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The Amerasia Case & Cover-up By the U.S. Government
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Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
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The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
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Khubilai Khan and Yuan Dynasty (AD 1261-1368)
In August 1259, Mengke Khan died on Mount Diaoyushan of Hezhou Prefecture (Sichuan Province) after failing to take over a Song castle. Mongols hence called off the campaign. Later in 1279, Mongols avenged the shame of Mengke Khan's possible bombardment death by killing 1.4 million residents of Chengdu city.
Before returning to Helin, Arik-Buka (Ariq-boeke), a junior brother of Khubilai, held an assembly in Helin and declared himself 'khan'. Khubilai stopped at Jinlianchuan (Kaiping, i.e., Duolun, Cha'haer, Inner Mongolia) and Khubilai declared himself Khan without an assembly. Yao Shu and Lian Xixian were ordered to make an announcement of Khubilai enthronement in the Chinese language. A Chinese era was declared, and the year would be First Year of Zhongtong Era, AD 1259. Liu Bingzhong and Xu Heng revised on Genghis Khan's governmental structure of 'Duanshi-guan' (criminal prosecutor), 'Wan-hu' (10,000 head military chief), and Jurchen-style titles of 'yuan-shuai' (marshal) and 'xuan-hu' (pacifier) for provinces. New structure will be i) 'zhongshu sheng' (state affairs), ii) 'shumi yuan' (military affairs), and iii) 'yushi tai' (promotion and demotion of officials). Lower levels will include shi, jian, yuan, si, wei, and fu. Provincial affairs would be handled by 'xing-sheng', 'xing-tai', 'xuan-hu', 'lian-fang' and 'muming zhangguan', and levels included 'Lu' (comprising of several provinces), 'Fu' (province or prefecture), 'Zhou' (smaller prefectures) and 'Xian' (county). But discrimination against Chinese was rampant. Mongols would assume the primary posts while the Han Chinese the deputy posts. Tax administration were mostly laid in the hands of Muslims - allies of the Mongols. A caste society was established, and four levels were differentiated: 1) Mongols, 2) Se Mu Ren or Semuren, 3) Han-Ren (i.e., northern Chinese, Khitans etc), and 4) Nan-zi (southern Chinese-barbarians).

Arik-Buka (Ariq-boeke), a junior brother of Khubilai, held an assembly in Helin and declared himself 'khan'. Lian Xixian, on his own initiative, frustrated the attempts of Arik-Buka emissaries (Liu Taiping and Huo Luhuai) at Peking and defeated a general who answered Arik-Buka's order. Khubilai then attacked Arik-Buka and drove him off in AD 1261. At the advice of Liu Bingzhong, Khubilai Khan moved his capital to Peking in AD 1260, i.e., winter capital Dadu ("great capital") or Khanbalik in Marco Polo's Cambaluc. This is in addition to summer palace at Shangdu (the Xanadu of Coleridge). After being in reign for five years, Khubilai Khan declared the new era of Zhiyuan in AD 1263. (In AD 1271, the Mongols adopted the dynastic name Yuan.)
Khubilai Khan sent an embassy, comprising of scholar officials Hao Jing, He Yuan and Liu Renjie, to Southern Song. Southern Song Prime Minister, in order to hide his previous treachery acts from Emperor Lizong (Zhao Yun, reign AD 1224-1264), would imprison the Mongol emissaries. Khubilai Khan sent another emissary to Song border general Li Tingzhi. Li's report to Emperor Lizong was covered up by Jia Sidao. Khubilai Khan issued the war decree in the second year of Zhongtong Era (Ad 1260). Mongol governor-general in charge of Huai River and Yangtze areas, Li Zhan (Li Tan?), defected to Song in the spring of third year of Zhongtong Era. Hearing of that, Khubilai Khan ordered that Shi Tianze to attack the defector general at Jinan, Shandong. After a few months siege, Mongols took over Jinan and killed Li Zhan via a cruel penalty of splitting the body.
Siege Of Xiangyang
Around AD 1264, during the fifth year of Zhongtong Era, Khubilai Khan changed to Zhiyuan Era. Arik-Buka was spared and came to surrender. At this time, a Song officer at Tongchuan, called Liu Zheng, being resented by Jia Sidao, would surrender his 15 prefectures to the Mongols and he was conferred the posts of 'xing(2)sheng(3)' and 'an-hu-shi' of Sichuan areas. Liu Zheng proposed to have Song Chinese grain supply cut off at Xiangyang. Song Chinese General in Sichuan, Lü Wende, did not pay attention to Liu Zheng's building up the castles and cutting off Xiangyang from Sichuan. Lü Wende said that Xiangyang had ten years of grain supply. General Lü Wenhuan at Xiangyang wrote to Lu Wende, but he was ignored. Then, Liu Zheng and A-zu would lead Mongols to Xiangyang and encircle it for four-five years.
The new Song Emperor Duzong (Zhao Qi, reign AD 1264-1274) again conferred Jia Sidao important posts and added an extra title called 'Tai Shi', i.e., imperial tutor. Jia Sidao was extolled as comparable to Archduke Zhou of Western Zhou Dynasty. Jia Sidao pretended to resign several times, but Emperor Duzong would not let him go. Jia Sizong continued to shield the Xiangyang siege from the emperor. When a concubine told Duzong that Xiangyang had been under siege for 3 years, Jia Sidao would order that the woman be killed. The notoriety of Jia Sidao was best illustrated by another story: When one concubine of Jia Sidao saw a young man on the bank of Xihu Lake (West Lake) and exclaimed about the beauty of the young man, Jia Sidao would order that the young man be killed in front of the concubine. In Sichuan, after Lü Wende died, his brother-in-law, Fan Wenhu, took over the post, but Fan, like his predecessor, refused to send relief army to Xiangyang. At one time, Jia Sidao ordered Li Tingzhi and Fan Wenhu to aid Xiangyang. Fan Wenhu and his 100,000 were defeated. Two generals under Li Tingzhi, i.e., Zhang Shun and Zhang Gui, sailed along the Han-shui River; Zhang Gui broke through Mongol siege lines; and Zhang Gui died on the Han-shui River. Zhang Shun barely entered Xiangyang alive. After finding out that Xiangyang was in great danger, Zhang Shun, hiring two brave men, departed Xiangyang for sake of appealing for aid with Fan Wenhu in Sichuan Prov. But soon after Zhang Shun broke through Mongol siege lines, he encountered Mongol ships and was caught by Mongol, and Zhang died in Mongol hands. Then, the sister city of Fancheng was taken over by the Mongols, and two generals, Fan Tianshun and Niu Fu, died. Mongols deployed catapults (made by Persian engineers) against the outer wall of Xiangyang and destroyed it. Everytime Lü Wenhuan climbed up the citywall, he would have tears in his eyes while facing the south where the Song court was located. A Mongol general called on Lü Wenhuan to surrender, saying that Lü Wenhuan had done his job by guarding Xiangyang for five years. After they broke the arrows to swear forgivenness and sincerity, Lü Wenhuan surrendered and was conferred the post of 'Da-dudu' or governor-general of Xiangyang and Han-shui River areas.
Demise Of Song Dynasty
  At this time, Emperor Duzong died, and his four year old son, Emperor Gongdi (Zhao Xian, reign 1274-1275), was made into emperor in AD 1275. Mongols sent Shi Tianze and Boyan (Bayan, grandson of Subetei) on a full campaign against Song. Shi Tianze died on route. Bayan ordered that A-zu head the first column and depart for the Yangtze from Xiangyang, with Lu Wenhuan as fore-runner general; 2nd column was to be headed by Mang-wu departing from Yangzhou, with Liu Zheng as forerunner general. Bayan took over numerous cities on the way, slaughtered one town, and killed and captured numerous Song generals. Song Dowager Empress Xie-shi had no choice but to rely on Jia Sidao for fighting the Mongols. More Song generals surrendered, including Fan Wenhu in Sichuan, Chen Yi in Huangzhou (Huanggang area, Hubei). Hearing Liu Zheng had passed away, Jia Sidao had a short ecstasy and led an army of about 130,000 against the Mongols, but he was defeated on the Yangtze River. Jiangsu areas, around the Yangtze, including Zhenjiang and Jiangyin, were deserted in face of Mongol attacks. Jia Sidao sent an emissary to Bayan for peace, but met with declination. Jia Sidao requested with dowager empress for relocation of Song capital, but Empress Xie-shi refused to move.
Several ministers at Song court requested that Jia Sidao be deprived of his posts, and Song released former Mongol emissaries like Hao Jing as a good-will gesture. At this moment, Zhang Shijie of E'zhou (Hubei Province), Wen Tianxiang of Jiangxi and Li Fei of Hunan came to the east to help the Song court. Jiankang (i.e., Nanking) was deserted by a Song general. Changzhou and Wuxi were next taken by the Mongols. Khubilai Khan then sent Lian Xixian and Yan Zhongfan to Song for talking about ceasefire. Lian Xixian requested with Bayan for bodyguards, but Bayan advised that the more bodyguards Lian was to take with him, the more likely Song Chinese might harm him. Lian obtained 500 soldiers, but once Lian arrived at Dusong-guan Pass, Song General Zhang Ru killed Yan Zhongfan and captured Lian Xixian. (History of Yuan Dynasty stated that Lian was killed, too.) Bayan reprimanded Song's acts, and sent another emissary, Zhang Xu, to Song court together with Song emissary. Again, Zhang Xu was killed by a Song border general. Then, the Mongols stopped peace talks and attacked Yangzhou on the north bank of the Yangtze (Changjiang River). Mongols then attacked Yangzhou and defeated two generals under Li Tingzhi. Jiading surrendered next. Zhang Shijie's navy was defeated on the Yangtze by Mongol fire attack. Wen Tianxiang arrived in Lin'an (Hangzhou) the capital, but Empress Dowager did not take his advice. Jia Sidao was expelled from the capital and he was killed by the escort official on route. Taizhou of Jiangsu was lost to the Mongols, and Changzhou was slaughtered. In Hunan, Li Fei died, and both Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces were lost. After taking over Dusong-guan Pass, the Mongols were closing in onto Song capital. A Song minister called Liu Yue was sent to Mongol camp for peace, but Bayan declined it, saying Song Emperor obtained the throne from a kid and would lose it in the hands of a kid. Lu Xufu was sent to Mongols for expressing a wish to be Mongol nephew, but Mongols declined it. Song's new prime minister, Chen Yizhong, sent Liu Yue to Mongols in the attempt of expressing ackowledgement as a Mongol vassal, but Liu Yue was killed by a Song Chinese civilian on route, at Gaoyou of Jiangsu Province. Mongols then sacked Jiaxing and An'jie of Zhejiang Province. Wen Tianxiang and Zhang Shijie advised that Song court relocated to the islands in the seas, but Prime Minister Chen Yizhong decided to send imperial seal to Mongols for a surrender. Bayan requested that Chen personally came to Mongols, and Chen fled to Wenzhou, a southern Zhejiang coastal city. Zhang Shijie led his people into the sea. Wen Tianxiang was made the rightside prime minister and was ordered to go to Mongols for peace. Wen was arrested by Bayan after he accused Bayan of invasion. In AD 1276, Bayan took over Lin'an and forced downager empress issue the surrender order. Song royal family, including downager empress and Emperor Gongdi, was sent to Peking.
Late Emperor Duzong had two more sons, 11 and 6 year old, respectively. They fled to Wenzhou before Lin'an was taken by Mongols. Chen Yizhong sailed them to Fuzhou of Fujian Province where a new Song court was set up. Eleven year old Zhao Shi was made into Emperor Ruizong (reign AD 1275-1278). Zhang Shijie, Su Liuyi, and Lu Xiufu consecutively arrived in Fuzhou. Chen Yizhong was retained as leftside prime minister, while Wen Tianxiang, after fleeing from the Mongols, also arrived in Fuzhou and acted as rightside prime minister. Song court would last another three years before the final demise. Mongols continued to push south. Canton (Guangzhou) of Guangdong Province was taken, and Song General Huang Jun died. Yangzhou on the Yangtze Bank were taken, and General Li Tingzhi was captured and killed. Mongols then invaded Fujian Province. Song Court was frequently on the run, from one island to another, along the coast, and the new Song Emperor died of illness within two years. The now eight-year-old brother, Zhao Bing, was made the new emperor Di-bing in AD 1278. Note Di-bing had no posthumous imperial title at all. Chen Yizhong died in Hainan, Lu Xiufu was made leftside prime minister. When the Mongols attacked again, Song Court fled to Yashan, somewhere near Macao. Mongol General Zhang Hongfan led a surprise attack at Chaoyang (Chaoshan areas, Guangdong Province) and captured Wen Tianxiang who later wrote the famous poem entitled 'Ling Ding Yang' or 'Lingding Sea'. At Hainan, Zhang Shijie nailed together his fleet, trying to defend the straits. Zhang Shijie declined Zhang Hongfan's invitation for surrender. After a defeat, Zhang Shijie broke through the siege with 16 ships. When chased by the Mongols, Lu Xiufu, with young emperor on his back, jumped into the sea with emperor on his back after driving his family into the sea. Zhang Shijie met with a hurricane near Hailingshan Mountain, preyed that his ship sink should Heaven intend to capsize Song Dynasty, and died when his ship was sunken. Song Dynasty officially ended in AD 1279, after a total of 320 years, including 152 years in southern China. Song royal tombs would be dug up by a Central Asian monk for treasures. Khubilai Khan declared the dynasty of Yuan ("first" or "beginning") in this year.
In Sichuan Prov, as said by Liu-sha-he, Mongols sacked Chengdu city for a second time and left 1.4 million skeletons. Liu-sha-he cited Yuan Dynasty's Heh Qingquan in stating that Mongol army killed Chengdu people in batches of 50 and repeatedly pierced the dead bodies to make sure victims had been actually killed. (Liu-sha-he also had comments on Di[1] barbarians' massacring Chengdu in 301 AD as well as rebel Zhang Xianzhong's slaughter in AD 1644.)
The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1261-1368)
Khubilai Khan obtained his throne without a proper assembly, and hence he had lost the kind of mandate over ruling other Mongol khanates. By moving the capital to Peking from Karakorum (rebuilt by Ogedei in AD 1235), he had changed the old Mongol yasaq. In the very beginning, Jochi's son, Batu, ruled the region to the north and west of Lake Balkash (extending from Hungary to Kirghiz Plains, and from lower Danube to Caucasus); Chagadai was given the southwestern region to the east of River Amu-darya and to the southeast of River Syr-Darya, including Afghanistan, Turkestan, the former Naiman territories around the Altai, and central Siberia; Ogedei was awarded China and East Asia; Tului, the youngest of the four sons, was to have central Mongolia. Later, Tului sons exterminated the ruling of Ogedei descendants and diminished the domain of Ogedei descendants, and Chagadai domain was curtailed; Hulegu was given the territories beyond the Oxus River and the Hindu Kush. Nominally, Khubilai Khan was in charge of all khanates: 'Amu-darya Xingsheng' was in charge of Ilkhante and Kipchak Khanate; 'Lingbei (north ridge) Xingsheng' was in charge of Ogedei Khanate; and two 'yuan shuai (marshal)' offices were in charge of Chagadai Khanate. A separate 'Liaoyang Xingsheng' was in charge of Manchuria. After declaring his dynasty of Yuan, Khubilai Khan could only be considered a ruler of China and Mongolia.
Before subjugating Southern Song, Kubilai sent a fleet of 150 boats against Japan in AD 1274. Marco Polo supposedly had travelled to and stayed in China during the period of AD 1275 - 1292. Two years after the 1279 conquest of Southern Song, Kubilai's empress, an Onggirat woman, passed away. Mongol khans had a custom of marrying Onggirat women, a convention passed down from Genghis Khan. A niece of the empress would become the new empress. But Khubilai, though getting older, chose to go to the capital of Shang-du (i.e., Kaiping) for sake of indulging himself in concubines there (i.e., concubines from past emperors). Kubilai hired a Muslim as his finance minister, and this person, A-he-ma, had done his best to exploit the people in iron and salt trades. A-he-ma nepotism would include over 500 officials across the country. A-he-ma would later be killed by a 'qian hu' who issued an order in the name of crown prince. Khubilai then renovated politics a bit by ordering Guo Shoujing to recompile calendar, promoting overseas trading, and inviting Confucian descendant as academy official. Rebellions broke out in coastal China of Fujian and Guangdong. Owing to rumors about Song revival, Khubilai relocated late Song Emperor Gongdi (now Duke Yingguo-gong) to Shang-du and ordered ex-Song prime minister Wen Tianxiang be executed should he refuse to surrender. Wen Tianxiang wrote a poem, stating that "Confucius proposed that one should die for compassion (Ren) and Mencius suggested that one should die for righteousness (Yi). Only when righteousness is fully exerted will the compassion be derived. What should I endeavour after educating myself with so many books of the ancient saints? However, I am sure that I feel no guilty about myself from this death moment on." (Confucius wording for 'Ren' should mean a broader sense of human perfection, similar to nirvana in Buddhism. 'Ren' also meant nucleus in Chinese, as used for the nucleus of various fruits like apple.) Khubilai, impressed by this poem, would confer a title of Duke Lulingjun-gong on Wen Tianxiang posthumously.
The Death Toll in the Hands of the Mongols
Forums where this webmaster had extensive discussions on the Mongol/Manchu massacres

About the Song population. It is about time for me to go against the history books, and use my judgment to make a case as to how many people had been killed and how the household ratios changed during the said time period.

First, we want to say that the household numbers and the headcounts were both valid, though not exact. The Song Chinese families had a stable composition as to the children born, and with the onset of the barbarian conquests by the Jurchens and the Mongols consecutively, the household ratio numbers changed in the Jurchen domain or the Mongol domain. The explanations could be: i) Possibily the conquerors and the surviving inhabitants took in the extra women, and ii) possibly the conquerors adopted the same policy as was practiced by the Kim family in North Korea and by Mao in China, namely, encouraging the massive births, was adopted, which should explain the extremely high ratio like 6.58 in North China under the Jurchen rule (in A.D. 1187, with 6.789 million households but extraordinarily high headcounts of 44.7 million people), the ratio of 5.44 in North China under the Mongol rule (in A.D. 1235, with 0.873 million households but in contrast a higher headcount of 4.75 million people), and 4.46 in whole China under the Mongol rule (in A.D. 1290, with 11.8 million households but a higher headcount of 58.83 million people).

Now, let me explain the numbers by analyzing the households and headcounts.

Before the Jurchen conquest of North China in AD 1126, we had 20+ million households or 46.7+ million people. Namely,
AD 1100 ......... 19,960,812 households;
AD 1110 ......... 20,882,258 households or 46,734,784 people.

After the Jurchen conquest of North China, in AD 1218, about 92 years later, Southern Song China had 12.669+ million households, south of the Huai-he River and the Qinling Ridge, and inclusive of South China. (The rest fell under the Jurchen rule.)
AD 1218 ......... 12,669,684 households (under the Southern Song rule)

NOTE: ALTERNATIVE CLAIM POINTS TO THE APEX OF THE CHINESE POPULATION, prior to the Mongol conquest, to be at 90+ MILLION in A.D. 1222.

How do we reconcile the numbers? The household ratios had changed over the past century. The number that was cited but was disputed to be inaccurate would be the from-to numbers.
1195-1223年(金章宗明昌六年---南宋嘉定十六年 7681万人
Namely, from A.D. 1195 to A.D. 1223, there were 76 million people, not itemized either to the Jurchen territory or the Southern Song territory.

Assuming that Southern Song China continued the old practice, and using the AD 1110 ratio of 2.24, then we had at minimum [approx.] 28.4 million people under the Southern Song rule in A.D. 1218, while the population under the Jurchen rule would have FAR multiplied over the base of AD 1187 number of 44.7 million.

In sequential order, the numbers for the population under Northern Song [AD 960-1127] were steadily increasing prior to the Jurchen invasion:
AD 1063, 12,462,531 households;
AD 1066, 14,181,486 households;
AD 1077, 14,245,270 households;
AD 1086, 17,957,092 households;
AD 1094, 19,120,921 households;
AD 1100, 19,960,812 households;
AD 1110, 20,882,258 households.

After the Jurchen invasion, the population under Southern Song [AD 1127-1279] gradually recovered.
AD 1218 12,669,684 households;
AD 1223 19,202,500 households.

For the population under the Jurchens, there is anumber from Jurchen Emperor Zhangzong's A.D. 1207 census, namely, 7.68 million households or 45.81 million headcounts.
金章宗太和七年(1207) 户七百六八万,4581

In sequential order, the numbers for the population under the Jurchen rule look to be in conformity with some constant growth rate at peace times:
AD 1187 44.7 million head;
AD 1207 45.81 million heads.

Combining the Southern Song population in A.D. 1223 with the Jurchen Jin population in A.D. 1207, we have
19,202,500 households * 2.26 + 45.81 million heads = 89.21 million heads.

So, the estimated from-to number of 76 million [from A.D. 1195 to A.D. 1223] for both Jurchen Jin [AD 1115-1234] and Southern Song in A.D. 1223 is very conservative, and the popular claim that the whole China possessed 90+ Million people prior to the Mongol conquest is valid.

For the popular claim of a total of 93.47 million in A.D. 1122-, see http://www.google.co...iw=1157&bih=559


The brutal Mongol quest of the Jurchens decimated the North China population, to a meager number of
873,781, namely 0.873 million households or 4.755 million headcounts in A.D. 1235 in North China. (This number must have included the Mongol invasion forces from the steppe.)

Using the Mongol Yuan Dynasty records, the incremental population gain in North China from A.D. 1235 to A.D. 1290 was another meager number of 0.4816 million households.

NORTH+SOUTH=13,196,206 households in A.D. 1290;
NORTH CHINA = 13,196,206 [South+North] - 11,840,800 [South China] = 1,355,406 households {North China] in A.D. 1290;
NORTHERN CHINA GAIN = 1,355,406 - 873,781 = 481,625 households from A.D. 1235 to AD 1290. That was about 50% gain in about half a century.

In the ensuing half-century, there occurred Mongols' attrition wars against Southern Song, till the demise of the Southern Song Dynasty in 1279.

There was an imperial Southern Song census number in A.D. 1264 of 5,696,989 households or 13,026,532 headcounts, maintaining the century old household ratio of about 2.29. On the surface, for the Southern Song dynasty, there was a halving of the household numbers to 5.696 million in A.D. 1264 from 12.669 million in A.D. 1218. What happened? At http://www.chinahist...ost__p__4848739 we discussed the attrition warfare. Back in the first part of the century, in A.D. 1227, the Mongols began to raid into Hanzhong and Sichuan, after conquest of the Tanguts. From A.D. 1227 to A.D. 1290, the population in the Sichuan area, which used to be 19.4% of Southern Song China's population in A.D. 1223 or 2.59 million households, was wiped out by the Mongols. By A.D. 1290, there were only 100,000+ people left in the whole Sichuan basin, from approximately the base of [approx.] 6 million people in A.D. 1223.

This 67-year attrition loss in Sichuan alone, from A.D. 1223 to A.D. 1290, was a good mirror when comparing the nationwide drop of the household numbers to 5.696 million in A.D. 1264 from 12.669 million in A.D. 1218, which was a span of 56 years. There were several massive scale zigzag territorial changes: around A.D. 1261, a Southern Song general for Tongchuan Circuit, which used to be the name for the area around the Yellow River inflection point, called Liu Zheng, for being resented by prime minister Jia Sidao, surrendered his 15 prefectures to the Mongols. Note 成都府路、潼川府路, namely, the Chengdu (Sichuan) Circuit and the Tongchuan Circuit, together with four circuits of the Southeastern China at the coast, had the 72-73% of the total population of the Southern Song Dynasty. Alternatively speaking, the halving drop of the household numbers was very well supported by the historical facts related to the two circuits. In contrast with Liu Zheng's defection to the Mongols, there was a general on the Mongol side, who defected to Southern Song with the land and people around the Huai-shui River.

The Number of 5.696 Million Households or 13 Million People in A.D. 1264

Please note that the above major event led to a further drop in the population population when the rebellion quelling war was waged by the Song court. After one year around civil war between Liu Zheng and the Song troops, Southern Song managed to recover 3-4 prefectures. The Mongols obtained part of the territory of Chengdu Circuit and the whole Tongchuan circuit. See http://blog.sina.com...1f0100fr04.html for discussions on the loss of land and people in the western China.

The Number of 11,746,000 Households in A.D. 1276 versus Shang Yue's number of 9.3 Million Households

There was a dispute concerning the census data of "11,746,000 households" in A.D. 1276, namely, the year the Southern Song dowager empress surrendered to the Mongols at the capital Hangzhou in today's Zhejiang coastline. This number came from a book 紫山大全集 卷一一《效忠堂. My point was that the Mongols boasted of the conquest by claiming that the Southern Song court submitted the census books to the Mongols, but there was never ever a census conducted in that year. The number of "11,746,000 households" of A.D. 1276 was either a rough census that was taken by the Southern Song court probably years before A.D. 1276, or most likely a number that Hu CHiyu (Hu Zhiyu), the said Mongol Han Chinese official who began to serve under the Mongols since A.D. 1260, derived independently of the household ministry.

Historian Shang Yue, , who was Kim Il-sun's teacher, had edited the book An Outline of the Chinese History 中国历史纲要, in which he pointed out that 灭宋,户九百三十万, namely, after the Mongols destroyed Southern Song, they obtained 9.3 million more households. -So there is a discrepancy here between the number of 9.3 million households from Shang Yue versus the paper number "11,746,000 households" of A.D. 1276 from the editor of the book 紫山大全集 卷一一《效忠堂.

Note: Even if we use "11,746,000 households" of A.D. 1276 as a reference, by A.D. 1290, there was virtually no change under the Mongol rule, i.e., 11,840,800 households. This census of 11,840,800 households should have included all domains of South China, including those taken by the Mongols before the Yangtze Crossing of A.D. 1276, including the Southwestern China that was taken by the Mongols after the campaigns against Tibet and Vietnam but before the conquest against Southern Song, and the areas between the Huai River and Yangtze River, where the Xiangyang city used to be the only LONELY holdout during the period of 1267-1272.

AD 1276-AD 1290

In the interval of 24 years, from A.D. 1276 to A.D. 1290, South China had almost no change in the total household numbers. What does that tell you? It merely means that the prevalent growth rate among the Southern Chinese had merely restored the population to 11,840,800 households in A.D. 1290, after this many years. Remember that in North China, there was an increase of 481,625 households from A.D. 1235 to A.D. 1290 or about 50% gain in about half a century. You have to use an inverse growth rate to calculate how the decimated Southern Song households grew back to 11,840,800 households in A.D. 1290.

While I acknowledge that Southeastern China did not incur the same wrath as Sichuan's calamity of almost 99% population loss, the guess would be that 25% of the former Southern Song households were exterminated during the Mongol conquest. Whatever on paper in A.D. 1276, namely, out of "11,746,000 households", possibly one quarter was eliminated, or approximately 3 million households, and after a quarter of a century, the households grew to 11,840,800 from the decimated base, and using the hypothetical growth rate of 25% for the quarter century time-frame, you very much fit in to the records.

Now, one more caveat, after a quarter of a century control by the Mongols, the southern Chinese no longer observed the demography convention as before, and hence you would have the household ratio of 4.46 in AD 1290, no longer 2.24 or 2.26 under the former Song rule.


Alternatively speaking, the population loss, using the households in lieu of the headcounts, were far more severe. While the total population South and North China combined in A.D. 1290 was 58 million, it did not account for the household ratio change in both North China and South China. While the North China ghost town was not disputed, the actual carnage for the South China case has to be observed by examining the loss of households in South China, not the headcounts.

A more precise approach would be to filter out the "fake" or the extra population that was generated under the Mongol hormone-policy, and then compare the new baseline [removing the extra heads under the 4.46 ratio for calculation's sake] in AD 1290 with the figures prior to the Mongol quest. With this in mind, it is reasonable to conclude that the Mongols had destroyed 80% of the original Chinese population in both North China and South China.

In another word, for the total population South and North China combined in A.D. 1290, i.e., 58 million, you could only use half of it as the more accurate numbers under the Song ratio, and then compare against the 76 or 89.21 or 93.47 million heads - as discussed earlier. That means,

the Mongols destroyed 76 million - (58 million/2) = 47 million original Chinese;

If using the original number of 90+ million, then

the Mongols destroyed 93.47 million - (58 million/2) = 64.47 million original Chinese. <= Still not the full number, in my opinion.

* In the above, I divided the 58 million number by two, which was to normalize the extra population growth by adopting the old 2.24-2.29 household ratio versus the new 4.46 ratio

If Using the A.D. 1276 Cut-off Time for Southern Song & the A.D. 1235 for Jurchen Jin:

If using the A.D. 1235 cut-off number for Jurchen Jin, there were 873,781, namely 0.873 million households or 4.755 million headcounts.

If using the A.D. 1276 cut-off time for Southern Song, then there were 9.3 Million Households, and using the traditional Song ratio of 2.29, there would be 9.3*2.29 = approx. 21.3 million heads.

Then the Mongols would have eliminated
93.47 million - ( approx. 21.3 million Southern Song + [[approx 4.755 million in the former Jurchen territory ]] ) = 67.42 million souls.

In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in AD 1279, AD 1644 & AD 1949
China was time and again invaded and raped by the "aliens" - whom I considered to be i) the Mongols, ii) the Manchus, and iii) the Soviet proxies, consecutively. For the future sons of China to read the following poem, see whether some one of you would revive the spirits of China, and some day do some thing to reverse the fate of China, i.e., one billion coolies and slaves toiling to death for the multinational corporations and banksters under the supervision of the 'housekeeper' - the Chinese Communists or the former Soviet proxies. (The Japanese invasion [AD 1931-1945], similar to the Jurchen invasion prior to the Mongol conquest, did not doom China as a whole as the Mongol conquest and the Soviet-ChiCom conquest subsequently did.)

* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in AD 1279, AD 1644 & AD 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule], refusing to be slaves,
[our ancestors] died as broken jades rather than being alive as an intact tile.
Tears, which tasted like the sea water, dripping down [the face] one by one,
For [China] the star [that fell from the sky] had been down [at the bottom of the sea] for 800 years.
Sons, please do not get saddened in the hearts,
For as the flowers did, they blossom when the spring returns.
When the [hegemony lord] Xianggong's swear is to be revived again,
The sorrow of the Flowery Xia Chinese would be soothed.

The Invasion of Japan
Champa & Annam
The Mongol Internal Strife
Khubilai exercised only nominal ruling over the rest of khanates. The khanates, however, had already engaged themselves in disputes and wars. In AD 1265, Mamluk Baybars made an alliance with Berke Khan (Batu's brother and successor) against Hulegu. Berke withdrew when Khubilai sent 30,000 troops to aid the Ilkhans. Arik-Buka (Ariq-boeke), the junior brother of Khubilai, had received covert aid from Khan Haidu (grandson of Ogedei, i.e. Mongol Emperor Taizong posthumously). Arik-Buka later surrendered to Khubilai.
The grandson of Chagatai, Ya-er-gu, allied himself with Haidu. When Khubilai intended to oust Ya-er-gu, he called on the grandson of Batu (Mengke-timur) and the great grandson of Chagatai Ba-la for sake of an alliance against Haidu of Ogedei Khanate. But Ba-la of Chagatai Khanate colluded with Haidu in attacking Mengke-timur of Kipchak Khanate. When Haidu was defeated by Mengke-timur, Ba-la encroached on the territories of Haidu. Haidu sought reconciliation with Mengke-timur, and Mengke-timur defeated Ba-la. Ba-la then threatened Haidu that he would ask Khubilai to attack him. Haidu sought reconciliation with Ba-la, too. The three khans held an khuritai on the bank of the Talas River, and Haidu was proclaimed as the Grand Khan of the Mongols. Haidu then decreed to the Ilkhanate that they unite against Khubilai. The Ilkhnate khan, A-ba-ha, son of Hulegu, refused to follow Haidu; Haidu and Ba-la invaded eastern Ilkhanate and called upon Mengke-timur to invade Ilkhanate from the northwest. A-ba-ha defeated Haidu and Ba-la, but he failed to beat back Mengke-timur. After A-ba-ha died, his brother would compete with A-ba-ha's son for the throne. Hence, Haidu gained an upper hand in the wars and moreover threatened to invade Khubilai's territories.
Khubilai dispatched Prince Ye-mu-han, Mengke's son Xi-li-jie and Muhuali's grandson An-tong against Haidu. Xi-li-jie defected to Haidu and arrested Ye-mu-han and An-tong. Khubilai then ordered prime minister Bayan to counter Haidu who was closing in on Helin. Bayan defeated Xi-li-jie and rescued Ye-mu-han and An-tong. Bayan was recalled by Khubilai when Nai-yan (the great grandson of the brother of Genghis khan) was reported to have planned rebellion in the areas between the Onon and Kerulen rivers of Mongolia. Bayan went to meet Nao-yan and failed to pursuade Nai-yan. Bayan fled back to the Mongol capital. A Mongol minister recommended to Khubilai that once the khanates in the west are pacified, Nai-yan would succumb. This minister hence was ordered to go west and he claimed that Nai-yan had already succumbed to Khubilai. Hence the khanates all succumbed to Khubilai. After that, Khubilai led an army northward against Nai-yan. Seeing that his Mongol soldiers treated Nai-yan soldiers with intimacy, Khubilai adopted the advice of a Chinese in having the Chinese army act as the forerunner column. General Li Ting tricked Nai-yan into a retreat and then defeated Nai-yan's army of 100,000 via a night attack with cannons. Nai-yan was captured and executed. Remnant Nai-yan people then fled to Manchuria and attacked eastern Liaoning Province. Mongol 'Xuanwei-shi of Liaodong' Ta-chu requested for aid, and Khubilai sent his son over. Ta-chu defeated the Nai-yan remnants and chased them westward to the Altai. Ta-chu was conferred the title of 'wan hu'. Nai-yan remnants, however, still remained for some time. Bayan was ordered to counter Haidu who harassed Helin in the west, and Prince Timur (grandson of Khubilai) was ordered to guard the Liao River area in the east. When a Mongol official defected to Haidu and attacked Khubilai's grandson (Gemala) near Hang'aishan Mountain, Khubilai would lead a column to the north. Haidu retreated thereafter. Bayan would continue warfare with Haidu for sometime before he left the post at Helin.
Khubilai Seeking For Confucians
In AD 1286, Khubilai ordered that yu-shi or Censor Cheng Wenhai go to Southern China and seek ex-Song Confucians. Altogether twenty Confucians, including a Song royal family member (Zhao Meng), were located and delivered to Yuan court. Cheng Wenhai and an ex-Song prime minister Liu Mengyan had both recommended an ex-Song minister, by the name of Xie Fangde, for the Yuan court. Xie refused to eat food on the road to the capital, and he died in Peking after paying respect at the tombs of ex-Song empress and Duke Yingguo-gong (ex-Song emperor). Another Confucian, by the name of Liu Mingyin who was an expert on Daoism and Neo-Confucianism, surrendered salaries to the Yuan court and left for his hometown. Yuan's official in charge of the academy, 'Guo Zi Jian', ji-jiu (Wine Surrenderer) Xu Heng, had recommended another Confucian, Yang Gongyi, for the job of validating calendar and endorsing the 'Civil Services Exam' system. Yang Gongyi resigned after finishing his work, and he died in the same year as Liu Mingyin, in AD 1293. Xu Heng was guilty of his serving the Mongols and asked his family not to erect a tombstone for him. Khubilai conferred Xu Heng the title of 'si-tu' and Duke Weiguo-gong posthumously for his contributions in reviving Confucianism and the spirits of Archduke of Zhou Dynasty.
Invading Java, Declaring Amnesty, and Khubilai's Death   Khubilai replaced a prime minister (Sangge) when he found out about the corruption. Khubilai quelled numerous rebellions in southern Chinese provinces. In January of AD 1293, Kubilai sent an army of 30,000 to Java and defeated the local ruler, only to be driven off by a Javanese ally. Khubilai thought about invading Annam again in AD 1293 because the new Annam king had bullied Mongol emissary in AD 1291 and refused to come to Yuan court to pay respect. When a meteorite was spotted in the sky, Khubilai inquired with his minister (Buwusu) about how to revert the Heaven's Omen as to his possible death. Buwusu cited Han Emperor Wendi's seeking repentance when 29 mountain quakes occurred in the same day and sun eclipse occurred in the year. Khubilai recited Wendi's 'Decree In Regards To Sun Eclipse', opened royal grain barns for aiding hunger-stricken people, and declared a general amnesty. When Khubilai fell ill again, Prime Minister Bayan was recalled to the capital from Datong. On February 18, 1294, Kubilai died at the age of eighty, after a reign of 35 years. Khubilai was given the posthumous title of Shizu.
Map linked from http://www.friesian.com

Emperor Chengzong (Borjigin Timur, reign AD 1294-1307)
With the help of Bayan, Khubilai's grandson, Timur, was proclaimed the successor, i.e., Emperor Chengzong after the Mongol court went through a power vaccum for a few months. Timur gave his father (Zhenjin) the posthumous title of Emperor Yuzong. Timur released Annam emissary to show his goodwill. Timur conferred the title of 'tai shi' on Yuexi-timur, 'tai fu' on Bayan, and 'tai bao' on Yue-chi-cha-er. Bayan, who previously commanded 200,000 troops against Song, passed away in this year at the age of 59. In AD 1296, rebellion erupted in Jiangxi. The next year, Buddhist monastery on Wutaishan Mountain was completed at a cost of over 10,000 human lives. Phagsba's desciple was responsible for pushing this project. At the times of Khubilai, Phagsba was made imperial tutor, and Tibetan buddhism was made the national religion. Phagsba was responsible for devising the new Mongol script, with 41 letters. Phagsba was conferred the title of 'Da Bao Fa Wang', i.e., grand treasure king for enforcing laws. Empress Onggirat led a huge column onto the Wutaishan Mountain. A Chinese official rebuked the rampant behaviors of buddhist monks who came from the West.
Expulsion of the Mongols
Mongol's discrimination against Chinese should be the top cause for the ending of its rule in China. The other causes would be collusion with Tibetan lamas in depriving Chinese of their lands. Paper currency over-circulation, which caused inflation to go up ten folds during Yuan Emperor Shundi's reign, should also be an important cause for its loss of power. Yuan's Prime Minnister Toktoghan (Tuo Tuo), against an objection by a Chinese official (Lu Sicheng) in charge of Guo Zi Jian (i.e., Confucian Academy), would print over five versions of paper currency. Still one more cause would be the Yellow River flooding as a result of Mongols' abandoning the irrigation projects. In Mongol times, the Chinese agriculture lands were very much in wastage. Once hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians were called upon to work on the Yellow River, the time was ripe for a great rebellion.
In history, China's dynastic substitution was mostly the results of usurpation, mutiny or foreign invasion, except for Yellow Turpans of Eastern Han Dynasty and Red Turbans of Yuan Dynasty. China's dynasties twice changed by religious organizations, namely, Zhang Jiao's Daoist "Yellow Turbans" in Han Dynasty, and Yuan Dynasty's Red Turbans that were related to "Ming" [bright] religion, history, though a mirror, may not have to repeat. (Religious agitations might not work in 21st century, as in the case of Fa Lun Gong movement. Religion-related rebellion that had crippled but failed to topple a dynasty would be the "White Lotus Society" and "Taiping Heavenly Kingdom", incidentally. Similarly, I had also read about Wang Dan's interpretation of today's China as condusive to a similar Chen Sheng & Wu Guang rebellion of Qin Dynasty.)
Religion was used by the Chinese in rebelling against the Mongols. The secret societies rebelling against Mongol rule would be mixed combinations of Taoism, Buddhist elements and Central Asia religions. Major branches would include White Lotus Society ("Bailian Jiao"), White Cloud Society ("Baiyun" by Kong Qingjiao), and "bright" religion ("Ming Jiao"). Mao Ziyuan of Southern Song Dynasty first founded the "White Lotus Society" as a Mahayanist sect of Buddhism with adoration for bodhisattva Amitabha; however, the sect had transferred the adoration to a different buddha [Maitreya Buddha?] by Yuan Dynasty. (Later, in 16th century, "White Lotus Society" developed into hundreds of sub-sects, with ocurrence of major uprising against the Manchu rule in AD 1796.) Radical Chinese historians, who had attributed Zhu Yuanzhang's Ming Dynasty to an alien rule belonging to the Muslims, had pointed out that the character "ming" to the fire adoration religion of the Central Asia. The Red Turbans, i.e., "Hongjin Jun", which overthrew the Mongol rule, derived from the "bright religion" [? Zoroastrianism mutation].
The Yellow River Flooding & The Red Turbans
Yellow River flooding caused massive damages to people in Jinan area of Shandong Prov. The Yellow River was first worked on by Lord Yu, and eight hundred years after, the Shang people began to experience the flooding again. Major river course changes had occurred for over half a dozen times in past 3500 years. During the 25th year reign of Yuan Emperor Shizu (Khubilai), i.e. AD 1288, the River changed course. During the 1st year reign of Yuan Emperor Shundi, i.e., AD 1335, bank was breached at Kaifeng, Henan Prov; in AD 1344, breached at Caozhou Prefecture and Kaifeng; in AD 1345, breached near Jinan, Shandong Prov. A Chinese official, by the name of Jia Lu, proposed to have the river course changed to the Huai-shui River in the south. Toktoghan dispatched an official, Cheng Zun, on an inspection trip, and Cheng Zun proposed an alternative scheme by citing the fact that there were no royal savings for a huge project like Jia Lu's and that any mobilization of 200,000 laborers might cause social instability. Toktoghan, angry with Cheng Zun for the suggestion that people might rebel, would petition with Emperor Shundi to have Jia Lu take charge of 170,000 soldiers and laborers and work on revamping the Yellow River course. Jia Lu started work in April of AD 1351 and finished work in July of the same year. However, White Lotus Society, led by Han Shantong and Liu Futong, had secretly implanted an one-eye stone statute in Huanglinggang area and then spread the rumor stating that rebellion would erupt should a stone man with one eye be dug up from the Yellow River bed. Jia Lu did not pay attention to the stone man and ordered that it be destroyed. Liu Futong, after the Yuan Dynasty arrested and executed Han Shantong, would rally an army called the 'Red Turbans' and supported Han Shantong's son (Han Lin'er) as the leader. Cai Dongfan commented that the Mongols should have hired the displaced Shandong people as labor for repairing the Yellow River rather than mobilizing 170,000 people for the project.
Answering the 'Red Turbans' rebellion would be several more bands, including Li Er (Sesame Lee) in Xuzhou of Shandong Prov, Xu Shouhui (a cloth vendor) in Qi-shui of Hubei Prov. Guo Zixing rebelled against Yuan in Dingyuan in AD 1352. Zhang Shicheng (salt merchant) rebelled against Yuan in Taizhou of Jiangsu Prov in AD 1353. Before that, in AD 1348, Fang Guozhen (a salt worker and later a pirate) in Taizhou of Zhejiang had rebelled against the Mongols.
Toktoghan advised Emperor Shundi to put down the rebellion in Henan Prov first. Since Shundi did not want Toktoghan leave the court, Toktoghan's brother, Yexian-temur, was ordered to quell rebellion with an army of over 100,000. Yexian-temur first attacked the city of Shangcai and captured a Red Turban leader called Han Yao'er.


Written by Ah Xiang

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This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into a publication soon. The original plan for completion in year 2007 was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese traditions, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generations of the Chinese patriots, including to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thieve Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the goodness of the country.

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Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],