guiwu) depart Chiang's bedroom-office, briefly perused some documents (including secret reports on General Song Zheyuan's maneuvers with Japanese invasion forces) to get a feel of Chiang's hidden agenda for fighting Japanese, and ordered a search of Mt Lishan for the missing Chiang Kai-shek. Tang Junyao gave Chiang's documents to Division Chief Liu Duoquan who, having come down to Huaqingchi from Lintong, was in constant phone talks with Zhang Xueliang. Zhang Xueliang, upon hearing that Chiang had disappeared, told Liu that he must find Chiang or else they would both end up dead inside Huaqingchi. After failing to dig up Chiang during the first search, Tang Junyao asked Liu Duoquan to contact Yang Hucheng for setting up blockades in the counties of Lantian, Weinan and Lintong. Tang Junyao rebuked Sun Mingjiu by calling the name of 'useless bastard' and ordered a second search of Mt Lishan around 8 am in the morning. At this moment, Liu Guiwu, a officer of banditry background, shot dead Jiang Xiaoxian in the name of avenging on Jiang Xiaoxian's crackdown on student movement in Peking. (Earlier, Jiang Xiaoxian was caught wearing plain coats near the train station and was sent back to Huaqingchi.) Tang Junyao cursed Liu as a bandit and ordered that he join the search of Chiang Kai-shek. At about 9 am, a lieutenant sent over a military police who disclosed that Chiang Kai-shek jumped over the wall to the southeast early in the morning. Tang Junyao hence ordered a search by concentrating in the southeastern direction and offered an award of 20,000 yuan to the company of soldiers for catching Chiang. Soon soldiers located Chiang Kai-shek and his bodyguard Jiang Xiaozhen near a big rock. Soldiers shouted, "Support Revolutionary Leader - Generalissimo Chiang !" (??? sounds like a cooking in my opinion). Tang Junyao went up the hill and explained the cause of this coup d'etat. Tang Junyao took the hand of Chiang in his hand, walked 300 meters down the hill, circumvented around Huaqingchi for avoiding the scene of conflict, and accompanied Chiang to Xi'an in one vehicle. Tang Junyao delivered Chiang to Zhang & Yang inside of the inner city of Xincheng in Xi'an.
On the 13th, Zhang Xueliang assembled his officers, discussed the coup, released them back to their frontline posts, and advised them of the importance in fighting the communist infiltration. (Yao Lifu's statement in regards to "fighting communist" did not sound right should we understand the extent of collusion between Zhang Xueliang and CCP. Yao Lifu stated that two days before the coup, Zhang Xueliang ordered the execution of 10th Cavalry Regiment Chief Dong Daoquan who, after release by the Red Army, tried to persuade Zhang Xueliang on the matter of cooperating with the communists. Yao Lifu, in "Rare Glimpse Of History On Xi'an Incident" [Sanwen Caise Publishing House, Taipei, Taiwan, 1989 edition], mentioned that Zhang Xueliang also ordered the execution of Regiment Chief Gao Fuyuan of 67th Corps for similar offense. Contradicting this claim would be You Jun's account stating that Gao Fuyuan, the only regiment chief caught alive out of the eight, was released by the Red Army for instigating Zhang Xueliang's rebellion. You Jun stated that Gao Fuyuan, having teacher-student relationship with Zhang Xueliang, was said to have several rounds of talks with both Wang Yizhe and Zhang Xueliang, which culminated in visitation by two top communist representatives to Xi'an.)
On early morning of Dec 15th 1936, Zhou Enlai etc, wearing KMT military uniforms, departed communist-controlled Bao'an at the invitation of Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng. At 2:00 pm, on Dec 17th, Zhou Enlai arrived in Yan'an and rode towards Xi'an on Zhang Xueliang's plane which Liu Ding had commanded. By the evening, Zhou Enlai arrived at Zhang Xueliang's residency where Zhang Xueliang asked why Zhou Enlai cut his whiskers. Shi Heng's writing on Xi'an Incident pointed out that Zhou Enlai told Zhang Xueliang that his coup d'etat could be taken as a "military conspiracy" in the eyes of the nation, which shocked Zhang Xueliang considerably. Zhou Enlai was said to have exerted influence over Zhang Xueliang by seeking for a "peaceful" solution. You Jun cited that Jiang Dingwen, before being released to Luoyang, accidentally met CCP leader Zhou Enlai inside of Zhang's guesthouse on Dec 17th 1936. On the afternoon of 18th, Zhou Enlai met with Yang Hucheng who advised against releasing Chiang Kai-shek via citation of KMT leader's intolerance, narrow-mindedness and cruelty. Zhou Enlai & Peng Dehuai were invited to Zhang Xueliang's house; however, Zhou Enlai probably never got the chance to discuss serious matter with Chiang Kai-shek on basis of all available records other than communist propaganda. Zhou Enlai, during Dec 24th meeting, was quoted as having told Chiang that CCP could exert influence over Stalin in getting his son released from hostage.
Yao Lifu, emphasizing Zhang Xueliang's defection to Chiang Kai-shek by changing his father's warlord banner into that of the Republic of China, also listed two more examples to prove that Zhang Xueliang was whole-heartedly aspiring for fighting the Japanese aggression while Yang Hucheng was merely instigating the coup d'etat as a solution to two of his internal dilemmas:
1) Northwestern Army, being infiltrated with communist agents, had sympathy and inclination for the Red Army;
2) Northwestern Army lacked loyalty for their own very leader, i.e., Yang Hucheng.
For examples, a division chief under Yang Hucheng, i.e., Feng Qinzai, defected over to the Central Army at Tongguan Pass overnight. Later, brigade chief Wang Jingzai under Yang Hucheng also defected to the Central Army. Feng Qinzai was originally dispatched to Tongguan, across Wei-shui River, for countering Chiang Kai-shek's Central Army. Feng Qinzai's defection left open the counties of Hualing, Weinan and Lintong, to the west of Tongguan.
Yao Lifu, having analyzed the initial hostile relationship between Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng, also speculated that the two had become amicable towards each other after reaching a common understanding that Chiang Kai-shek might intend to exhaust the troops of Northwestern & Northeastern armies in fighting communists, especially so after Zhang & Yang heard that Chiang Kai-shek refused to accept Mao's surrender. Zhang Xueliang found out the truth only after he had chance to peruse Chiang Kai-shek's diaries which included plans for Kong Xiangxi to buy German weaponry during a trip for participating in British queen's birthday party. Zhang Xueliang, before his death, had revealed that he had resorted to coup d'etat as a result of his confrontation with Chiang Kai-shek in regards to Chiang's claim that he would shoot the student protesters with machine guns should those protesters come to Lintong.
Stalin, Comintern & Xi'an Incident
Chen Yinan pointed out Mme Sun Yat-sen (i.e., Soong Qing-ling) learnt of the Xi'an abduction on the 12th after her brother-in-law Kong Xiangxi visited her for signing a letter of denunciation as to the coup, something that Mme Sun Yat-sen declined flatly. (Kong Xiangxi worked as the Minister of Industry during 1928-1930 and the Minister of Finance during 1933-1944.) Chen Yinan's speculation is that Mme Sun Yat-sen, who might have joined either CCP or Comintern while visiting in Moscow in 1928/1931, had brought a telegraph transmitter to Shanghai for liaison with Moscow and CCP; that Shanghai Garrison Commander Yang Hu had lodged an accusation with French extraterritory as to madam's harboring a transmitter in Aug 1929; that madam rescued Liao Chengzhi from French prison in the spring of 1933; that madam assisted Russian agent Richard Sorge in rescuing Mr & Mrs Noulens [Niu-lan] (Comintern agents); and that Mme Sun Yat-sen, by means of the transmitter in the custody of New Zealander Rewi Alley, informed USSR of the Dec 12th Coup on the same day. (CCP notoriety also included Zhou Enlai's giving Zhang Wenqiu to Richard Sorge for sex, while Richard Sorge later transferred the woman to his German assistant with a Chinese name called Wu Zhaogao. Zhang Wenqiu was the mother of two daughters who later married Mao's two sons.)
Chen Yinan pointed out that Mme Sun Yat-sen changed her standground the next day, apparently after receiving instructions from Comintern. Mme Sun Yat-sen immediately relayed Stalin's opinions to CCP in Yan'an, with such wording as "Should Chinese communists fail to exert their influences on Zhang Xueliang & Yang Hucheng to get Chiang Kai-shek released, then Moscow would accuse CCP of being bandits and denounce them in the face of the whole world". Stalin claimed that Zhang Xueliang must have acted as an agent of Japanese imperialist in abducting Chiang Kai-shek. Before that, per Chen Yinan, Comintern had sent a telegraph to CCP Secretary Zhang Wentian on Aug 15th with objection to Zhang Xueliang's enrollment in CCP. USSR, being wary of Japan's invasion, had resorted to Chiang Kai-shek's KMT Government as a common front against Japan.
Zhang Ling'ao divulged an important episode about Zhang Chong & Pan Hannian operations in regards to peacefully settling the Xi'an Incident. per ZLA, Chen Lifu immediately dispatched Zhang Chong's assistant Du Tongsheng to Shanghai for contacting Pan Hannian. Since Zhang Chong himself was taken hostage together with Chiang Kai-shek in Xi'an [Sian], Du Tongsheng aimlessly searched across the concession territory in Shanghai in search of a tailor shop since Zhang Chong had mentioned that Pan lived on the second floor of a tailor shop. Luckily, Du located a so-called Pan Tailor Shop at dusk, and waited for Pan to return at the shop. Overnight, Du & Pan took train to Nanking for meeting with Chen Lifu. Pan Hannian agreed to have Chen Lifu send a wire to 3rd Comintern direct. The second day, Dec 15th, Pan Hannian returned to Shanghai, sent another wire to Moscow, requesting that 3rd Comintern relay a message to Zhou Enlai and prevent the mutiny from harming Chiang Kai-shek. Zhang Ling'ao stated that Moscow replied on 16th that they had received both wire from Pan Hannian and agreed with Pan on the solution approach.
CCP changed its tone on the 20th (?) and became a mediator between Zhang Xueliang and Chiang Kai-shek rather than an accomplice. While three days ago, CCP was still adamant that KMT Government erect Song Ziwen as head of an interim Nanking Government in replacement of Chiang Kai-shek. And, on Dec 23rd, per Chen Yinan, the CCP declined Zhang Xueliang/Yang Hucheng's request for establishing a joint Northwestern Military Council. Chen Yi'nan emphasized that Zhang Xueliang had later taken the action to escort Chiang Kai-shek back to Nanking as a result of feeling indignant about the CCP/USSR abandoning him since Zhang Xueliang had been promised by Zhou Enlai 8 months earlier that "Should Zhang Xueliang cooperate with the CCP in establishing a Northwestern National Defense Government, he could be assured of unconditional military support from the USSR the same way as New Dominion Province's warlord Sheng Shicai had enjoyed".
Solution To the Coup D'etat
Disintegration Of the Northeastern Army
The American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the White Paper [Modified : Monday, 25-Feb-2013 22:00:00 EST]
Dissolution Of Mao Tse-tung's "Marriage"
Communist wives, boasting of their Long March experiences, had often resorted to "no sex" for reining in their husbands. However, the influx of young educated college and high school girls would soon replace the old wives. Otto Braun had his turn of replacing the peasant woman wife from the Jiangxi Soviet. In Feb 1937, in Yan'an [Yenan], Heh Zizhen escalated her quarrels with Mao Tse-tung after Smedley and her young female interpreter Wu Lili introduced the "social dancing" to the communist cadres. In March, in a Catholic church, Smedley and Wu Lili, assembling some more young female students, completely captivated the communist leadership. Communist wives, on a wholesale level, objected to Smedley's corrupting the revolutionary ranks while Smedley accused Heh Zizhen of living a nun-like puritanical pale life. In July 1937, in Yan'an, Heh Zizhen's anger over Smedley and Wu Lili erupted when she broke into Wu Lili's cave house where Mao Tse-tung supposedly just entered for a rendezvous.
"Smedley's Biography" stated that she heard that Heh Zizhen cursed Wu Lili as a bitch and rebuked Mao Tse-tung by saying, "You cheated me, bastard, and slipped into the place of this bougeoisie dancing girl." Smedley, who often received Mao Tse-tung's visits with the purported knowledge that Mao Tse-tung intentionally tried to get close to her interpreter, intervened. When Wu Lili hid behind Smedley, Heh Zizhen hit Smedley with a torchlight and cursed, "You, imperialist !" Smedley fought back by pushing Heh Zizhen onto the floor. Heh Zizhen blamed Mao Tse-tung for not being a man to see his wife bullied. Mao Tse-tung explained that he had nothing secretive with Wu Lili and asked Heh Zizhen leave before everybody knew about it.
This incident would compel Smedley and Wu Lili into fleeing Yan'an; however, Heh Zizhen left Yan'an in late 1937, too. The Communist leadership secretly approved Mao Tse-tung's divorce request shortly after the eruption of the Sino-Japanese War on July 7th, 1937, with purportedly three preconditions, such as defining Jiang Qing's role as a companion and prohibiting the latter from involvement in political decisions. Equivalent to a turning point, Heh Zizhen's vacancy would be filled in by Jiang Qing, a woman hungry for power, after she just lost a purported courtship of a "talented" young man to Sun Weishi [i.e., Zhou Enlai's adopted daughter] upon arrival in Yan'an [Yenan].
Not long ago, Jiang Qing was having an affair with Xie Yunxin [Zhang Min] after the success of drama "Big Storm" in Shanghai. Drama director Zhang Min proposed a divorce with wife Xiao Kun, and actress Jiang Qing [Lan Ping] proposed a divorce with Ma Jiliang [Tang Na]. That caused a stir in the Shanghai entertainment circle. Dong Zhujun claimed that she had been responsible for dissuading Zhang Min's wife [Xiao Kun] and Ma Jiliang [Tang Na, i.e., Jiang Qing's then husband] from committing suicides. Ma Jiliang [Tang Na] was recorded to have committed suicide three times during his one-year marriage with Jiang Qing. Shortly afterward, Jiang Qing broke away from Zhang Min and departed for Yan'an for her "big dream". Jiang Qing, for her open sexuality on the Shanghai Bund and implication in a KMT arrest in 1934, was given negative feedback by the underground communists like Yang Fan, for which Jiang Qing & Kang Sheng, in Feng Zhijun's opinion, had routed Yang Fan & Pan Hannian in 1954 and put them to lifelong imprisonment.
Incidentally, Ye Qun [aka Ye Yijing], i.e., future new wife of Lin Biao, arrived in Yan'an, too. Ye Qun claimed participation in 12/9/1935 & 12/12/1935 student protest movements as well as enrolment in the Communist League in Peking in 1936. The two bitchy women would exchange their feuds for persecutions during the Cultural Revolution. Jiang Qing demanded the punishment of a 1930s actress by the name of Wang Ying [i.e., Xie Hegeng's wife] who played the role of heroine Sai Jinhua on Nov 15, 1936. Jiang Qing also asked Ye Qun in recovering damaging evidence from movie director Zheng Junli, regarding materials such as a letter that Jiang Qing asked Zheng Junli to relay to Ma Jiliang in Paris in 1958, ending in 9 Oct 1966 nightly ransacking of the residencies of Shanghai actors, actresses and movie directors. [Ye Qun added four more actors to the persecution list, including Zhao Dan, for sake of guarding against the true intention of ransacking Zheng Junli's residency with the help of Air Force General Jiang Tengjiao who disguised his soldiers as the non-military "red guards". Zheng Junli, who surrendered to Zhang Chunqiao most of the old correspondence and accidentally burnt Jiang Qing's 1958 letter, failed to convince Jiang Qing of the non-existence of this particular letter.]
The Demise Of Red Army Western Expeditions
CCP Central Abandoning Ningxia Campaign
First Western Expedition
Red Army 9th Corps Being Frustrated At Gulang
Flipping By Mao Tse-tung's CCP Central
CCP Central Ordering Western Route Army Stay Put
Xi'an Coup & CCP Central Order As To Taking Over Ganzhou & Shuzhou
Second Western Expedition
Dong Zhentang's Death With Red Army 5th Corps At Gaotai
40-Day Defense of Nijiayingzi
Final Demise Of Red Army Western Route
Purge Of Zhang Guotao Path
Purge of Trotskyites During 1937-1941
Gao Hua pointed out that Mao Tse-tung gradually exercised control over CCP in addition to his re-acquisition of control over the Red Army since the 1935 Zunyi Meeting. Zhang Wentian, who was encouraged by Mao in the struggles against Bo-gu & Li-de [Otto Braun] during the Long March, had replaced Bo-gu as CCP's secretary general on Feb 5th. Mao Tse-tung, Zhang Wentian and Wang Jiaxiang formed the so-called Three Person Team (i.e., troika), with actual military power in the hands of Mao Tse-tung. Zhou Enlai became very much subordinate to Mao Tse-tung since. Moscow returnees were only in charge of party propaganda, party affairs and regional affairs. In contrast, Red Army generals began to enter CCP politburo. On Dec 27th, Mao Tse-tung, rather than Zhang Wentian, took charge of making a report for CCP's Wayaobu (Wayaobao) Meeting, and in May 1936, it was Mao Tse-tung who received Edgar Snow. Mao Tse-tung also took measures to exercise control over "political safeguarding bureau" of the Chinese Soviet Republic by replacing Deng Fa with Wang Shoudao (i.e., Mao's secretary while in Ruijin of Jiangxi). Wang Shoudao also replaced Deng Yingchao as the chief of CCP Central Committee Secretariat, a post which would take over some functions of "political safeguarding bureau" such as CCP Military Committee confidentiality section and secret agent section etc. Mao certainly controlled the telegraph service between Moscow and CCP.
Mao Tse-tung, however, always resented Zhang Wentian's posture as a 'theoretist'. After defeating Bo-gu & Kai-feng (blasted as doctrinairist & factionalist), Zhang Guotao consecutively and subduing Zhou Enlai, Mao Tse-tung allied with Liu Shaoqi in challenging Zhang Wentian. Chen Yongfa cited Liu Ying's memoirs in stating that Mao Tse-tung often called Zhang Wentian 'ming jun' [intelligent emperor] and called Zhang Wentian's wife 'niang niang' [empress]. This would become the prelude to the Purge of Trotskyites during 1937-1941.
Mao Tse-tung & Liu Shaoqi Initial Cooperation
On Feb 20th & March 4th 1937, twice, Liu Shaoqi wrote letters to Zhang Wentian, criticizing ten year long "leftist" mistakes committed by CCP & Comintern, blasted CCP's leftist antagonism to his activities on the job of CCP Northern Bureau representative, and hinting the necessity of CCP leadership (i.e., Zhang Wentian) reflecting on the responsibility. Gao Hua pointed out that Mao had sent 3 telegraphs to Liu Shaoqi for reaching an understanding between each other prior to Dec 1936. Liu Shaoqi claimed that CCP's failure during the 1927 Grand Revolution was not only due to Chen Duxiu's "rightist opportunism" but also CCP's "leftist" mistakes. On March 23rd & April 24th 1937, CCP Politburo discussed Liu Shaoqi's letters twice and concluded that Liu Shaoqi was exaggerating [the communist 'blunders'], that Liu should not excuse Chen Duxiu for the blunder, and that Liu might have been influenced by Zhang Guotao. Only Mao Tse-tung stood out in support of Liu Shaoqi by claiming that Liu Shaoqi had no ambition against CCP Central Committee. During the May 17-26th Meeting On CCP Tasks In KMT-Controlled Areas, Liu Shaoqi argued fervently against Zhang Wentian by repeating what he wrote in earlier letters. Liu Shaoqi claimed that CCP loss in KMT-Controlled areas were 100% due to the "leftist putschism" and "closed-door-ism" mistakes, while Zhang Wentian, Bo-gu, Kai-feng [Heh Kaifeng] and Chen Geng accused Liu Shaoqi of sharing Trotsky & Chen Duxiu's "revocationism". Ke Qingshi cursed Liu Shaoqi as an "old rightist".
When CCP secretariat renewed the meeting on June 1st, Peng Zhen first came to the aid of Liu Shaoqi. On June 3rd 1937, Mao Tse-tung, on the precondition that CCP had made striving progress in past 10 years, made a round-shaped remark by praising Liu Shaoqi as a good 'doctor' who systematically pointed out the symptoms CCP had incurred. On June 6th, Zhang Wentian tried to desalinate Mao Tse-tung's remarks by stating that past CCP mistakes were more a strategic mistake than a mistake in political guidelines. Zhang Wentian further blasted Liu Shaoqi on the matter of citing 'big hat' [such as "leftist putschism", "venturism" and "closed-door-ism"] and rebutted Liu Shaoqi's "legality-ism" in launching the CCP movements inside of KMT-controlled areas. On June 9th & 10th, Liu Shaoqi backed down from previous stance and made self-criticisms. On July 28th 1937, Liu Shaoqi relocated to Taiyuan of Shanxi Province [from his former post in Peking of Hebei Province] for continuing his job as secretary of CCP Northern Bureau. This incident, however, would form the basis of cooperation between the two Hunan natives, i.e., Mao Tse-tung and Liu Shaoqi, who had shared similar viewpoints against so-called "doctrinairism" & "factionalism" as far back as in 1932.
Kang Sheng/Wang Ming's Return From Moscow
Kang Sheng, while in Moscow, became deputy chief for CCP Delegation To Comintern. During four year stay in Moscow, Kang Sheng became a devout supporter of Wang Ming and implemented the "Purge of Trotskyists" measure among CCP members in USSR by learning from the experiences of NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs). NKVD, when the OGPU (q.v.) was abolished in 1934, became the commissariat that conducted the police and terror activities on behalf of Stalin, and it was replaced by KGB in 1946. Kang Sheng, in Aug 1935, was appointed "backup commissar" for Comintern Central Executive Committee. In late Oct of 1937, Wang Ming & Kang Sheng returned to Dihua of New Dominion Province and hinted that Yu Xiusong & Zhou Dawen etc (who had antagonized Wang Ming while studying at Sun Yat-sen University in Moscow) were Trotskyist suspects, and two months later, Sheng Shicai arrested Yu & Zhou and handed over to Russian Red Army which stationed its USSR Red Army 8th Regiment in Hami. On June 25th 1938, Russians transported Yu Xiusong to USSR where NKVD executed him as a Trotskyite. Also killed in early 1938 in New Dominion Province, in the hands of Deng Fa and under the nose of Chen Yun, would be Li Te & Huang Chao, two surviving officers from Zhang Guotao's Western Route Red Army. (Numerous Chinese communists, during the Russian Purge, had been either executed or sent to Siberia's gulags. Per Zheng Yi, Wu Xianqing, i.e., wife of Liu Ding [aka Kan Zunmin], was killed by Russian Purge in USSR. Chinese people in the Russian Far East were systematically rounded up and dispatched to the Arctic area for coolie labor as a result of Stalin's policy of cracking down on the Chinese to appease the Japanese in Manchuria.)
More available at Kang Sheng/Wang Ming's Return From Moscow. (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
Re-organization of CCP Central Organization Department
Transplant Of The Purge of Trotskyists
Gao Hua stated that Mao Tse-tung came to like Wang Ming's talk of "purging Trotskyites" when Wang Ming objected to Chen Duxiu's return to CCP as well as accused Zhang Wentian of being influenced by Trotsky while in Moscow. From 1938 onward, per GH, Mao never forgot to curse "Japanese imperialists, Trotskyites and traitors" in his lumpsome speeches.
While Wang Ming was orally fighting Trotskyites, Mao Tse-tung authorized Kang Sheng in secretively investigating and arresting "Trotskyite suspects" among the new influx of people to Yan'an. Gao Hua listed three categories of people handled by Kang Sheng: 1) Those Chinese who were suspected to be members of Chinese Trotskyite organization; 2) Those who had studies in USSR; and 3) Those officers who were subordinate to Zhang Guotao's Western Route Red Army.
Chinese Trotskyite organization was mainly linked to Chen Duxiu who, on Nov 15th 1929, was expelled from CCP for splitting CCP. The most serious purge of Trotskyites outside of the domain of CCP would be in southwestern China where numerous people [under Guangxi provincial government headed by Li Zongren/Bai Chongxi] were executed on the excuse of being Trotskyites, which was a playout between underground communist agents, KMT secret agents and Gui-xi [Guangxi Province] factions. Inside of the domain of the CCP would be the notorious Purge of Trotskyists at Hu-xi [i.e., west of lake], also known as the Su-Lu-Yu [i.e., Jiangsu-Shandong-Henan] border area. The Hu-xi purge eliminated the last batch of the desciples of Li Dazhao, the communist founder. In Yan'an, Kang Sheng arrested a batch of communists from Guangxi Province on the pretext that Trotskyist had infiltrated their organization.
Horrific Extermination Campaign During Purge Of Trotskyists
In March 1938, Zhang Xing (i.e., a nominal army corps chief under Yan Xishan) and two women, who had arrived in Yan'an earlier and enrolled in Shaan-bei Gong-xue [i.e., Northern Shenxi Province Public School], were arrested by the CCP Yan'an Security Section. Three months later, Zhang Xing, under torture and interrogation, cited Zhang Mutao in stating that Kang Sheng might have joined the Chinese Trotskyist organization after he was arrested by the government in 1930. Gao Hua stated that right after interrogator Chen Husheng reported the confession to his boss Zhou Xing, Kang Sheng issued the order to have Zhang Xing executed while Chen Husheng almost died of a "shutting up the mouth" plot. Chen Husheng, being barely spared life with the help of senior communist leader Teng Daiyuan, got finally released from custody in June 1944 with the interference of communist tutor Xie Juezai. After Zhou Xing executed Zhang Xing in 1938, Zhou Xing grabbed Zhang Xing's leather overcoat, made arrangement for the two women disappear [i.e., getting killed] and later flatly denied the existence of the three person team when Yan Xishan inquired with the CCP.
Chen Husheng, aka Chen Fusheng, in 1992, wrote a book entitled "The Self Account of A Red Army Soldier Who Was Deprived Of the CCP Membership Three Times". Under Kang Sheng's ruling, all convicts, including Chen Husheng, were cut off their hair in the middle, from forehead to the back of head. Gao Hua also cited Sima Lu in stating that Zhang Baoping, Li Ming & Lin Ping had disappeared after arrest by Kang Sheng, and Gao Hua cited the son of Tao Jingsun in stating that one of his two sisters was executed as a Trotskyist by Kang Sheng in 1939. (Tao Jingsun was someone the communists arranged for undercover work in the puppet government.)
For those who had studied in the USSR, there was a person by the name of Gu Shunping who had returned to Yan'an together with Zhang Hao in late 1935. Kang Sheng executed Gu Shunping after Chen Husheng accused him of attempting to flee by seesawing the shackles. Gao Hua cited Chen Husheng in stating that in 1938 or later, Kang Sheng had arrested most of the cadres from Zhang Guotao's Red Army Western Route who managed to return to Yan'an after their defeat in the hands of the Ma Family cavalry while top leaders such as Xu Xiangqian, Chen Changhao, Li Xiannian and Zhang Qinqiu etc were in idleness and under scrutiny as a result of Mao's political struggles with the Zhang Guotao clique. Gao Hua pointed that Kang Sheng had excelled in the CCP's cruelty extraction during the era of the Purge of AB League by applying the skills that he had acquired while working under the Soviet NKVD.
Communists had also conducted live dissection of political enemies. Gao Hua cited Shi Zhe's 1992 article entitled "Kang Sheng As What I Knew" in stating that Shi Zhe himself and Chen Yu were told by a nursing director at the "Liushudian Peace Hospital of Yan'an" in 1940-41 that the dead body in a sample human body tank was one of three reactionaries originally sent over alive by Kang Sheng.
Gao Hua pointed out that aside from the above clandestine persecution against political enemies as Trotskyist, Kang Sheng had publicly announced in 1939 the success of the Purge of Trotskyists via three major cases: a) Qian Weiren who was imprisoned for 7 years for his cooperation with the KMT on the matter of building roads at the CCP-KMT border area; b) Wang Zunji who was accused of being a KMT spy & a Japanese spy for her background as a nephew of Peking's puppet-traitor Wang Kemin; and c) Li Ning who disappeared after she was accused of being a Japanese spy for her walking like a Japanese woman.
Establishment of "Eastern Munich" Training Academy in Yan'an by NKVD
Yu Maochu, in the "OSS In China", pointed out that the NKVD & the Russian Military Espionage Agency established a so-called "Eastern Munich" Training Academy in Yan'an in late 1939. Mao Tse-tung was delighted to host the training session for hundreds of communist spies from inside of China, overseas Chinese, and Asians like Koreans, Japanese, Vietnamese, Indians and Indonesians. Africans and White men were also included. Training lasted for one year, and students numbered several hundreds throughout the years of early 1940s. Notables would include Ho Chi Minh and Okano Susumu [i.e., Yeben Cansan in Chinese]. On the opposite side, the American Navy, in January 1943, established the Sino-American Special Technical Cooperative Organization (SACO) with Dai Li's "jun tong".
Ho Chi Minh, from Moscow, came to work for Kang Sheng in Yan'an [Yenan] in late 1939, and traveled to Chongqing and befriended American officials from the Soviet-spy-hijacked OSS [Office of Strategic Services]. During the course of OSS's efforts in allying with Chinese communists, on Aug 22nd, 1944, Okano Susumu, i.e., one-time Japanese communist chief, was packaged into a figure to head the "Apple Plan" which was to dispatch secret agents into Japanese-controlled territories, like Manchuria, Korea and Japan.
Multilateral espionage activities went on throughout the resistance war period, with treacheries and betrayals against each other: e.g., British agents colluding with Comintern agents against the R.O.C., and the communists colluding with the puppets and the Japanese against the R.O.C., and on the matter of Koreans, Dai Li's military investigation and statistics faction supported a Korean interim government headed by Jin Jiu [Kin Kau]; however, Americans picked Syngman Rhee, i.e., a n emissary to the US sent by the interim Korean government, as a proxy to represent the US interests. (Jin Jiu and his comrades, sent back to South Korea by Chiang Kai-shek via two ROC transporters on Nov 5th, 1945, failed to run his interim government; and on June 26th, 1949, he was assassinated by an military police officer under Syngman Rhee.) Additionally, OSS Chief William "Wild Bill" Donovan had attempted to circumvent around pro-communist Stilwell in striking a deal with the Chinese communists, i.e., offering the US money and weaponry in exchange for purported American penetration into Manchuria, Northern China, Korea and Japan with communist help. At one time, Zhu De, i.e., commander of the communist Eight Route Army, presented a letter to the U.S. in demand of 20 million US dollars as a loan for the purpose of "bribing or purchasing from the puppet army the weapons with money", claiming that they had been able to buy from the puppets a rifle for $20, a pistol for $30, a bomb thrower for $50, a machinegun for $80, an artillery piece for $1000, and a telegraph set for $200: American's "Office of Strategic Services" would not know the dealings between the communists and the puppet army till their parachuted team, who was sent to an area about 5 kilometers away from a Japanese garrison in 1945, underwent months of detention by the communist army headed by communist commander Geng Biao. When Mao claimed he had about 140,000 broken guns during peace talks in Chungking in 1945, he was referring to the total number of guns he had acquired through trade with the puppets, as well as the guns the communist robbed of the militia and government guerrila armies after years of civil wars in North China.
Purge of Trotskyists at Hu-xi [i.e., Su-Lu-Yu or Jiangsu-Shandong-Henan]
Transition To Yan'an Rectification Movement
On March 5th 1938, CCP Central Committee issued a call for "Re: Decision As To Massively Enrolling CCP Members". Chen Yun claimed that whoever had acquired intellectuals would have acquired the nation. Within one and half years, masses of people, students and intellectuals enrolled in CCP. To filter out reactionaries and wavering elements, on Aug 25th, 1939, CCP issued a call for "Re: Decision As To Solidifying the CCP". Kang Sheng's CCP Social Department was empowered with secretively investigating CCP members both inside and outside of CCP domains. Beginning from 1940, Chen Yun's CCP Central Organization Department & Kang Sheng's CCP Social Department would be in charge of re-investigating CCP members in a joint effort.
The CCP Archive Management, which was abandoned prior to the 1934 Long March, was re-established, with CCP Organization Sections at various levels in charge of the folders. CCP members were asked to re-fill resume tables repeatedly for sake of clarifying the suspicious gaps or history that revealed themselves among different versions. Gao Hua cited Ma Hong's writing in stating that in Yan'an Marxism & Leninism Academy alone, 188 out of 291 CCP members were found to have conflicting resumes as to their family background and personal history. Eyewitnesses and old acquaintances were required for ascertaining the records and statements, and CCP supervisors were ordered to write up summaries and evaluation. At various levels, CCP Organization Section Chief must conduct individual discussions with each and every member investigated before making a conclusive remarks for the personnel folder involved, with emphasis on i) historical background check, and ii) performance evaluation at working units. This personnel folder would follow the person all his or her life, with remarks added by supervisors along the way.
On Sept 20th, 1940, Kang Sheng's CCP Social Department issued an order "Re: Instructions As To Eliminating Enemy Agents", calling for various-level CCP Organization Sections reporting suspects and their archive materials to the Social Department. On basis of self accounts in resumes, the CCP Social Department scrutinized enrollees in Northern Shenxi Province Public School & the CCP Central Party Academy, especially those with the so-called "exploiter" family background, with complicated social contacts, or with implications in KMT organizations. Except for few who answered the CCP's school enrollment notice published in KMT controlled areas, most of the people had come to Yan'an with referral letters stamped by local CCP leaders. Gao Hua cited a woman by the name of Lin Na as a good example of Kang Sheng's re-investigation scheme. Lin Na, with her husband taken away by Soviet NKVD (i.e., Ge-bo-wu) while on the road of return to China from Moscow, would be deprived of the post of deputy chief of the politics section of Yan'an Women College in the autumn of 1940. (Lin Na, repeatedly interrogated by Ye Qun [i.e., Lin Biao's wife], would later die when thrown out by Ye Qun for further persecution during the cultural revolution of 1960s.) Gao Hua also listed renowned writer Xiao Jun as another example of the CCP investigation and attributed CCP cadre Chen Long to the impartial approach in ascertaining the "suspects" including Xiao Jun, which led to Mao Tse-tung's reception of Xiao Jun in July 1941.
On April 10th & Aug 2nd, 1941, CCP Social Department issued two orders "Re: Instructions As To Cleaning Up Reactionary Suspicious Agents", calling for detailed research and serious inspection. Gao Hua stated that under the influences of Chen Yun & Zhang Wentian, CCP 1940-1941 "cadre investigation" was relatively peaceful and moreover helped to alleviate some cadres of historical issues. Ding Ling, who was imprisoned by the government from 1933 to 1936, was finally restored reputation as a "loyal communist" in 1940's "cadre investigation even though Kang Sheng had claimed in 1938 that Ding Ling was "not our comrade". Similarly, Wang Shiwei, who later was arrested during the Yan'an Rectification Movement, was cleared of his past contacts with Trotskyists in 1940. Most of the communist cadres or members cleared in 1940-1941 would soon fall into victims of the Yan'an Rectification Movement, to be arrested with escalated "crimes" by Kang Sheng in 1943.
Sima Lu, suspected to be a Trotskyist, was expelled from Yan'an in June 1939. Though Sima Lu was restored party membership, he severed himself with the CCP in 1942 for joining the Chinese Democratic League, after sabotage work to help Zhou Enlai to steer the Korean righteous army troops to Yenan through a communist scheme with the Soviet-spy-hijacked American OSS organization, and after a banishment assignment to the trilateral border area of Zhejiang, where he abandoned the post after undergoing repeating threats and assassination by agents from the Japanese, from the government, from teh pupets and from the communist side. (In 1949, Sima Lu departed for HK where he launched magazine "Looking Ahead".)
The KMT-CCP Friction & Confrontation
Beginning from Aug 1937, Mao Tse-tung differed from Zhou Enlai on the matter of the CCP-KMT cooperation. On Aug 22-25, the CCP launched the expanded politburo meeting in Luochuan, i.e., the Luochuan Meeting, with Mao Tse-tung claiming that Chiang Kai-shek's KMT would sooner or later surrender to the Japanese. Mao Tse-tung, with the support of Zhang Wentian out of 23 participants, claimed that the CCP must be prepared for national leadership should the KMT surrender to or be defeated by the Japanese. Zhou Enlai, however, stated that the CCP must fulfill its promise of cooperation with the KMT in resisting the Japanese aggression. Zhou Enlai expressed confidence in Chiang Kai-shek's persistence character. Mao and Zhou also differed on the military strategy, with Mao insisting on the "guerrilla warfare" for saving the CCP strength and Zhou insisting on the "mobile guerrilla warfare" at minimum for proving to the nation that the CCP did resist the Japanese. Zhu De & Peng Dehuai also expressed the need for observing the command of the KMT military committee so that the CCP's Eight Route Army could enjoy government-funded military stipends, equipment and supplies. At last, Zhang Wentian compromised the two viewpoints, with a decision that the Eight Route Army first cooperate with the KMT forces (i.e., the National Revolutionary Army of the R.O.C.) in fighting the Japanese and then disperse across northern China for launching Mao Tse-tung's guerrilla warfare should the government troops' frontline defense against the Japanese collapse by itself. The Luochuan Meeting was nototious for the communist resolutions to commit 10% of the energies to resisting the Japanese. On Sept 13th, the KMT's news agency announced the start of the 2nd KMT-CCP collaboration.
Guerrilla Warfare vs Mobile Guerrilla Warfare
On Aug 23rd, Mao assumed the post of secretary for the CCP Central Military Committee while Zhu De & Zhou Enlai assumed the deputy posts. Zhou Enlai was to take on the post of secretary for the CCP Yangtze Bureau in the KMT-controlled area. After the Luochuan Meeting, three divisions of the CCP Eight Route Army entered Shanxi Province after Zhou Enlai met Yan Xishan in Daixian county on Sept 7th and Fu Zuoyi in Datong thereafter. Zhou backed down to compromise with Mao by selling the idea of "guerrilla mobile warfare" (not "mobile guerrilla warfare") to Yan Xishan. Mao, however, continued to instruct various CCP military leaders as to the danger of committing the CCP's Eight Route Army to the resistance war. On Sept 23rd, Zhou authorized the 115th & 120th Divisions in assisting Yan Xishan's army, and Zhu De, Peng Dehuai & Ren Bishi reported the deployment plan to Mao; however, Mao refrained from approving the plan till after Lin Biao's 115th Division ambushed a Japanese logistics unit from the 21st Ryodan (Brigade-Conglomerate) at the Battle of Pingxingguan Pass.
Xie He'geng's Entering the KMT Nucleus
On Aug 2nd, 1937, Chiang Kai-shek invited Bai Chongxi to Nanking for assuming the post of deputy general tactician. Against the advice of Long Yun & Liu Xiang, Bai Chongxi agreed to Xie He'geng's opinions and departed for Nanking. Xie He'geng, being one of the few attaches whom Bai Chongxi brought along, took over the post of "confidential secretary" on Aug 4th, 1937. In this month, Xie He'geng, a married man, first met with Wang Ying, a movie and drama star who had retreated from Shanghai with Hong Shen's "drama column for rescuing the nation", one of the 13 such patriotic columns organized by Shanghai's entertainment industry in the aftermath of the Aug 14th, 1937 war in Shanghai. (Among the works of the "drama column for rescuing the nation" would be "The Exile Trilogy" which was about a father and a daughter fleeing Japanese-occupied Manchuria.)
Also accompanying Bai Chongxi would be Pan Yizhi and Liu Fei (undercover communist agent). Subsequently, Xie He'geng was offered the job of secretary under Zhang Qun's KMT National Defense Conference. Cheng Siyuan, after returning from Italy, worked as another secretary for Bai Chongxi. Pan Yizhi, while in Nanking, entertained Bai Chongxi by arranging rendezvous with the "renowned prostitutes" in Suzhou-Hangzhou-Shanghai areas.
In Oct 1937, Xie Hegeng first authored 12,000 character "masterplan for the nationwide guerilla warfare" which Gui-xi passed along to Chiang Kai-shek via Liu Fei [i.e., secondary director of the military department of the KMT military commission, and an undercover communist agent]. This article was also copied to Mao Tse-tung via Li Kenong of the Nanking office of the Eight Route Army. Later, during the cultural revolution of the 1960s, the Red Guards rebuked Xie Hegeng in 'faking' as an author of Mao Tse-tung's thoughts on the "sustained and lengthened warfare". (Li Zongren's memoirs claimed that he had authored the article "regarding the scorched-earth resistance wars" in 1933, an article that was published in numerous newspapers after a review by Hu Hanmin.)
Chiang Kai-shek, in early 1938, sanctioned the launch of the "guerilla warfare teaching & practice school" on Mt Hengshan of Hunan Province where 100-200 cadres from multiple provinces studied. In March, KMT commissar Zhang Chong [Zhang Huainan] orchestrated a KMT-CCP meeting at the Pacific Hotel in Hankou in regards to discussions on propaganda and organization. Xie He'geng memoirs stated that Chiang Kai-shek, on March 29th, 1938, initiated the formation of the "Three People's Principles Youth League" after consulting with Bai Chongxi as to Guangxi's experiences on the "three sub-merging" experiment in the areas of mobilization of the masses, i.e., drafting soldiers, training them and then releasing them back into countryside for future war mobilization. Later on Feb 15th, 1939, the "Nationalist Army Guerilla Warfare Cadre Training Session" started at Nanyue of Hengshan. The Guilin office of the communist Eight Route Army, on May 30th, 1939, reported that Xie Hegeng had authored many articles that Bai Chongxi had adopted during many speeches, including an article on the "Protracted Resistance War".
In the late spring of 1938, Xie Hegeng and Wang Ying, two undercover communists with no horizontal liaison with each other, fell in love. Xie Hegeng remained at the side of Bai Chongxi throughout the early years of the war, till 1942. To assist Xie Hegeng's secret mission, the CCP dispatched Liu Zhongrong and Liu Zhonghua to the Gui-xi camp. In Feb 1938, while in Hankou, Xie Hegeng was asked by Chiang Kai-shek and Jiang Jingguo to officially enroll in the KMT which Xie Hegeng managed to put off. By Oct 1938, Liu Zhonghua tacked on the post of counselor in Li Zongren's office [i.e., the 5th Military Zone] in Xiangfan of Hubei Province, while Liu Zhongrong already tacked on the post of counselor in Bai Chongxi's office [i.e., the Generalissimo’s Headquarters in Guilin]. During the retreat from Wuhan, CCP leader Zhou Enlai rode on the same vehicle as Bai Chongxi and purportedly discussed the guerilla warfare. With Chiang Kai-shek's nodding approval, CCP leader Ye Jianying led a teaching delegation to the KMT "Nationalist Army Guerilla Warfare Cadre Training Session" in Nanyue. The KMT & CCP purportedly co-educated three sessions or 3000 cadres by March 1940. Xie Hegeng returned to the "Guilin Generalissimo’s Headquarters" with Bai Chongxi in Jan 1939 after staying at the Nanyue training session for two months. In April 1939, Li Zongren & Bai Chongxi, under maneuver by Xie Hegeng, financially supported Jin Shan & Wang Ying's "drama tour of Southeastern Asia" for fund raising. The communists purportedly raised a huge amount of money among the overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia, equivalent in the dollar amount to Chen han-sheng's money laundering to Yenan from the CPUSA front organization in the United States. Wang Ying later worked on the patriotic drama performance in HK. After the fall of HK, the communist activists, dramatists and actors/actresses, such as Wang Ying, Xia Yan, Jin Shan and Situ Huimin, slipped through the Japanese blockade for a return to China. This was a safe passage arranged by Pan Hannian, the communist spy chief, and the Japanese military intelligence service.
In May 1942, Xie Hegeng & Wang Ming, as part of the Chinese communist scheme to penetrate to Southeast Asia and elsewhere in the world, were sent to the U.S. for overseas studies under funding by the KMT government. While in the U.S., Xie Hegeng & Wang Ming held meetings with Prof Lattimore [a Soviet agent] of Baltimore University, Lin Yutang, Pearl Buck [Sai-zhen-zhu] and Smedley etc, attended the "world youth student meeting" (i.e., a Comintern front organziation) in D.C. in July 1942, and conducted the leftist activities. However, Xie Hegeng memoirs stated that he refused to cooperate with the 3rd Comintern and the Russian consulate in San Francisco. Wang Ying, as the so-called Chinese "Hayes Helen", was invited to the White House for a performance on March 15th, 1943. Arrested by the INS in 1954, the two were released together with 12 more Chinese as a swap deal with 14 American prisoners of war from the Korean War. During the cultural revolution, Wang Ying would die of Jiang Qing's persecutions in March 1974. The stories of Xie Hegeng and Wang Ying, i.e., two self-inflicted victims of communism, were shot into the TV series "Forever First Love" in 1996.
The American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the White Paper [Modified : Monday, 25-Feb-2013 22:00:00 EST]
The Chungking Gang
P 6 Archibald Trojan Steele suggested that "to deny that the Chinese Communists were 'real Communists' so as to "report good things about the Communists without appearing pro-Communists to an American reading public that was traditionally anti-Communist".
P104 Hugh Dean: "During those early months of 1941, Belden and I and one or two others were kept busy trying to get the specifics on the suppression of opponents of the Kuomingtang, real and suspected …I went home in the spring of 1941 with my notebooks full of heavy stuff on the oppression and Kuomingtang-Communist relations. Chou En-lai and his aides gave me a farewell dinner at which Chou handed me a map showing the areas where Kuomintang and Communist troops had clashed and confronted each other. … The Monitor commissioned a series of ten articles under the general title 'Inside the War'."
P 105 "it [KMT] had no mass support and was on its way out. I wound up by saying that the Communists had won the battle for the minds of the peasants, and I suggested that this was going to be the decisive factor."
Hugh Dean, a graduate of Lingnan University, one of the cradles of the Soviet G.R.U. spies same as Yenching University, passed through HK where Comintern (G.R.U.) agents Gunther Stein and Chen hansheng briefed himm as to how to launch the sabotage propaganda work in Chungking.
Network of the CCP Secret Agents Inside Of the KMT & Nanking Puppet Governments
Gao Hua classified the CCP's espionage activities into three lines: Kang Sheng's CCP Central Social Department, Wu Kejian's CCP Southern Bureau behind-enemy-line-committee (i.e., under Zhou Enlai/Li Kenong control), and Pan Hannian's Southern China Bureau (in charge of the Shanghai-HK nexus). Yu Maochun, in "OSS In China", had presented the line of dual-status agents under the control of both the Chinese communists and the Comintern.
Back in 1938, Zhou Enlai and Dong Biwu personally oversaw the dispatchment of Xiong Xianghui to Hu Zongnan's army, as evidenced by Xiong Xianghui's self account "Twelve Years' Underground Work & Zhou Enlai" published by the CCP Central Party Academy in Peking in 1991. (Xiong, after surviving the cultural revolution, would get to meet Henry Kissinger in 1971.) A female agent, by the name of Hu Anna, infiltrated into the confidentiality section of the KMT Central Party Ministry as a stenographer in 1938. Per Yu Maochun's "OSS In China", one successful story of the communist infiltration would be Kang Sheng's dispatching Zhang Luping to Dai Li's telegraph section where seven members were undercover communists. (Zhang Luping, an alias name for a Sichuan girl who was of a former Sichuan warlord army general family background, was sent back to Chungking from Yenan for assisting the team of agents working inside of the Dai Li special agency.) In Chiang Kai-shek's office, undercover communist Wang Zhengyuan was in charge of the switchboard as one of seven communists among a total of nine staff.
Solomon Adler [A-de-le], a Jewish American with the British citizenship, who fled McCarthy's persecution in the 1950s, fled to China where he published his identity as a Chinese communist spy during WWII. Yu Maochun, moreover, pointed out that Lu Jiuzhi [son-in-law of Chiang Kai-shek's 2nd wife Chen Jieru] had been a Comintern agent in the Japanese-occupied territories. (For details, please refer to The American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the White Paper.) per YMC's writing, Yan Baohang, both a CCP spy and a Comintern spy, had penetrated into the inner circle of Chiang Kai-shek. (Yan Baohang, through liaison with the senior KMT leaders, obtained advance information about both the planned Japanese attack at the Pearl Harbor and the German attack at the USSR per YMC; however, Zhang Ling'ao, i.e., Chiang Kai-shek's attaché, denied that China had ever decoded Japan's navy telegraph in regards to the Pearl Harbor. Zhang Ling'ao, in "Memoirs of Attaché Office" [i.e., "Records From Repeated Recollections Of Dreams At the Attaché Office"], did point out that China's "technical research institute" had decoded the Japanese foreign ministry's notice to the various overseas embassies in regards to "withdrawing the Japanese citizens" in early Dec 1941. Also see Zhang Ling'ao writing on Wang Pengsheng's "International Issue Research Institute" for China's obtaining a copy of Japan's Pacific War plan three weeks ahead of the Pearl Harbor Attack. Note similar information was already relayed to the U.S. by Chinese ambassador Guo Dehua. What happened was that the Chinese did decode the Japanese diplomatic cables, which was well in advance of the American MAGIC project. The Chinese air force had successfully decoded the Japanese air force codes as well, thanks to the defection of Japanese ace Yamashita Shichiro who was shot down by Luo Yingde on September 26, 1937, the first downed Mitsubishi A5M Type plane. It was due to the Chinese intelligence on the Pearl Harbor attack as well as the intelligence on the Japanese attack on Prince Wales etc that led the British and Americans to seeking cooperation with the Chinese intelliegence. Contrary to the popular historical account stating that Yamashita was executed for attempting to escape prison, Luo Yingde pointed out that he had converted Yamashita to a telegraph decoding agent serving under the Chinese Air Force and petitioned the Republic of China in removing all references to Yamashita in war records so as to keep Yamashita anonymous. According to Luo Yingde, Yamashita decided to stay on in China after the end of the war and failed to leave Lanzhou when the communists sacked the city. Incidentally, the communists claimed to have submitted to Chungking the code books of the Japanese air force captured in North China, but the government did not make much use of it. Though, the communists claimed credit for tipping Stalin about the German attack on the Soviet Union as well as the Japanese attack on the United States, i.e., intelligence that Yan Baohang had obtained from the government personnel.)
An illustrative example of the communist espionage could be shown in the case of Heh Yaozu. Heh Yaozu, who was sent to Turkey by Chiang Kai-shek for 2 years as ambassador together with a concubine-nurse [i.e., Ni Feijun], had tacked on the provincial chair post for Gansu Province from 1937 to 1939. The Communists chose Xie Juezai as the Eight Route Army representative in Lanzhou of Gansu Province for sake of utilizing the historical contacts between the two. At Lanzhou, Xie Juezai managed to have Heh Yaozu order Ma Buqing into releasing some eight top communists from the Zhangye prison. Xie Juezai also obtained Heh Yaozu's help in transporting the Soviet supplies to the communist forces in Yan'an from the New Dominion Province. After Heh Yaozu was recalled to Chongqing, Heh Yaozu was made into director of the 1st presidential attaché division. In Nov 1942, Heh Yaozu, without consultation with Chiang Kai-shek, ordered that the KMT military commission let go a planeload of Soviet [?medical] supplies to Yan'an. Taking advantage of the Wu Guozhen dismissal over the death of Chungking citizens in the bunker suffocation death, Chiang Kai-shek dismissed Heh Yaozu from the key position and assigned the mayor post. Ni Feijun, i.e., Heh Yaozu's nurse-turned young wife, however, got a better cover as mayor's wife for liaison with both the communists and the KMT leftists. Chiang Kai-shek joked with Heh Yaozu sometimes, saying, "How could you handle the mayor job while you could not rein in your wife?"
Tao Jingsun, whose sister was executed as a Trotskyist by Kang Sheng in Yan'an in 1939, was dispatched by Pan Hannian to the so-called Chinese Culture Society under Wang Jingwei's puppet Nanking government. To win over Li Shiqun from the puppet Nanking government, Zhou Enlai in 1939 authorized Pan Hannian in dispatching Guan Lu [aka Hu Mei] as replacement of her younger sister Hu Xiufeng whom puppet special services chief Li Shiqun had requested as a precondition for cooperation with the CCP. With the Sept 18th, 1940, notice of "launching the tasks in major cities behind the enemy line", Zhou Enlai and Kang Sheng took charge of developing and dispatching moles into the KMT nucleus, which was in violation of the 1937 promise not to infiltrate into the government agencies.
The CCP, which already had a Japanese Communist section (i.e., Dobun Academy spies) working inside of the Japanese occupation army, further got in touch with Wang Jingwei's puppet Nanking government. Beginning from Dec 1941, Liu Shaoqi dispatched Feng Shaobai [aka Feng Long] to Nanking for instigating the cooperation of Chen Gongbo and Zhou Fohai [Zhou Fuhai]. Later, on March 10th, 1943, Chen Gongbo instructed Shao Shijun (i.e., Chen Shaobai's uncle-in-law) in establishing a wireless service between the CCP's New Fourth Army and the Nanking puppet government, and in Aug 1945, Shao Shijun transferred several hundreds of gold nuggets to the CCP. (A brief reading of Chen Gongbo's confessions convinced me that top elite members of both the KMT government and the CCP leadership, entangled as they were via teacher/student relationship or relatives' relationship, had continuous contacts with the Wang Jingwei puppet government in Nanking. http://www.frankcass.com/jnls/ins_16-4.htm had description of the "Communist-Puppet Collaboration in Japanese-Occupied China: Pan Hannian and Li Shiqun, 1939-43" by Joesph K S Yick. As commented by Yick, "prominent CCP and KMT personalities involved" indicated "the existence of a revolutionary aristocracy bound by personal relations and with an elite code of conduct." Gerhard L. Weinberg, in his book "A World At Arms", Cambridge University Press 1994, page 640, mentioned that an author by the name of Boyle had written in "China & Japan" that the Japanese had seriously considered peace talks with the CCP in 1944.)
In 1944, the Japanese, who had arrested the Tobun Academy spies in 1942 and extradited several Chinese Communists to Tokyo, brought back one Chinese communist by the name of Li Desheng and sent him to the communist New Fourth Army base in Jiangsu for peace talks. What happened was that the Japanese in 1942 foiled the Sorge spy ring, and arrested a batch of Dobun spies from Japan to China, including, among others, a Chinese communist by the name of Li Desheng. In 1944, at the time of the Ichigo Campaign, the Japanese estradited Li Desheng back to China from the prison in Tokyo for a mission to the N4A headquarters in Luhe. At Luhe, the Japanese reached a deal with the communists to pincer-attack the Chinese government troops. Hence, during the Ichigo campaign, Mao interrupted the rectification meetings, and dispatched lieutenants to trekking behind the Japanese steps in the central plains, where the communists penetrated into the mountains in western Henan, attacked the county officials and government troops, and launched enclaves. From Yenan, Mao sent Wang Zheng on a long march to south of the Yangtze for linking up with the East River Guerrilla Force and re-establishing the communist enclaves in southern China. Mao also called on the N4A to attack west, which ended in Peng Xuefeng's death when the communist army followed the Japanese footsteps and attacked the government troops in Anhui Province.
In 1947, some newspaper in Ningbo had published accounts exposing the secret Japanese-Chinese Communist peace terms. A relative of mine, by the name of Jin Ziliang, had served as a telegraph specialist for Li Shiqun after returning to Shanghai from Chongqing. He was arrested by the KMT and the CCP, consecutively, and he stayed in the Tilanqiao Prison for almost 35 years. He mentioned a lot of delicate relationship between the KMT, the CCP and Wang Jingwei's No. 76 Agency. See http://www.panhannianguju.org/phncq8.htm to find out how the CCP slapped its own face by describing how Pan Hannian went to see Wang Jingwei without (?) the knowledge of the CCP Politburo and how Pan Hannian colluded with the puppet government during the resistance war time period.
The Armed Conflicts Between the KMT & the CCP
The CCP claimed that the KMT, after the Jan 1939 5th Plenary Meeting of the 5th KMT Congress, had launched five bloody crackdowns on the CCP-controlled bases, i.e.,
The Shenxian Incident on June 11th, 1939
The Pingjiang Incident on June 12th, 1939
The E'dong [Eastern Hubei Province] Incident on Sept 1st, 1939
Queshan Incident on Nov 11th, 1939.
The Communist New Fourth Army Attacking the Government Troops (July 1940) - The Huangqiao Battle
The Wan-nan Incident (Jan 1941)
More available at THE ENEMY FROM WITHIN: CHINESE COMMUNIST ATTACKS AT GOVERNMENT TROOPS - 1940 (Modified : Wednesday, 28-Nov-2007 00:27:55 EST), Wan-nan-Incident.pdf. (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
The Battle Of Mt Zhongtiaoshan & the Communist Apathy
in Aug 1939, the USSR and Germany signed a non-aggression pact. The USSR withdrew its military personnel from China. On Sept 1st, 1939, at the news of the Russian invasion of Poland, Mao Tse-tung made an announcement of support for the Soviets, claiming that the Russians had the right to liberate the minority Ukrainians and the White Russians who numbered about 11 million in Poland. Shi Zhe translated Mao's article on "New China Newspaper" into Russian, and the Comintern had it translated into French and German for the communist members to study. In the winter, the USSR invaded Finland. Chiang Kai-shek voted to have the USSR kicked out of the League of Nations. In April 1941, the USSR signed neutrality treaty with Japan. Mao Tse-tung applauded the USSR-Japan pact as the Soviets' best choice in avoiding the implication of an imperialist world wide war.
The Jin-nan Campaign would be a Japanese attempt at Mt Zhongtiaoshan which was a mountain range on the north bank of the Yellow River that extends from the inflexion point of the bends. Since 1938, the Chinese forces had been defending Mt Zhongtiaoshan and hence secured the cities of Luoyang of Henan Province and Tongguan of Shenxi Province. In the spring of 1941, Japanese amassed armies in the areas of Jincheng, Yangcheng, Qinshui, Wenxi, Xiaxian and Anyi for taking over control of southern Shanxi Province.
The Chinese 1st Military District, with 7 army corps, buried themselves inside of the 50 kilometer long Mt Zhongtiaoshan. The Chinese forces defended their positions by means of solid trenches to the north and the Yellow River as a natural barrier to the south, and dispatched the contingents for harassing the Japanese Army in occupied territories. Meanwhile, the Chinese forces at Mt Luuliangshan to the northwest hit the Japanese in the hind.
On May 8th, 1941, the Japanese took over Mengxian and Jiyuan in northern Henan Province and Huanqu of southern Shanxi Province. On May 12th, the Japanese blockaded all the ricver crossings on the Yellow River. The Chinese armies inside of Mt Zhongtiaoshan had been fighting the Japanese independently at various passes. On May 13th, the main Chinese forces broke though the siege for a relocation, and reinforced the defense inside of Mt Luuliangshan and Mt Taihangshan. The Mt Zhongtiaoshan fighting ended on May 27th.
Wu Xiangxiang stated that the Japanese newspapers widely reported that the communist-controlled Eight Route Army (i.e., the 38th Group Army) had mostly remained in northern Shanxi Province and furthermore attacked and took over the remnant nationalist army troops by taking advantage of the Mt Zhongtiaoshan debacle. Both the UPI and the Tokyo news agencies mentioned that the Japanese army and the communist army did not engage with each other. On May 21st, "Da Gong Bao" [i.e., Grand Justice Newspaper] criticized the communists for its passivity in the war. On May 23rd, CCP leader Zhou Enlai published a rebuttal article on the same newspaper as to their passivity during the Battle Of Mt Zhongtiaoshan. "Da Gong Bao" further advised against the communists' possibly following Soviet Russia which had signed a non-aggression pact with Japan one month before. On July 21st, The "Da Gong Bao" newspaper admonished the communists by pointing out that the Japanese army, after finishing the Mt Zhongtiaoshan Campaign, did not forget to sweep through the communist-held territories of Ji-Cha-Lu [i.e., Hebei, Cha-ha-er and Shandong provinces].
The U.S. Involvement In China And Its Hideous Efforts At the Mediation Between the KMT & the CCP
The ultimate American intervention in China in March 1940, i.e., Americans hastily giving Chiang Kai-shek a badly-needed loan, would be to prevent Japan and China from reaching a truce after Chiang Kai-shek deliberately spread a rumor that his Chongqing government could merge with the puppet Nanking government.
On April 1st, a promise of 50 million US dollars for balancing the foreign exchange rate with the Chinese currency
On April 25th, 1941, a loan of 50,000,000 US dollars
Britain adding an offer of 5 million pounds
312,000,000 taels of silver [which China had stored in both the US and Europe ] from China in 1937-1938 for lending support to the exchange rate with the "fa bi" ["legalized currency]
On Oct 25th, 1938, a barter trade in loaning China 20 million US dollars
On Dec 15th, the US Import & Export Bank officially cut the loan of 25 million to China.
Britain offering the 500,000 pounds credit line
second batch of the "tung oil" loan on March 7th, 1940, with collateral requirement of China's tin ore.
33 million US dollars worth of machinery parts.
Yunnan-Guangxi Prov's tin ore in exchange for a loan of 20 million US dollars.
Guizhou Prov's mercury to the U.S.
More available at The U.S. Involvement With the Chinese Communist Party. (Check RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page for up-to-date updates.)
On July 19th, Owen Lattimore arrived at Chungking to assume the post of a political adviser supposedly picked by Roosevelt but made nonofficial by the U.S. State Department where the British agents and the Soviet spies had about the equal weight in influencing the United States foreign policies. This was after Owen Lattimore resigned his job at the Institute of Pacific Relations [IPR] where he formulated a policy of "For the USSR -- back their international policy in general, but without using their slogans and above all without giving them or anybody else the impression of subservience". Unknown to Roosevelt who suspected his State Department to be a hotbed of British hands, the Institute of Pacific Relations [IPR] had taken the years from two previous Roosevelt terms to arrange the Soviet spies to occupy both the State Department and the Treasury Department. Either before or after the China mission, Lattimore had a meeting with the Russian consul-general, not to mention the fact that Lattimore had numerous Chinese communist agents recruited throughout his tenure at the IPR, including Chi Chao-ting, Chen Han-seng, Chu Tong, Y.Y. Hsu, et al.
American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the White Paper [Modified : Monday, 25-Feb-2013 22:00:00 EST]
The Yan'an Rectification Movement (1942-1945)
Peng Dehuai and Li Rui were commented to have said that Mao Tse-tung had adopted a much civilized approach to the Yan'an Rectification Movement, with a slogan called "not a single person to be arrested and not a single person to be executed". Is that a joke? (Li Rui was Mao's secretary and he might not have counted the death of 100 "serious offenders" in 1947.)
The outside world did not learn of the CCP's terror during the Yan'an Rectification Movement till Hu Zongnan's army, after taking over control of Shenxi & Shanxi, dug out bodies of four foreigners from a well in Yongping of Shanxi Province. The three Russians and one Serbian(?), caught by the CCP in early 1944 while trekking through the communist territory, were executed as a burden during the CCP retreat. Gao Hua cited Shi Zhe's memoirs in stating that CCP security section chief Zhou Xing took the blame when the news broke out nationally. Also executed by the CCP would be over hundred so-called "serious offenders" who were imprisoned as a result of the Rectification Movement. Among those victims decapitated prior to the communist fleeing Hu Zongnan's invasion would be the bookworm Wang Shiwei. Gao Hua cited Wang Suyuan's writings on the CCP History in stating that Kang Sheng, while fleeing towards Linxian county of Shanxi Province, received authorization to execute over 100 "serious offenders" in the Security Section's custody on the bank of the Yellow River. (Exempted from the death fate would be 100 "serious offenders" that Chen Gang [aka Liu Zuohu] and Chen Long brought along on their 'barefoot' trip to Manchuria on Nov 9th, 1945, and another 300-400 captives, deemed "less-than-serious offenders", were freed in 1946 and re-assigned jobs. Per Jung Chang's "Wild Swans", her father Zhang Shouyu [alias Wang Yu] was ordered to walk to Manchuria one month after the Japanese surrender. After two months, they arrived in Chaoyang in Nov, a region in southwestern Manchuria that bordered with Inner Mongolia. Very likely, Jung Chang's father belonged to the 100 "serious offenders" for the implication at the Marxism Research Institute in Yan'an as a colleague of Wang Shiwei.)
Gao Hua stated that in Heh Long's Jinn-Sui [Shanxi-Suiyuan] CCP Enclave, the CCP executed a batch of "serious offenders" who were imprisoned as a result of the Rectification Movement, including, among others, a 29-year-old youth who was once among so-called the "five patriotic youths" of Xi'an.
Mao had only luckily survived his 4-year-long terror as a result of the Moscow intervention. The Yan'an Rectification Movement (1942-1945) was merely called off after Georgi Dimitrov sent an urgent telegraph on Dec 22nd, 1943, for saving Wang Ming from Mao Tse-tung's persecutions on the pretext that Kang Sheng might be a "possible KMT spy bent on destroying the CCP from inside out". Two months earlier, on Oct 28th, 1943, with Mao's approval, Vladimir, i.e., the Comintern rep at Yan'an, dispatched his personal doctor [Ao-luo-fu] on a trip to checking Wang Ming's health, and Wang Ming was recorded to have burst into cries in front of his Russian master and disclosed that he was poisoned by Mao. However, Moscow did not know that Mao deliberately hired Kang Sheng for exercising the red terror so that Mao, a real monster, could thoroughly control his party. On Jan 2nd, Mao telegraphed Dimitrov and claimed that the CCP had no intention to expel Zhou Enlai from the party while Wang Ming was unreliable because Wang Ming was at one time in the 19030s caught and released by the KMT. Two days later, Mao invited the Vladimir couple over for a Peking opera, tried to correct his previous stance by expressing respect for Stalin and gratitude for Dimitrov (see Vladimir's "Yan'an Diaries"), and inquired whether Mao could take back his statements made two days ago.
To understand how serious the terror campaign was, just check out Bo Yibo's memoirs. Gao Hua cited Wang Suyuan's "Beginnings & Endings Of the Shan-Gan-Ning [Shenxi-Gansu-Ningxia] Rescue" in stating that 15,000 out of 30,000 CCP members, intellectuals and cadres, taking up a ratio of 50%, had been "rescued" by Kang Sheng & Mao Tse-tung's terror campaign. Bo Yibo's mother, who followed his son to Yan'an, once told his son: "Son, this [Yan'an] is not a good place to live. Every night, I heard people howling." Bo Yibo, father of CCP corrupt official Bo Xilai, went to check out the howling and found out that several hundreds of intellectuals were in custody in several cave houses (i.e., yao dong) down the hill, and those victims of the Yan'an Rectification were all in psychic and schizoid status as a result of political purge movements. 100 nameless victims executed on the bank of the Yellow River nevertheless, numerous others had disappeared in Yan'an, including a young girl called Wang Zunji who, being a nephew of traitor Wang Kemin of the Peking puppet government, arrived in Yan'an at age 19 in 1939, only to disappear in the custody of Kang Sheng's CCP Social Department.
The Yan'an Rectification Movement: Precursor To the Anti-Rightist Movement
In 1942, Mao Tse-tung proposed the Rectification Movement by claiming that criticisms of the communists were needed for improving the work. At the "Marxism research institute", a bookish intellectual, by the name of Wang Shiwei, initiated some public posters and wrote articles criticizing the privileged way of life among the communist cadres, such as the different food standards. Mao Tse-tung soon felt offended, and called Wang Shiwei a KMT spy and a Trotskyist. The "Marxism research institute" was shut down. Zhang Shouyu, a colleague of Wang Shiwei, was only spared when Ai Siqi classified the nature of the mistake as "naivety". Zhang Shouyu would be sent to the CCP Central Party Academy for teaching history thereafter.
When Lin Biao returned to Yan'an from Moscow on Feb 8th, 1942, Mao Tse-tung personally went to the airport for receiving him. In the ensuing party, on Feb 17th, Lin Biao cited Georgi Dimitrov in claiming that the CCP must unite around Mao Tse-tung the same way as the Soviet Communists united around Stalin and expressed support for the Yan'an Rectification Movement in fighting against "subjectivism" and "factionalism" by means of "proletarian materialism".
For five years, Zhang Shouyu would undergo the Rectification Movement as a colleague of Wang Shiwei at the "Marxism research institute", and he eventually was spared the "political mistakes" by the CCP for dispatchment to Manchuria when Japan surrendered in Aug of 1945.
The KMT, the CCP versus Democratic Parties
Chiang Kai-shek failed to win the hearts of leftists and/or undercover communists at times of war. Though, Chiang Kai-shek had tried very hard at doing it, and notable events would be attempts to retrieve the intellectuals at the time of fall of HK in Dec 1941 and to persuade intellectuals into an evacuation from mainland China in 1948-1949.
The Chinese Democratic League of Political Organizations
Chu Anping, i.e., later leader of a democratic vase party, would lose his pretty wife Duanmu Luxi to Cheng Cangbo while Chu was studying in Britain. After Chu lodged a complaint with Wu Zhihui, Chiang Kai-shek deprived Cheng Cangbo of the chief post for the KMT's "Central Daily Newspaper", a post that Cheng had held since 1932. (KMT's "Central Daily Newspaper" was first published on Feb 1st, 1928 in Shanghai.)
Hu Feng was ordered by Zhou Enlai to depart for HK as part of protests against the KMT crackdown on the communist-controlled New Fourth Army during the Wannan [Southern Anhui Province] Incident (Jan 1941). Zhou Enlai deliberately evacuated intellectuals of leftist or undercover communist background to i) Yan'an and ii) HK as a protest against the KMT government.
On March 19th, 1941, with clandestine support from the communists, the so-called "Chinese Democratic League of Political Organizations" was established in Chongqing the interim capital. Among the activists would be Huang Yanpei, Zhang Lan, Liang Shuming, Zuo Shunsheng, Zhang Junli, Zhang Bojun, Luo Rongji, Li Huang, Qiu Zhe, Deng Chumin, Huang Songling, Ma Zhemin, Zhang Nanxian, Li Shucheng & Xie Hegeng. Huang Yanpei was made into chairman of the 5-member standing committee. A 13-member executive committee was chosen among participants from the Chinese Peasant & Worker Democratic Party, the Chinese People's Society For Rescuing Nation, the Chinese Vocational Education Society, the Countryside Construction Faction, the Chinese Youth Party, the National Socialist Party, and etc. Xie Hegeng, i.e., an underground communist agent, who claimed this organization was the forerunner of the "min [democratic] ge [revolutionary party]", was discouraged from organization activity for preserving his covert identity. Per Wang Jianji & Wang Yuanchao's "100 Years Of China", the League was built on the "Comaderie Society For the United Construction of Nation" that was established on Nov 23rd, 1939, with reluctant approval by Chiang Kai-shek. As a protest against Chiang Kai-shek's "restrictions on the alien parties" in the aftermath of the Wannan Incident, the League announced its founding publicly and launched the "Guangming [brightness] Bao [newspaper]" in HK on Sept 18th, with a call for nationalization of the military and the democratization of politics. The Communist "Liberation Daily" in Yan'an praised the League as the "invigorating force for the Chinese democratic movement".
Hu Feng, who was sent to HK by Zhou Enlai after the "Wannan Incident", would flee the Japanese occupation of HK in early Jan of 1942 under the help of the communist-controlled Dongjiang [East River] Guerrilla Force. Hu Feng arrived in Guilin of Guangxi Province in early March. In Guilin, Hu Feng and his leftist colleagues, like Mao Dun & Shen Zhiyuan, obtained special permission from Zhou Enlai to accept 500 yuan worth of money that was given by KMT official Liu Baimin as transportation fee to travelling back to Chongqing the interim capital. Pressured by the KMT propaganda ministry, Mao Dun left Guilin for Chongqing in Dec 1942, and Hu Feng followed in March 1943. Hu Feng immediately received 30,000 "legalized currency" from Zhou Enlai for re-launching the "July" magazine. Three days after arrival in Chongqing, Hu Feng was notified by Liu Baimin that Chiang Kai-shek wanted to meet five "intellectual people", i.e., Mao Dun, Shen Zhiyuan, Hu Feng and Qian Nashui etc; however, Chiang Kai-shek never succeeded in winning the hearts of the leftists or undercover communists. Mao Dun and Hu Feng, with Zhou Enlai's acquiesce, joined Zhang Daofan's ROC propaganda Ministry to work as special contributors to the "cultural movement committee". The cultural movement committee was set up by Chiang Kai-shek in Sept 1940 to house the leftists or undercover communists [like Guo Moruo, Yang Hansheng, Feng Naichao, Du Guoxiang & Tian Han] after Zhou Enlai threatened Zhang Zhizhong with a request to truck them to Yan'an. Per Jin Chong, the cultural movement committee, from Jan to Sept 1941, held multiple forums and intellectuals among the intellectual arena, which pushed the communist agenda beyond the propaganda and agitation activities that were conducted under the 3rd Division of the KMT Politics Department.
The Chinese Democratic League
In Chongqing the interim capital, numerous leftist or undercover communists printed their magazines, including "The Central Plains" [Guo Moruo] and "The Masses" [Qiao Guanhua, aka Qiao Mu]. Xu Zhucheng pointed out that Guo Moruo published the article "Three Hundred Year Anniversary Of The Fall Of Ming Dynasty [in 1644]" in 1944, and likened Chiang Kai-shek's government to rebel Li Zicheng who exited Peking after losing the fight to Wu Sangui and the Manchus on April 22nd of 1644.
Hu Feng got acquainted with Shu Wu [Fang Guan] through the introduction of Lu Ling. When Hu Feng obtained the KMT approval to publish magazine "Hope" in May 1944, Shu Wu's article "Discourse On Subjectivism" was included in the first edition that got published on Dec 31st 1944.
On Sept 19th 1944, "Chinese Democratic League of Political Organizations" was re-organized into "Chinese Democratic League", with a call for terminating one party dictatorship and opposing the KIMT-CCP strife and conflict.
After the Battles Of Guilin & Liuzhou [Guangxi Province], Japanese army launched an attack at Dushan [Guizhou Province] in the winter of 1944 as a last ditch effort of its war on mainland China. After sacking Dushan, Japanese went on to threaten Duyun. People in Chongqing the interim capital as well as in Guiyang the provincial capital of Guizhou were shaken. Chongqing government hinted that they would fight on by moving onto Mt E'meishan. Claiming that KMT might surrender should Japanese invade, Zhou Enlai made arrangement for some leftists or undercover communists to prepare for entry into the mountains while having some leave for Yan'an. (Japanese, however, then rerouted southward for launching the continental corridor to Southeast Asia.)
In Chongqing, Chinese communist party and "Chinese Democratic League" called upon Chiang Kai-shek in forming so-called "joint government" [i.e., coalition government]. ROC propaganda Ministry revoked the "cultural movement committee".
Shu Wu's article "Discourse On Subjectivism" caused a stir among leftists or undercover communists. At a meeting, Mao Dun & Yi Qun attacked the article. Hou Walu continued to bombard the article. Later, at a party held inside of CCP representative office, Hu Feng and his colleagues sought for arbitration with Zhou Enlai. While Zhou Enlai put aside the issue, CCP theorist cadre Hu Qiaomu, who accompanied Mao Tse-tung to the peace talk in Chongqing on Aug 28th, stayed on in Chongqing and later engaged in an heated argument with Shu Wu in front of Hu Feng. During Mao Tse-tung's stay in Chongqing, Hu Feng had two brief talks with the monster who would launch "Anti-Hu Feng Movement" in early 1950s and imprisoned Hu Feng for close to three decades. (Mao Tse-tung returned to Yan'an on Oct 11th 1945.)
At about this time, CCP's army harassed Ping-Han [Peking-Wuhan] railroad lines and raided KMT positions in Shanxi, Henan, Hebei and Shandong provinces. Japanese at Tianjin [Tientsin] resisted communist attempt at disarming them. The first echelon fought Japanese at Shanhaiguan Pass and entered Rehe and Manchuria in late Aug of 1945. Claiming that Manchuria did not belong to truce area, CCP mounted major campaigns in Manchuria, taking over Yingkou on the coast, Sipingjie, Changchun, Harbin, Andong, Jilin and Qiqihar [Qiqihar] etc. CCP forces stopped American marines and American transport ships with KMT soldiers from going ashore. CCP received Japanese weapons depot from Russians and established various governments. At coastal Huludao, a city about 15 kilometers away from Jinzhou, communist forces successfully drove back the Nationalist Army which had landed ashore with the help of American transporters. About 50000 American marines took charge of controlling major railways around Peking-Tianjin and Shanhaiguan areas.
Bloody Crackdown In Kunming On Dec 1st 1945
On Nov 25th 1945, in front of the library of Southwestern United University [SUU], communists orchestrated a gathering by about 6000 students and teachers from several colleges and universities including SUU and Yunnan University. Fei Xiaotong, Qian Ruisheng, Wu Qiyuan & Pan Dakui made speeches against KMT government in regards to corruption, dictatorship and conspiracy for civil wars. Police surrounded the crowds, cut off electricity, and fired warning shots. Students continued the gathering with kerosene lights. The second day, Guan Linzheng the provincial garrison commander blamed the turmoil on the communist banditry. 30000 students from 30 schools declared a strike, with demands that American military vacate from China and that KMT's Central News Agency correct its slanderous report. On 28th, the joint strike committee of Kunming students declared an open end strike.
To counter continuous student movements on 29th & 30th, KMT agents organized counter-strike commission. KMT police broke into campuses on Dec 1st. At SUU, a middle school teacher, by the name of Yu Ran, was killed by a grenade. At Normal College of SUU, KMT agents were said to have fired shots at students: student Li Lulian was hit to death after receiving gunshot wound, and female student Pan Yuan was pierced to death after suffering grenade wound per communist records. 17 year old Zhang Huachang of Kunhua Middle School died of shrapnel. Communist records claimed that 4 people died and 20 were injured on this day.
"Joint strike committee" demanded punishment of Guan Linzheng & Li Zonghuang. CCP's "New China Daily" published an editorial in regards to KMT's acceptance of student demands. 400 professors and teachers declared a strike. On Dec 2nd, a funeral was held for the four martyrs. In Yan'an, Mao & Zhou talked about relief to Kunming students. Across the country, students in Shanghai, Chongqing, Chengdu echoed support. On Dec 7th, Chiang Kai-shek dispatched education minister Zhu Jingnong and governor Lu Han to Kunming for a negotiation with the strike committee. Guan Linzheng & Li Zonghuang were relieved off duty or relocated elsewhere. On Jan 27th 1946, Kunming students declared the end of the strike.
Assassination Of Wen Yidu & Li Gongpu
On Jan 14th (? Jan 10th per communist record) 1946, under the pressure of George Marshal, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference [CPPCC] was held, with 38 participants from KMT , CCP , Youth Party , Democratic League , and various social activists . 10 meetings were held from Jan 10th onward. CPPCC, by the end of Jan, reached five resolutions including the termination of one party dictatorship. Chiang Kai-shek's statement of observing CPPCC resolutions was published on Central Daily Newspaper on Feb 1st. Chiang Kai-shek promised to reorganize the joint government [i.e., coalition government] and accused regional powers and private armies of being pseudo-democracy and anti-democracy.
Per communist records, during CPPCC, Chiang Kai-shek's secret agents had intruded into the residencies of Huang Yanpei & Zhang Shenfu (i.e., leaders of Democratic League headed by Zhang Lan). Huang Yanpei of Democratic League, on Jan 27th, had at one time refused to continue with CPPCC. After CPPCC, on Feb 10th, Chiang Kai-shek's secret agents disturbed populace celebration of the CPPCC resolutions, and inflicted physical injuries to about 60 celebration meeting assemblers, including Guo Moruo, Ma Yinchu, Shi Fuliang, and Li Gongpu etc. Zhou Enlai attended a night meeting for raising protest against Chiang Kai-shek in the name of 11 renowned figures. Communist record claimed that Chiang Kai-shek, hearing that Zhou Enlai, Zhang Junli, Chen Qitian & Li Zhuchen were to pay a visit, would fly away from Chongqing the second day. (Many of those Democratic League leaders would suffer from communist persecutions during the Anti-Rightist Movement later.) KMT agents also sabotaged CCP's "New China Daily Newspaper" agency as well as Democratic League's Min-sheng [People's Livelihood] Newspaper agency. On Feb 23rd, Zhang Lan wrote to Chiang Kai-shek with a request that KMT agents be disbanded, while Chiang Kai-shek, per Tang Zong's Diaries, instructed that Democratic League was CCP's running dog. (Dai Li, i.e., KMT chief of secret agents, would die in a plane accident shortly thereafter, and Tang Zong discovered a vault of gold nuggets and US dollars in Dai Li's residence.)
In Manchuria, Russian soldier killed Chinese engineer Zhang Xinfu in the process of dismantling equipment. Li Shenzhi, recalling a massive nationwide protest movement against USSR in early 1946, pointed out that elementary and middle school students in the countryside of Chengdu-Chongqing waved flags denouncing Russian barbarity. Meantime, CCP-controlled "New China Daily Newspaper", in its Chongqing edition, published an article entitled "Patriotism Is Not Equal To Excluding Foreigners [i.e., Russians]". Communist students, who had launched Dec 1st 1945 student protest in Kunming just one month ago, would refrain from denouncing Russian killing, pillaging and raping in Manchuria.
On July 11th 1946, KMT secret agents assassinated Li Gongpu, one of the Democratic League leaders, and four days later, assassinated another leader Wen Yiduo who had just attended Li Gongpu's funeral. Li Gongpu was one of "seven gentlemen", while Wen Yiduo was professor of Southwestern United University [i.e. Lienda University]. Fei Xiaotong, who had joined Chinese Democratic League in 1944, issued a public denunciation of Chiang Kai-shek's regime. When news of Wen Yiduo's death came, Fei Xiaotong, Pan Guangdan & Zhang Xiruo etc sought asylum inside of US consulate. Fei Xiaotong wrote on Chu Anping's "Observer" magazine that he had turned into an ally of CCP by then.
After the death of Dai Li, Tang Zong, i.e., Chiang Kai-shek's attaché, was authorized to investigate the assassinations. "Tang Zong's Diaries" disclosed that KMT "jun tong" [militarily led agency] told him that Kunming city's garrison commander office (led by Huo Kuizhang) might be implicated. Tang Zong flew to Kunming of Yunnan Province on July 23rd & July 31st, carrying Chiang Kai-shek's message of anger over Huo Kuizhang as well as ways of pacification. President Truman sent over a warning on Aug 10th, and Marshal rebuked Chiang Kai-shek over the assassinations, too. Chiang Kai-shek was said to have an intellectual pass on condolence to Wen Yiduo's brother later. (There are some people who claimed that CCP could be behind the assassination for sake of stirring up the anti-KMT swirls; however, Democratic League investigator, i.e., Liang Suming, after meetings with KMT's Kunming investigators, stated at Aug 25th news conference that KMT authorities had disclosed that some lower level officials had conducted assassinations on their own accord.)
Communist's Maneuvering Of Intelligentsia Nationwide, HK & Overseas For Participation In Communist-hosted "Political Consultation Conference" In Peking
Hu Feng and his family finally flew back to Shanghai on Feb 25th 1946. Two days ago, on Feb 22nd, students mounted a protest in Chongqing. KMT agents were said to have launched a counter-parade, burnt down a retail stand of communist-controlled "Xin Hua [New China] Daily" as well as Democratic League's "Min [people] Sheng [livelihood] Bao [newspaper]", and caused injuries to four people. Similar counter-parades were held in major cities in the name of anti-communist and anti-USSR. In Peking, KMT agents had harassed CCP peace talk rep Ye Jianying on Feb 21st. KMT launched the 2nd Plenary of 6th Congress from March 1st to 17th. On March 17th-18th, CCP pointed out that CPPCC resolutions must be upheld. On April 1st, Chiang Kai-shek claimed that "political consultation" was not a "constitution drafting meeting".
Later, in early Nov 1946, in Shanghai, CCP Shanghai leader Zhang Hanfu, having foreseen the closure of CCP's "New China Daily Newspaper", would order that Li Shenzhi buy a train ticket for Nanking and then take ride of American advisers' plane for Yan'an. Zhang Hanfu cautiously told Li Shenzhi that should communist cause go well, they could have a reunion in either 10 or 8 years, but should things go out of hand, then it would be a final farewell. They never expected to see a communist victory in 3 years.
In Shanghai, Hu Feng spent one year fighting for the right to reclaim his old residency. When some acquaintances in HK criticized his opinions, he published an article entitled "Discourse On Realism" as a counter-attack. per MZ's memoirs, CCP's Shanghai office on Sinanlu Road was shut down when KMT-CCP peace talks broke off. Hu Feng was ordered to fly to HK for asylum in late Nov of 1948. Then, Hu Feng was ordered to go to "liberated areas" in Manchuria. After CCP victory in China, Hu Feng wrote the famous poem "Time Has Started !" in Sept 1949. (However, the fate for Hu Feng would be dozens of years of imprisonment by the communists: Hu Feng was punished in a harsh way for apparently knowing too much about the communist dirty deals than his admonition letter to Mao Tse-tung.)
Under the helm of CCP spy master Pan Hannian, communist began a massive maneuvering to have intelligentsia nationwide, HK & overseas come to Peking for participation In Communist-hosted "Political Consultation Conference". In HK, Heh Yaozu, together with Huang Shaohong, Long Yun, Liu Fei & Hu Shuhua, about 44 former KMT officials and generals, made a declaration against Chiang Kai-shek for the communist camp on Aug 13th 1949. KMT adversaries and dissilusionists, like Long Yun & Heh Yaozu, either returned to China for the Oct 1st communist regime founding or in the winter of 1949. Wei Lihuang, who had colluded with the communists during the Liao-Shen Campaign, procrastinated his return till years later. Pan Hannian chartered several ships for sailing to northern China from HK. Numerous pictures showed the excitement of those intelligentsia, third party activists and KMT adversaries who surely believed that they would be both top guests of the communists and would assume some cabinet posts in the future "People's Government". At the time of "Political Consultation Conference", Liu Shaoqi, per Zhao Pu, had claimed that the Chinese communists are merely one of the democratic parties.
Bloody Land Reform (1946-7)
Quite some American leftist writers, including Pearl Buck, had written about Chinese peasants, with such works as "Grand Earth". One such figure who directly involved himself in the CCP Bloody Land Reform of 1947 would be William Hinton [Han Ding], i.e., author of "Fanshen: A Documentary of Revolution in a Chinese Village". (William Hinton's daughter is Carma Hinton who made the documentary "The Gate Of Heavenly Peace" with Richard Gordon.)
Communist records claimed that "in order to mobilize all available forces for smashing the attacks by KMT reactionaries, ..., CCP abolished the [moderate WWII-era] agrarian policies of rent reduction and interest reduction and enforced the new policies of 'land reform'..." This was said to be in response to Chiang Kai-shek's plan for wholesale civil wars during April-May 1946. Land Reform was first launched in the provinces of Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong, and "liberated areas" of Central China. In Shi Zhe's memoirs, Mao and the Chinese Communists were recorded to have told Stalin that in lieu of exiling the Chinese landlords to 'Siberia' as the Soviets did, they were to hand off the landlords to the people for re-education so as to turn them into a labourer. What happened was whole-sale massacre across the communist-controlled territories. Shi Zhe recorded a conversation between Mao Tse-tung and Heh Long, during which Mao claimed the over-kill could be a leftist mistake while Heh Long rebutted by sying whether it was a good thing to do it [killing] as a side job to the land reform. See how the mass murderers treated human life !
On May 4th 1946, CCP Central issued "Instructions In Regards To Countering Spies, Liquidation [? i.e., massacre of landlords] & Land Issues". Dubbed "May 4th Instruction", this order required that landlords' land must be distributed to peasants in liberated areas. 18 clauses were spelled out, with a claim that "zhong [medium] nong [peasant]" should not be infringed upon while "fu [wealthy] nong [peasants]" should be mandated a rent reduction instead of land deprivation; that landlords whose children had joined the communist revolution should be dealt with on a discretionary basis; and that mid-level & petit-level landlords should be differentiated from grand landlords... Communist records claimed that by Feb 1947, 2/3 of liberated areas had completed 'land reform': 10,000,000 peasants in Jinn-Cha-Ji, 15 million peasants in Manchuria, 1 million in Jinn-Sui, and 15 million in Su-Wan had been allocated the land. Peasants, once distributed the land, would answer the communist cause in fighting the KMT government so that they could safeguard the "fruits of victory". (For the bloody land reform, see how a landlord called Jin Tingquan was burnt to death in southern Manchuria as so-called "huan-xiang-tuan", i.e., the landlord gentry-organized brigand who returned to home village for retaliation against peasants who ate the grains from landlords' barn.)
From July 17th to Sept 13th, CCP Central held a meeting in Xibaipo of Hebei Province, and stipulated the "General Guidelines Of Land Laws", with a call for eliminating the "land system of the feudal & semi-feudal societies". By the first half of 1949, 100 million peasants were allocated the land. 2.6 million peasants joined the People's Liberation Army in northern China and Manchuria. 10 million peasants provided logistics to the communist warfare.
TO BE CONTINUED !
Written by Ah Xiang
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