||1050 - 771 BC
|1046 - 771 BC
|1121 - 771 BC
|Sping & Autumn
||206 BC-23 AD
|Hun Han (Zhao)
||Hun 304-329 ss
||Jiehu 319-352 ss
||Di 351-394 ss
||Qiang 384-417 ss
|Western Qin ss
||Hun 407-431 ss
|Jurchen Jin (Gold)
Continuing from Tragedy of Chinese Revolution, Campaigns & Civil Wars, & White Terror vs Red Terror:
1) World War II, in both the East and the West, was the result of the inducement of the British, American[, and French] interest groups and syndicates, as well as the the result of the scheme by Soviet Russia. First there was the October 1925 Locarno Treaties which, per Jozef Beck, led to the opinion that "Germany was officially asked to attack the east, in return for peace in the west." Then in 1931, President Herbert Hoover gave Japan a free hand in the invasion of Manchuria on the pretext that Japan could not tolerate a half-Bolshevik China. Thereafter the September 1938 Munich Agreement. For what? Britain, France and the United States wanted Hitler to attack the Soviet Union, and wanted Japan to suppress China's nationalist movement and counter the Soviet Union. In both cases, Stalin out-smarted the Anglo-American and the French. Hitler attacked westward instead, and signed a non-aggression pact with Stalin to halve Poland; and Japan attacked Southeast Asia and the Pearl Harbor after China, not the Soviet Union.
Half a year before the Russo-Japanese Neutrality Treaty of April 1941 and one year ahead of the Pacific War, Japan already reached a secret deal with the U.S.S.R. to halve China, mapping the "Poland partition" scheme by the U.S.S.R. and Nazi Germany, as evidenced by the clauses of the Dec 1940 negotiation and treaty between Wang Ching-wei's puppet R.O.C. government and Japan in regards to the reserved territories for the Chinese communists and the hinted Western China's boundary between the U.S.S.R. and Japan.
(More available at "Changing Alliances On International Arena", "Century-long American hypocrisy towards China", "Anglo-American & Jewish romance with Japanese", "Joe Stilwell's Authorization To Assassinate Chiang Kai-shek", and "What Foreign Powers Did To The Flowery Republic Prior To, During And After The 1911 Revolution".)
A rather simple explanation for the ultimate American intervention in China in March 1940, i.e., the Americans' hastily giving Chiang Kai-shek a badly-needed loan, would be to prevent Japan and China from reaching a truce since Chiang Kai-shek deliberately spread a rumor that his Chongqing government could merge with the puppet Nanking government.
As Paul Reinsch and Arthur Young repeatedly said, the United States of America could have done just a little to help China in WWI or WWII, but chose to do nothing during WWI other than a Lansing-Ishii Agreement [which was to acknowledge that Japan had its special interests (in the specified areas of China specified by the secret memorandum)], chose to do lip-service to Wu Peifu's ROC government while the Soviets equipped Feng Yuxiang and Sun Yat-sen's military factions with free guns; chose to do nothing after making sure China was to stay in the Second World War by merely granting the currency stabilization loan of 1940; and chose to use the Lend-Lease coercion to force China into throwing the crack troops at northern Burma just prior to the Japanese Ichigo Campaign in 1944.
2) Stalin was the evil genius of the 20th century. Stalin, after the 1929 war against Zhang Xueliang over the Chinese-Eastern Railway [which erupted over the Soviet Russian and Chinese communist agitation in sabotaging Japan's attempt at building five additional railways in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia], quickly divested himself of the railway when Japan invaded Manchuria on Sept 18th, 1931. After initially calling on the world communists to militarily defend the Soviet Union from 1931 to 1933, Stalin subsequently designed the united front and popular front in 1935, and in the time period of 1936-1937 successfully lit the fuse of the Sino-Japanese War by means of repeated G.R.U. operations in northern China and Manchuria.
To thwart the Anglo-American attempts at using Japan against the U.S.S.R., Stalin hijacked the American government policies by utilizing agents, saboteurs, provocateurs and sympathizers from the Institute of Pacific Relations. "16 out of 17 of the AMERICANS that were involved in creating the U.N. were later identified, in sworn testimony, as secret communist agents." The whole United States government was in fact taken over by the Comintern agents, including: Alger Hiss; Harry Dexter White; Lauchlin Currie; Laurence Duggan; Frank Coe; Solomon Adler; Klaus Fuchs; and Duncan Lee."
John Fairbank and Owen Lattimore, i.e., two "Old China Hands" who were repeatedly cited by the Chi-com for substantiation of the cause and success of the Chinese communist revolution, had merely been the Soviet Russian and/or Chicom tools. (Most of the Comintern spies of the European and American background had been recruited during their stay in China during the turbulent 1920s. Owen Lattimore's belief and orientation should have been shaped during his early years in Peking in the 1920s. John King Fairbank, who had done everything Agnes Smedley had asked him to do other than putting his name on the roster of the G.R.U. (Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation), was a member of the Chinese League for the Protection of Civil Rights in late 1932 and early 1933, and further rafted with Comintern agent Harold Isaacs on the Jehol River in 1934 before the latter switched to the Trotskyite path. Working directly under Lattimore would be two Chicom spies called Chi Chao-ting and Chen Han-sheng who designed America's China policies.)
3) It was the century's misfortune for China to have to see the Anglo-American interest groups and Russian/Comintern agents colluding with each other in subverting Nationalist China
the beacon tower for the independence of the Asian countries and people
, colonized or semi-colonized by the West,
as "...British Ambassador personally suggested to me [Albert Wedemeyer]
that a strong unified China would be dangerous to the world and certainly would jeopardize the white man's position immediately in Far East and ultimately throughout the world."
No matter it was the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, or the 1937-1945 Sino-Japanese War, the aforesaid parties, plus the Chinese communist henchmen, were the ONLY people who wanted Japan to invade China, albeit for different reasons and agenda at different stages and times.
In another word, the Japanese never realized that they had been brought up and used as a tool since Matthew Perry's timeframe, first as a tool against Russia in 1904-5 and then used by the Soviets as a tool against China.
"When other nations tried to bar ... [Japan] progress or slur ... [Japan] reputation," as commented by Count Hayashi:
"America always stood for ... [Japan] ...[America's] Stars heralded to the world the rising of ... [Japan] Sun..."
The warships and planes built and used against China in 1931/2 were the products of twenty years of military alliance between Britain and Japan,
following the American support of the Japanese ventures against Ryukyu and Taiwan in the late 19th century.
4) There is no truth in Stalin and Truman racing against each other as suggested by Tsuyoshi Hasegawa. While Truman was blindfolded as to the making of the Atomic Bomb, the Russians had been receiving ships of the uranium ore throughout the war, which was to make sure that the United States was not to become the nuclear monopoly. Stalin's American proxies already had Truman agree to the terms reached by Roosevelt at Yalta. The United States had utterly no preparation for racing its army to Japan or Korea. "It was after the U.S. dropped two bombs onto Japan, on Aug 6th & 9th, respectively, that Rusk & Bonesteel, drew up the 38th Parallel on the map as an artificial division line separating the U.S. sphere of influence from the U.S.S.R.
5) Japan already explored with the Soviets for surrender. But the Soviets declined it. Otherwise, what's the need to enter Manchuria and Korea? Since the Russians were eager to invade Manchuria & Korea, Japan had to turn around to request with Sweden for relaying a message of surrender.
Japan was in self-denial over the prospect of the Russian entry into war. Intelligence already poured into Japan as to the Russian complicity at Yalta. Back on June 9th, 1945, Truman officially told TV Soong (Soong Ziwen) that he was to honor the late President's signature on the Yalta Agreement and requested that China dispatch a delegation to Moscow for stamping a Sino-Russian friendship agreement no later than July 1st. The Chinese were busy repairing the damages. Japan knew about it. Japan sent secret negotiators to Chiang Kai-shek multiple times in July-August of 1945 for the peace talks. Looking in hind sight, China, separately, should have struck a partial peace with Japan to ward off the Soviets.
(When the Soviet Red Army invaded Manchuria, Japan, who had issued orders to its armies to surrender across the battlefields of China and Southeast Asia, had to make a special order to the Kwantung Army to resist the Soviet Red Army in Jehol, Manchuria, and the Sakkalin for about 20 days for sake of stopping the Soviets from landing in Hokkaido.)
6) Though, the Japanese emperor played a trick in surrender. He signed a "truce" order to his army and listing Britain, American and China and etc, but when he made the announcement on radio, he changed China to Chungking [Chongqing] the Chinese interim capital. We know Japanese have a problem with saving face. But the truth is known no matter how the professor wanted to discount the atomic bombs and gave weight to the Russian entry into the war. Professor Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, who skipped the name of China in his book title and ignored the death toll of 1 million Japanese on mainland China, should spend more time researching into the fate of half of the 500-600,000 Kwantung Army that had perished in Russian Siberia.
(From the memoirs related to some Taiwan native who joined the Japanese Kwantung Army and was later exiled by the Soviet Red Army to Siberia for the coolie labor, the Soviets, to help Mao Tse-tung and Kim Il-sung, on a wholesale scale, in 1947 repatriated the Korean-ethnic Japanese Kwantung Army prisoners fo war to North Korea and the Taiwan-ethnic Japanese Kwantung Army prisoners fo war to Manchuria, which probably explained why there was no accounting of some huge numbers of the Japanese Kwantung Army troops in the later repatriation to Japan.)
(The Soviets sorted out at least 30,000 Japanese artillery troops, medical Kwantung Army staff, a full airforce contingent with generals and crewmen under Hayashi Yayichiro, and no less than two full Korean-ethnic divisions for deployment by the Chinese communists in the civil war against the Nationalist Chinese Government, not to count the Outer Mongolian Cavalry and 100,000 fully-trained Korean mercenaries sent to China in 1947, with about 60,000-70,000 remnants [out of the total headcount of 250,000 Korean mercenaries] shipped back to Korea prior to the Korean War of June 1950. According to Kim Il-sun, altogether 250,000 Korean mercenaries took part in the 1945-1950 civil war against the Nationalist Government, with 60,000-70,000 remnants surviving the bloody Chinese civil war to return to Korean for the 1950 Korean War.)
Stalin and the Soviets were behind each step of Mao in making sure that no peace could have a chance from the day of the Japan's surrender. Cumulatively, the Soviet Russians acknowledged in the 1970s that they had given the Chinese communists 700,000 guns, with North Korea's arsenals open for free pickup throughout the Chinese civil wars. (On the 1947 anniversary date of the Russian Revolution, the Soviet Russians already disclosed that they had given the Chinese communists massive military aid - which the Americans refused to acknowledge.) At about the same time the Republican Party forced through the China Aid Act in 1948, Stalin officially stamped a loan for the Chinese communists of an equivalent amount allocated by the China Aid Act, with no strings attached.
Stalin understood that the generations of brave Chinese during first part of the 20th century were the flower that China ever had in the whole history of 5000 years, a force that must be destroyed so that the Soviet Russian scheme at world domination could succeed.
Didn't know the Russian cold-bloodedness? Read into the Katyn Murder of 20,000+ Polish officers, and Stalin's plan to shoot 50,000 German officers- which Roosevelt echoed by lessening to 49,500.
As this webmaster had elaborated on the battles and campaigns in Civil Wars section,
the Chinese Civil War of 1945-1950 [using the Korean War as a breakpoint rather than the PRC's proclaimed date of founding] is the "Last Duel of the Middle Earth"
involving millions of the fighting-to-death Yellow Men,
whose outcome was determined on the battlefields by means of a) the military tactics and strategies,
b) political conspiracy and plots, c) economic manipulation and sabotage, c) societal disruption and coercion,
and d) international alliance and betrayal, never ever the free choice of the Chinese people or the 'Mandate of Heaven' as John Fairbank and Owen Lattimore
[and their student-sinologists in the American colleges and universities] wanted you to believe in.
The brave R.O.C. soldiers against the armed-to-the-teeth Japanese Army
After squandering the 1st tier troops of 1st-20th Shidans and 2nd tier troops of 100-120th Shidans in "yocho" action against China, the Japanese sent the demoralized Shidans
to the Pacific War graves, to the extent that by the time Japan surrendered, the Japanese homeland soldiers of 1-2 million new recruits possessed bamboo sticks and spears
for defense, while the Soviet/Comintern agents inside of the Japanese government/military, in the name of moving the duel battlefield to the mainland, hoarded large cache of weapons in Manchuria/Korea for free pickup by the Soviets and the
Working as a secretary of Konoye Fumimaro the Japanese prime minister as one of five brain trusts, Stalin's spy Ozaki,
likening Japanese prime minister Konoe to Karenski (head of the 1917 transitionary Russian government),
wanted to turn Japan into a replay of the Soviet revolution.
Do you Japanese know that?
The brave and victorious National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China chased the remnant communists to the north bank of the Sungari River.
Americans sold out China in Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam. In late 1944, Leahy was probing China about the Russian demand for Dairen, Port Arthur and the railways. Roosevelt locked up the secret treaties in his drawer till his death. Both Hurley and Leahy merely knew part of the Roosevelt deals with Stalin. Truman pressured China numerous times regarding signing an agreement with Russians no later than July 1st, 1945. Late 1945, George marshall and the Americans continued to sell out China on the matter of the Russian pillage of Manchuria.
Marshall, in spring 1946, flew back to China to stop the Chinese army from moving beyond Sungari.
As disclosed by the documents at the George Marshall foundation, George Marshall, possibly the most hideous agent working on behalf of Stalin and the Soviet Union, saved the ass of the Chinese Communists with a threat to withhold the economic aid that was supposedly coming from the U.S. export-import bank, which never materialized.
G Marshall, from 1946 to 1948, repeatedly probed numerous Chinese officials and generals as to who could be Chiang's successor.
The U.S. Department of State, run by Russian agents, were repeatedly sending out rumors about getting a succesor for Chiang. Marshall's hands had the blood of millions of Chinese killed in civil wars.
G Marshall, as Wedemeyer said, first armed China and then disarmed China. The U.S. arms embargo continued till the China Aid Act of 1948, and ammunition did not get released till Nov of 1948.
After weapons were shipped
out, Acheson and the undercover Russian agents further attempted to order the ships to turn around at Guam and Okinawa.
In Oct 1949, Acheson pleaded with the British, where the Cambridge Soviet Spy Ring was at work, for recognition of Communist China, which Britain did on Jan 1st, 1950.
After that, Acheson declared the Aleutian curvature, which directly led to the eruption of the Korean War.
Korean War and Vietnamese War, invariably, were the extensions of the Chinese Civil War of 1945-1950.
The Xu-Beng Campaign [Huai-Hai Campaign]
Before the Liao-Shen [Manchuria] Campaign rolled to the end, the CCP Eastern China Field Army completed the campaign against the Ji'nan city with the help of garrison commander Wu Hualong's defection. Liu Zhi's government army group failed to give the relief to Ji'nan the provincial city of Shandong Province, but instead concentrated onto the cities of Shangqiu, Xuzhou and coastal Lianyungang, and along the railway lines of Jin-Pu & Long-Hai. To the right side of Liu Zhi would be Huang Baitao's Army Group that was in charge of the area between the Long-Hai Railway to the north and the Huai-he River to the south and between coastal Lianyungang to the east and Xuzhou to the west.
Mao Tse-tung continued the communist strategy of attacking one government troops' outpost while impeding or eliminating the enemy's relief troops. To link up the "liberated area" of Shandong Province and northern Jiangsu Province as well as to cut off the right arm of Liu Zhi's army group in Xuzhou, Mao Tse-tung proposed to first attack Huang Baitao's army group. The communist spies in the R.O.C. defense department managed to have Chiang Kai-shek order the troops and government officials at the coastal Lianyungang to move inland in lieu of evacuation over the seas, while Huang Baitao's army group was ordered to stay put for linking up with the Lianyungang evacuees.
For sake of taking out Huang Baitao's army, Mao Tse-tung instructed that more than half of the CCP's Eastern China Field Army should be deployed against the relief armies of Qiu Qingquan and Li Mi. During the campaign, the original communist plan changed midway when Liu Zhi's army in Xuzhou fled to the west and Huang Wei's army group came north, culminating in an expanded Huai-Hai Campaign that would suck in Huang Wei & Du Yuming's army groups as well.
The Huai-Hai Campaign1, i.e., the Xu-Beng Campaign in the government's perspective, would eliminate about 555,900 government troops from Nov 6th, 1948 to Jan 10th, 1949, with the number of 555,900 on paper only since the government troops never sought replenishment of the lost ranks throughout the civil wars.
The Chinese communists, using the North Korea territory as a spring board, had shipped over thousands of pieces of artillery for the campaign.
During the campaign, the communists adopted the blanket-shelling policy to take out the government troops patch by patch.
The nationalist army generals, who had been chasing the communist troops like one division against several communist ragtag civilian-staffed army corps, often recollected in their memoirs that they were defeated by the communist army first time in their life, after falling victim to the communist blanket shelling.
Communist general Su Yu, later in his memoirs, claimed that they had unlimited supply of shells that were shipped over from Dairen's munition plants, i.e., a joint CCP-Soviet operation.
The Soviets were involved in the relay of the ammmunition and artillery pieces between North Korea and the Chefoo port.
The fate of defeat of the government troops, not limited to the shortage of supplies in the aftermath of the American arms embargo, also lied in the change of the government leader.
Chiang Kai-shek, who was forced to yield the leadersip to Li Zongren, later commented that he had not given up the post for worry about the fate of the hundreds of thousands of troops trapped in the Xu-Beng Campaign.
Certainly, Chiang Kai-shek, who did not know that his war plans were designed by communist moles Guo Rugui and Liu Fei, had wished to see a miracle from the campaign, that might save his fate.
More available at XuBengCampaign-v0.
The Chinese communists, prior to the Soviets' non-renewal of the neutrality treaty with Japan, had debated among themselves as to the next move, with communist Chen Yi giving Jack Service a so-called "Manchuria Plan", a document that some undercover American communist in the American military delegation had destroyed to help cover up the so-called communist masterplan --something Jack Service cited as his loyalty before the McCarthy inquisition committee.
It would be at the turn of September-October of 1945, when Mao was in Chungking for peace talks, that communist deputy chief Liu Shaoqi changed Mao's southern advance masterplan to the Manchuria plan.
The Communist party committee for Hebei-Rehe-Liaoning regions, at a meeting held in Fenglunxian county, made a decision to dispatch to Manchuria 8 regiments, 1 battalion, and two contingents, totaling 13,000 men or 2/3rd of the regional force, to be commanded by four commanders for military sub-districts, four CCP regional secretaries and 2500 cadres.
Li Yunchang, i.e., commander-in-chief of the Hebei-Rehe-Liaoning district, was put in charge of the "Eastward March Work Committee".
In late Aug, 14th, troops of the 15th & 16th military sub-districts under Li Yunchang exited the passes of the Great Wall for Manchuria.
Zeng Kelin & Tang Kai, with the 12th & 18th regiments, the Korean contingent & Lin Fuchang's contingent, circumvented the Shanhaiguan Pass by exiting the Jiumenkou gate.
According to Liu Tong, a professor at the Chines Communist army college, the CPC troops, when exiting the Sea and Mountain Pass at the end of 1945, possessed the following weapons: 39641 rifles, 1139 light machine guns, 105 heavy machine guns, 59 grenade launchers, and 64 mortar, and almost no heavy weapons such as howitzers, tanks, aircraft, ... nothing. A few months later, the communist army acquired 160,881 rifles, 4033 light machine guns, 749 heavy machine guns, a variety of artillery pieces numbering 556.
In late September of 1945, when Zeng Kelin's herald communist troops, a small force of four companies from the Jehol district, exited the Sea and Mountain Pass and arrived in Shenyang [Mukden], the Soviet Army had transferred arsenals in Shenyang, Fushun, Liaoyang, Benxi and other places, in addition to the military clothing warehouses. The Soviets handed over to Zeng Kelin's communist army the largest of the Japanese Kwantung Army depot in Sujiatun. After a protest from the R.O.C., the Soviet Army in late September had a temporary freeze order on these warehouses. However, Zeng Kelin's communist army still managed to ship out of the warehouses 20,000 rifles, 1000 light machine guns, and 156 various artillery pieces.
Zeng Kelin's forerunner Communist force developed into 4000 soldiers from four companies in a matter of one week after arrival at the Shenyang city, and moreover, absorbed over 10,000 puppet constabulary forces; about 10000-20000 coolies, who were formerly captives from the Chinese Armies, were organized into guerrilla columns for entry into the Changchun city; in Shenyang, Zeng Kelin reported that weapon depots were packed with 100,000 guns and thousands of cannons; and the puppet Manchukuo forces were in waiting mode for re-organization.
In a matter of months, the various communist units, before and after, had a net gain of more than 120,000 rifles, 3,500 light machine guns, thousands of grenade launchers, and a variety of artillery in the amount of 492 pieces.
The continuous Soviet military supplies not only equipped the communists in Manchuria, but also lent support to the follow-up communist forces, local communist guerrillas, as well as the communist army units in ther liberated areas [in China proper].
Zeng Kelin's communist army in October 1945 pulled out of the warehouses for delivery to [Wang Zheng's] 359th Brigade [in Yenan - should be part of Li Xiannian's Central Plains communist army in Henan, that got wiped out in early 1947 while attempting a breakout under the kmt-ccp-u.s.a. truce monitoring], the commmunist army in central Shandong and eastern Shandong, the 1st Teaching Brigade from Yan'an and other troops.
Over the sea, the communists shipped to Longkou of Shandong a batch of weapons, ammunition, of which there were 500 million rounds of ammunition, and artillery shells.
On September 21, 1945, the CCP Central [in Yenan] reported to the Chongqing delegation [i.e., Mao Tse-tung], stating that Nie Rongzhen's Jin-Cha-Ji District had telegrams stating that the Soviet-Mongol armies, before pulling out of Chahar [[and of course Jehol - my addition]] that was scheduled for the end of the month, had transferred and would transfer some military goods to me [i.e., the communists], and promised to provide assistance to me [i.e., the communists] in the future.
There were quite some telegrams from Nie Rongzhen's Jin-Cha-Ji District and the Shanxi-Suiyuan communists to the effect that they had acquired weapons from the Soviet Army.
As Zeng Kelin recalled, in September and October 1945, his [communist] unit had more than once shipped massive amount of weapons and ammunition, from Shenyang and Jinzhou [in Manchuria], to the communist brotherly forces within the Sea and Mountain Pass and the communist forces of Shandong [i.e., Chen Yi and Su Yu's communist army].
During the peace talks, Mao Tse-tung initially mentioned that he had 140000 to 150000 broken guns.
After receiving the telegrams from Liu Shaoqi in reqards to the massive Soviet military assistance, Mao Tse-tung changed tune about the communist army's real strength.
Mao Tse-tung also concurred with Liu Shaoqi about changing Mao's grand strategy of re-launching the Soviet enclaves in southern China to go full in to Manchuria.
Mao Tse-tung, at one time, agreed to contract to 28 divisions instead of 12 divisions [which they possessed on paper only, as we already pierced the myth that the Communists ever possessed 300,000+ troops at the time of the
Japanese surrender], but later demanded that he maintained 48 divisions and that the Nationalist Government provide the funding.
Mao Tse-tung further demanded that in the CCP-"liberated" areas, the CCP had the right to recommend their men for the jobs like provincial governor, county magistrate and city mayor.
Without reaching agreements on the "united military command" and the "united administrative orders", Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Tse-tung reached a Double Ten Agreement requiring that the KMT discontinue "xun zheng' (i.e., the KMT supervised administration) and convene a political consultative meeting for "xian zheng" (i.e., the constitutional government).
(FYI: Mao Tse-tung's claim of 1.2 million Communist forces was a crap. The Communists did not have a third of it till well after the Japanese surrender in 1945. The only motive of exaggerating the fake number would be to claim a non-existent Mandate, i.e., support from the peasants, which was fallacious since the Jiangxi Soviet of the 1930s. The popular claim of 900k regular and 2 million irregular was made up as well.)
While Marshall was scheming to impose an arms embargo against the Republic of China, the Soviets hastened up their military support for the Chinese sommunists.
On May 20, 1946, the CCP Northeast Nureau reported to the CCP Central that the Soviet Russian Army firmly supported the communist Northeast Field Army to make a stand at Siping, for a duel, and they had directed the Soviet Army in [North] Korea to render the immediate emergency shipment of ammunition [to the Chinese Communist armies], and further suggested that the Chinese Communists, for taking off the pressure of the government troops' assault [on Siping and] within the Northeast, [proactively - I added] launch the battlefields within the China proper, organize the maritime transport for the delivery of weapons and ammunition to the Shandong peninsula from the northeast. The Soviets claimed that no matter how much weapons and ammunition the Chinese Communists demand, they would be satisfied. Immediately afterwards, the Soviet Army in Communist North Korea provided the first batch of weapons and ammunition to the communist North China Field Army. On May 28, 1946, the first batch of 82 light machine guns, 32 heavy machine guns, 43 million rounds of ammunition and one million boxes of explosives and a large number of electrical materials, were shipped to Shandong over the sea. Already in early June to late in the month, there were three deliveries. Afterwards, the delivery became more frequent, the numbers even greater. By August, the rifles had reached tens of thousands, up to thousands of machine guns, and at the height [till August 1946], the Soviet Army in North Korea provided hundreds of train carriages of weapons and ammunition.
The Communists declined Chiang Kai-shek's demand for the "united military command" and the "united administrative orders", claiming that they were for the 'peace' and 'democracy' while Chiang Kai-shek intended for the 'civil war' and 'dictatorship'. Mao Tse-tung merely agreed to concession of the Communist-controlled untenable areas of Guangdong Prov, Zhejiang Prov, southern Jiangsu Prov, central Anhui Prov, southern Anhui Prov, Hunan Prov, Hubei Prov and Henan Province. Militarily, Mao Tse-tung agreed to compress to 48 and consecutively 43 divisions, so that the Communist forces would be amounting to 1/6th and consecutively 1/7th the size of 263 government troops divisions. Chiang Kai-shek stated that they intended to compress the army to 120 divisions, but the Communists refused to lower to 20 divisions.
The actual American lend-lease amounts:
US$26 million (1941, mostly squandered in Burma in the aftermath of the Japanese invasion),
US$100 million (1942),
US$49 million (1943), and
US$53 million (1944). (Numbers were from Arthur Young, economic adviser to the Republic of China and one of the few Americans who harbored true sympathy with China and the Chinese people.)
The American aid to China was completely sabotaged by i) the colonialists and ii) the communists inside of the U.S. government. The American Production Mission to China wasn't set up until September '44. Per Edwin Locke, "Well, the problem had just never been attended to before, for one thing; and for another, we were just getting into a position where militarily we could supply a lot more help to China. You see, China was at the end of the line before; she was almost an orphan, and we didn't do very much more than maintain Chennault and his hundred airplanes there in South China, until we began building big bomber bases in China for bombing Japan. China then began to assume a great deal more importance. I think this is your reason..."
Rather receiving any benefits from the lend lease, the Chinese side had spent enormous resource on supporting the American operation.
The airfields completely bankrupted China's wartime finance and led to spiraling inflation from 1942 to 1945, which replayed again from 1947 to 1949 when George Marshall left China.
Wellington Koo's memoirs often talked about some amount related to the INVERSE LEND LEASE, an amount that the Americans owed to China.
Wellington Koo, throughout the late 1940s and early 1950s, were constantly working with the Americans to balance out the dollar amount of aid from the Americans and the the dollar amount of the support that R.O.C. provided to the Americans.
Communist China's Social Science Academy chief Liu Da’nian acknowledged that Chiang Kai-shek received no more than 0.6 billion in aid. The actual number won't be more than 0.2 to 0.3 billion, including the 0.125 Billion from the 1948 China Aid Act which rolled over to the "China Area Aid", to be squandered in Indochina in the 1950s and 1960s, instead.
For the year 1945 to the V-J Day: US$642 million.
(This is on basis of Utley's citation of the U.S. number of
approximately $870,000,000 up to V-J Day, deducted by Young's numbers of $228 million from 1941 to 1944.)
For the time period from the V-J Day to the end of February 1946: US$600 million (mostly the transportation costs).
(This is on basis of Utley's citation of the U.S. number. Out of the above ambiguous post-1944 U.S. numbers, Utley deducted:
$335.8 million represented by the cost of repatriating the Japanese and accepting their surrender;
$100 million worth of the "surplus" United States stocks sold to China in 1946, 40 per cent consisting of the quartermaster supplies, and only $3 million consisting of the small-arms and ammunition.
As pointed out by Utley,
the largest single item in Acheson's total of $797.7 million of military aid was the "services and expenses" amounting to $335.8 million, and listed under the heading of "Postwar Lend-Lease.")
The American Involvement in China: the Soviet Operation Snow, the IPR Conspiracy, the Dixie Mission, the Stilwell Incident, the OSS Scheme, the Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & The China White Paper
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Wu [no] Wang [forgetting] Zai [at] Ju [the Ju fort]
Manchu New Army and Manchu New Administration - 1899-1911
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Second Revolution - 1913
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WWI & Japan's Twenty-one Demands - 1914-1915
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Reinstatement of 'Interim Agreed-upon Laws' - 1916
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Guangdong-Guangxi_War & Sun Yat-sen's Return To Canton - 1920
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Chen Jiongming Rebellion Against Sun Yat-sen - 1922
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Anti-Imperialist-Movements - 1922-1927
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Russians & Sun Yat-sen 1918-1923
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USSR / Comintern Alliance With KMT & CCP
(Modified : Saturday, 31-Mar-2012 04:10:20 EDT)
KMT First National Congress - 1924
(Modified : Friday, 30-Mar-2007 20:31:36 EDT)
Whampoa Military Academy - 1924
(Modified : Friday, 30-Mar-2007 20:31:15 EDT)
Sun Yat-sen's Northern Trip - 1924-1925
(Modified : Tuesday, 27-Mar-2007 01:45:08 EDT)
Tang Jiyao's Downfall From Power - 1925
(Modified : Friday, 30-Mar-2007 15:21:23 EDT)
University for Toilers of the East - 1925
(Modified : Sunday, 13-Jan-2013 02:35:10 EST)
Succession of Wang Jingwei & Assassination of Liao Zhongkai - 1925
(Modified : Tuesday, 27-Mar-2007 01:44:12 EDT)
Zhongshan Warship Incident - 1926
(Modified : Monday, 26-Mar-2007 02:59:03 EDT)
Northern Expedition - 1928
(Modified : Thursday, 29-Mar-2007 00:28:31 EDT)
Nanchang Mutiny -1927
(Modified : Wednesday, 10-May-2006 12:01:49 EDT)
Battle Of Xuzhou - 1927
(Modified : Tuesday, 09-May-2006 01:50:40 EDT)
Battle Of Longtan - 1927
(Modified : Tuesday, 09-May-2006 01:50:39 EDT)
Canton Commune -1927
(Modified : Wednesday, 10-May-2006 12:01:51 EDT)
2nd Northern Campaign - 1928
(Modified : Tuesday, 09-May-2006 01:50:38 EDT)
Anti-Bolshevik League Purge - 1929-1930
(Modified : Thursday, 29-Mar-2007 00:42:37 EDT)
Purge of Socialist Democratic Party - 1931
(Modified : Wednesday, 10-May-2006 12:01:48 EDT)
The Murder of Gu Shunzhang Family - 1931
(Modified : Friday, 21-Mar-2008 01:03:50 EDT)
KOREAN COMMUNISTS & THE JAPANESE INVASION OF MANCHURIA - 1930-1931
(Modified : Saturday, 31-Mar-2012 04:14:16 EDT)
The Japanese Invasion of Manchuria - 1931
(Modified : Saturday, 31-Mar-2012 19:29:38 EDT)
First Shanghai Provocation By Japanese - 1932
(Modified : Monday, 18-Jun-2007 10:47:05 EDT)
The Air Battle over Shanghai-Suzhou-Hangzhou & Western Power Intervention - 1932
(Modified : Tuesday, 27-Dec-2011 22:27:06 EST)
Battles of Miaohang, Qianjingying & Loutang - 1932
(Modified : Tuesday, 27-Dec-2011 23:01:21 EST)
ErYuWan Soviet - 1932
(Modified : Tuesday, 09-May-2006 01:50:37 EDT)
Invasion of Jehol & Battles of the Great Wall - 1933
(Modified : Sunday, 06-May-2007 14:27:56 EDT)
Ho-Umezu-Agreement - 1933
(Modified : Saturday, 04-Nov-2006 20:26:46 EST)
Chinese Communists & Feng Yuxiang’s Chahar Allied Army - 1933
(Modified : Tuesday, 23-Oct-2007 01:06:37 EDT)
Chinese Communists & Feng Yuxiang’s Chahar Allied Army - 1933: The Final Demise
(Modified : Monday, 10-Oct-2011 14:14:51 EDT)
Chinese Republic In Fujian Province - 1933
(Modified : Monday, 04-Aug-2008 02:22:40 EDT)
Battle Of Baizhangguan Pass - 1935
(Modified : Tuesday, 09-May-2006 01:50:36 EDT)
Communist Ningxia-Yinchuan Campaign - 1935
(Modified : Tuesday, 09-May-2006 01:50:35 EDT)
Communist Instigation in Southwest_China - 1936
(Modified : Thursday, 29-Mar-2007 00:28:19 EDT)
Changing Alliances In International Arena - 1930s
(Modified : Sunday, 22-Apr-2007 15:10:57 EDT)
On the Eve of Japanese Invasion - 1936
(Modified : Sunday, 22-Apr-2007 15:10:59 EDT)
Xian Coup - 1936
(Modified : Wednesday, 10-May-2006 12:01:45 EDT)
Marco Polo Bridge Incident - 1937
(Modified : Sunday, 26-Aug-2012 17:43:23 EDT)
Battles-of-Peking-Tientsin - 1937
(Modified : Sunday, 08-Apr-2007 18:28:29 EDT)
Second Japanese Provocation In Shanghai - 1937
(Modified : Sunday, 08-Apr-2007 19:28:33 EDT)
Battle Of Shanghai - a - 1937
(Modified : Thursday, 23-Nov-2006 20:52:10 EST)
Battle Of Shanghai - b - 1937
(Modified : Monday, 04-Dec-2006 01:18:50 EST)
Battle Of Shanghai - c - 1937
(Modified : Monday, 04-Dec-2006 01:18:51 EST)
Pingxingguan Battle & Pingxingguan Campaign - 1937
(Modified : Sunday, 08-Apr-2007 18:28:20 EDT)
DEFENSE BATTLE AT NANKING - 1937
(Modified : Monday, 29-Jan-2007 00:39:05 EST)
Wang Ming's Return From Moscow - 1937
(Modified : Wednesday, 10-May-2006 12:01:46 EDT)
Battle Of Mingguang & Bengbu - 1938
(Modified : Sunday, 22-Apr-2007 15:10:54 EDT)
Battle of Taierzhuang & Xuzhou Campaign - 1938
(Modified : Wednesday, 14-Feb-2007 01:21:45 EST)
Evacuation From Xuzhou - 1938
(Modified : Sunday, 22-Apr-2007 15:10:52 EDT)
Japanese Yangtze Campaign - 1938
(Modified : Sunday, 25-Nov-2007 04:02:03 EST)
First Changsha Campaign - 1939
(Modified : Sunday, 06-May-2007 14:28:58 EDT)
Campaign Of Gui-nan & Battles At Kunlunguan Pass - 1939-1940
(Modified : Sunday, 06-May-2007 19:27:11 EDT)
Puppet Nanking Government & Japanese Foreign Exchange Manipulation - 1940
(Modified : Sunday, 22-Apr-2007 15:10:50 EDT)
THE ENEMY FROM WITHIN: CHINESE COMMUNIST ATTACKS AT GOVERNMENT TROOPS - 1940
(Modified : Wednesday, 28-Nov-2007 00:27:55 EST)
Campaign Of Zaoyang-Yichang - 1940
(Modified : Saturday, 12-May-2007 18:25:41 EDT)
Wan-nan Incident - 1941
(Modified : Wednesday, 02-Jan-2008 01:30:37 EST)
Jin-nan Campaign & Battle Of Mt Zhongtiaoshan - 1941
(Modified : Saturday, 12-May-2007 18:25:39 EDT)
First Burma Expedition - 1942
(Modified : Sunday, 14-May-2006 19:25:53 EDT)
American Relationship with Chinese Communists - 1944
(Modified : Monday, 25-Feb-2013 22:00:00 EST)
CCP Attacks on Government Troops - 1945
(Modified : Thursday, 11-May-2006 01:16:34 EDT)
Race-for-Manchuria - 1945
(Modified : Tuesday, 16-May-2006 02:45:20 EDT)
Russians Pillaging Manchuria - 1945-1946
(Modified : Thursday, 11-May-2006 01:16:31 EDT)
George Marshall's Dupe Mission To China - 1946
(Modified : Thursday, 11-May-2006 01:16:33 EDT)
Xu-Beng Campaign - 1948
(Modified : Saturday, 05-May-2007 17:13:41 EDT)
Ping-Jin Campaign - 1948-1949
(Modified : Friday, 12-May-2006 11:47:47 EDT)
Yangtze Campaign - 1949
(Modified : Friday, 12-May-2006 11:47:41 EDT)
The communists had conquered China owning to the key battle success in Manchuria, which was the result of treacheries on the part of Wei Lihuang, i.e., the government troops' commander-in-chief in Manchuria, a treachery that was comparable to Soong Dynasty prime minister Jia Sidao's abandoning to the Mongol the Xiangyang city [which was under siege for 4-5 years] and Ming Dynasty general Wu Sangui's betrayal of the Mountain and Sea Pass to the Manchus.
Wei Lihuang, with the communist mole by his side from the days of the resistance war, overrode General Wang Tiehan's proposal and made the government army into the sitting ducks in the isolated pockets and cities of Manchuria, for the communist army to attack.
Namely, Wei Lihuang allowed the communist army to take the transcendental secret manoeuvre to ship thousands of artillery to the foot of the Jinzhou city wall under the assistance of the Soviet railway army corps.
General Wang Tiehan suggested that the Changchun garrison troops could break out towards Mukden to the south as intelligence had shown that the communist army had disappeared along the trunk line of Changchun-Jirin-Mukden.
Only the 52nd Corps, and one Youth Army division, that were hoodwinked by Wei Lihuang into attacking towards Shenyang [i.e., Mukden] as the relief troops but were impeded by the communist army halfway for lack of coordination between Wei Lihuang and the communist army, managed to return to the Yingkou port to escape the Manchurian battleground via sea.
We don't need to remind the readers that the communist army was a motley group of mercenaries including about 250,000 North Koreans per Kim Il-sun plus the Outer Mongolian cavalry army, not counting the Soviet railway army corps.
Written by Ah Xiang