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Videos about China's Resistance War:
The Battle of Shanghai & Nanking;
Bombing of Chungking;
The Burma Road
Videos about China's Resistance War: China's Dunkirk Retreat (in English); 42 Video Series (in Chinese)
National Humiliation - Nanking
Video: The Japanese Bombing of Chungking
Video: The Burma Road & the Guerrila War
As this webmaster had elaborated on the context of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in the Resistance Wars section, the Sino-Japanese War resulted from the repeating G.R.U. operations across China, including assassination of Japanese businessmen and soldiers in the Yangtze and South China, and military sabotage of Japanese railways, weapon depots in the Tientsin area of North China and Dairen of Manchuria. And, as this webmaster had elaborated on the battles and campaigns in the Civil Wars section, the Chinese Civil War of 1945-1950 [using Korean War as a breakpoint rather than PRC's proclaimed date of founding] is the "Last Duel of the Middle Earth" involving millions of fighting-to-death Yellow Men, whose outcome was determined on the battlefields by means of a) military tactics and strategies, b) political conspiracies and plots, c) economic manipulations and sabotage, c) societal disruption and coercion, and d) international alliance and betrayals, never ever the free choice of the Chinese people or the 'Mandate of Heaven' as John Fairbank and Owen Lattimore [and their student-sinologists in American colleges and universities] wanted you to believe in. The Korean War and the Vietnam War, invariably, were the extension of the Chinese Civil War of 1945-1950.
The Defence Battle at Nanking
Tang Shengzhi, as the garrison commander for Nanking, had about 110,000 soldiers under his command, including Gu Zhenglun/Gui Yongqing's Central Lecturing Column (about 5000 men who retreated from Shanghai), Song Xilian's 36th Division of the 78th Corps, Wang Jingjiu's 87th Division of the 71st Corps, Sun Liangcheng's 88th Division, Ye Zhao's 66th Corps [Yue-jun], Yu Jishi's 74th Corps, Deng Longguang's 83rd Corps [Yue-jun], and one division of Sun Yuanliang's 72nd Corps. Liu Xing's two divisions, the 103th Division & the 112th Division, were pulled over from the Yangtze Bank defence. Only Xu Yuanquan's 2nd Corps-Conglomerate (the 41st & 48th Divisions), having just arrived from Wuhan, had no prior battle engagement with the Japanese. Liu Xing and Luo Zhuoying, who both participated in the Shanghai defence, were ordered to be deputy commanders assisting Tang Shengzhi. Shi Huaiyu stated that most of the soldiers were new recruits who filled up the ranks lost in the Shanghai-WuSong Battle.
Tang Shengzhi devised a plan of two-layer defence: the outlaying defence and the citywall defence. At the outside, Yu Jishi's two divisions of the 74th Corps guarded Banqiao-Chunhua, Xu Yuanquan's 2nd Corps-Conglomerate (the 41st & 48th Divisions) guarded Mengtang-Longtan, and Ye Zhao's 66th Corps & Deng Longguang's 83rd Corps [Yue-jun] guarded the east and west sides of Mt Tangshan. At Nanking, Song Xilian's 36th Division of the 78th Corps guarded the north gate, Sun Yuanliang's 88th Division of the 72nd Corps and Shen Fazao's 87th Division (under Wang Jingjiu's 71st Corps) guarded the south gate, and Gu Zhenglun/Gui Yongqing's Central Lecturing Column guarded the three peaks of Mt Zijinshan. A company of 6 ground-to-air cannons, commanded by regiment commander Miao Fan, were retained by Tang Shengzhi. Hu Zongnan was called over to Nanking on Dec 2nd for assisting Tang Shengzhi. However, Hu Zongnan went back to Pukou on Dec 5th when the news came that the Japanese army had moved along the north bank already.
On Dec 1st, Japan’s Central Front Army received the No. 8 Continental Order to attack and occupy Nanking. On Dec 2nd, Prince Yasuhiko Asaka took over Matsui Iwane’s dual commander post for the Shanghai Expeditionary Force, while Matui Iwane, as the front army commander, directed both the expeditionary force and the Tenth Army against Nanking from multiple directions. The order to the Tenth Army was for the 114th Shidan and the 6th Shidan to move along Liyang-Lishui Highway and Guangde-Honglanbu Highway on Dec 3rd for the Lishui area, with two additional contingents to penetrate westward to Wuhu and Dangtu for the Anhui Province segment of the Yangtze River. The Shanghai Expeditionary Force was ordered to have the 16th Shidan and the 9th Shidan move along Danyang-Jurong-Tangshan Highway and Jintan-Tianwangshi-Chunhuazhen Highway, with two additional contingents to cross the Yangtze at Jiangyin and Zhenjiang for a circumvential attack at the Canal and the Peking-Pukou Railway in the north.
From Dec 3rd to Dec 6th, the Japanese 16th Shidan and 9th Shidan punched into the cordon lines of the 83rd Corps and the 66th Corps, took over Jurong on the 4th, and pushed to the area of Huangmei, Tuqiao and Hushuzhen. The 10th Ryodan of the 11th Shidan attacked Zhenjiang, while the 13th Shidan crossed the Yangtze at Jiangyin to attack Jingjiang. Separately, the Japanese 114th Shidan, to be followed by the 6th Shidan, burst through the cordon lines of the 88th Division and the 74th Corps and took over Lishui and Molingguan by Dec 4th, and pushed to the area of Lulangzhen and Jiangningzhen. Kunizaki Shitai and the 8th Shidan attacked Dangtu and Xuancheng, respectively. On Dec 7th, Matsui Iwane ordered the siege of Nanking.
On December 7th, the Japanese army reached the perimeter of the Nanking city from three directions, and engaged in battles with Tang Shengzhi's forces of over 100,000 men. The Nanking city was first breached in the south, i.e., the Yuhuatai area, in the afternoon of Dec 12th. The Chinese soldiers who were stranded on Mt Zijinshan's three peaks in the east, who later attempted to break out by rushing down the hills, died to the last person till after Dec 13th.
More available at the DEFENSE-BATTLE-AT-NANKING-v0.pdf
Mt Xishan - Zhongshan-men City Gate
Mt Hongmaoshan - Baigufen
Guanghua-men City Gate
Mt Zijinshan - Peak II & Peak III
More available at the DEFENSE-BATTLE-AT-NANKING-v0.pdf
China's Dunkirk Retreat: From the Battle of Nanking to Continuing Resistance to the West (in English)
To view the real media videos, please use either Real Player or VLC Media Player or choose the youtube streaming linked by [1a; 1b; 1c, for example] (42 Videos in Chinese ranging from 30MB to 50 MB each; plug-in download might be needed)
Shi Huaiyu's River Crossing
Though, Shi Huaiyu, per Ma Weilong's order, still led his soldiers towards the Central Lecturing Column's headquarters for a check-out. Seeing nobody around, Shi Huaiyu brought his soldiers for a fast retreat towards the Yijiang-men City Gate to the north. Passing through Chengxian-jie Street, Shi Huaiyu, having recalled that an Anhui Province soldier was retained at the company headquarters for military cooordination, stopped over to fetch him. The lonely soldier, hearing of the retreat, trashed the German-made telephone set and followed Shi Huaiyu. Shi Huaiyu noticed rows of armed soldiers converging towards Gulou and the Yijiang-men exit where the gate was already blocked. Shi Huaiyu and his soldiers settled down at the east side of the gate and discussed about the next move. Shi Huaiyu pointed out that Japanese, who had been beaten severely by the Chinese forces during the day, would not know that the Nationalist Army soldiers had already evacuated from defence positions at the city wall, and Shi Huaiyu speculated that the Japanese might not enter the Nanking city till dawn since the Japanese might be afraid of possible ambush inside the city should they intrude into the city.
Soon, fire broke out at Yijiang-men. Shi Huaiyu heard that Song Xilian's soldiers were responsible for the arson which caused a lot of burning death among soldiers passing through the gate. At the suggestion of a soldier, Shi Huaiyu et al dropped down over the citywall by making cords out of bedsheets. On early morning of Dec 13th, Shi Huaiyu, outside of the gate and near the Xiaguan Wharf, recognized the dead body of telegraph platoon chief Hua Yourui. Shi Huaiyu noticed that the Yijiang-men Gate suddenly opened up and large crowds of soldiers came to the bank of the Yangtze River. Seeing the span of the river, soldiers were in deep regret over the retreat, stating that they would rather die in the frontline than waiting for death on the river bank. Hearing of the shots to the southeast, Shi Huaiyu et al entered the Xiaguan Cement Factory for establishing defence positions. Not having heard of further shots, Shi Huaiyu left the factory and then assembled hundreds of soldiers for a charge towards Shangxinhe by making a speech about dying a glorious death in fighting the Japanese. However, the crowd dispursed before reaching Shangxinhe. Shi Huaiyu et al had to return to Xiaguan.
By noon, they noticed lots of dead bodies floating down the Yangtze River. Numerous soldiers jumped into the bitter cold winter waters, with or without any floating tool. Seeing that his solders intended to jump into the river, Shi Huaiyu instructed them that whoever was to survive the crossing must remember to avenge the national humiliation and report their experiences to the army headquarters. Shi Huaiyu and the Anhui soldier made a convenience raft for the center of the Yangtze River. Fortunately, they encountered half way a boat, which carried hundreds of soldiers who had striken loose the iron chains of the boat at Xiaguan. A soldier on the boat recognized him and rescued him by extending over a bamboo pole. Unfortunately, the Anhui soldier and his raft flowed downstream. The boat was stuck about 100 meters away from a midstream island. Seeing that 2-3 Japanese patrol boats moving in the downstream area not far away, Shi Huaiyu encouraged soldiers to swim across the distance. About a dozen soldiers successfully swam to the island, only to find out that they had to swim across the sanwiched river before reaching the north shore. By the time Shi Huaiyu crawled through the muddy beach to the north bank, he found out that he was the only one who had survived the Yangtze River crossing. Japanese airplanes and patrol boats had gun down all the remaining soldiers on the boat. On the road to Chuzhou, Shi Huaiyu encountered two cavalry company soldiers who, both from Baoding of Hebei Prov, had told him that peasants on the Baguazhou Island had shipped them over with a boat.
Later, Shi Huaiyu learnt that brigade commander Ma Weilong had obtained the help from Ye Zhao/Deng Longguang's Guangdong troops in penetrating the Japanese line towards southern Anhui Prov. The Guangdong Prov armies broke through the enemy lines by departing the Taiping-men gate and circumventing the Yaohua-men city gate. The 5th regiment commander sought asylum in the refugee center, the 6th regiment commander hid himself among the civilians and slipped through the enemy line. Hao Wenzao, heavy machinegun company commander under the 6th battalion of the 2nd regiment of the 3rd brigade, retreated to Lingyuan where he and his 20 followers fought the Japanese till the dawn of December 13th. Later, he was captured at Xiaguan, slipped away when the Japanese used them for coolie work, obtained help in obtaining civilian clothes, and trekked his way to southern Anhui Prov by walking at night and hiding at daylight.
On the afternoon of December 14th, Shi Huaiyu himself, seeing a notice at the Chuzhou train station, boarded the train for Linhuaiguan. While on the train, Shi Huaiyu noticed that Hu Zongnan's soldiers were digging in at the Zhangbaling Ridge. At about 10:00 am, on December 15th, Shi Huaiyu encountered and counter-questioned Gui Yongqing as to how many soldiers had been brought across the river. Shi Huaiyu's Central Lecturing Column was to regroup in Kaifeng of Henan Prov. In Jan 1939, the Central Lecturing Column was re-organized into the 16th Division and in May 1939, participated in the Battle of Lanfeng in Henan Prov.
Blunders Of Tang Shengzhi
Tang Shengzhi, who volunteered for the defence of Nanking as a solution to Chiang Kai-shek's desire for resistance as political symbolism, had utterly no plans for logistics, relief and evacuation. Tang Shengzhi, who twice went into exile after losing the power struggles against Chiang, was the only general who advocated the defence of Nanking, a city half surrounded by the Qinhuai River and the Yangtze River. On the afternoon of December 12th, Tang Shengzhi assembled division commanders and issued the evacuation order. The evacuation order soon divulged and caused a panic across the Nanking city.
Iris Chang pointed out that it was Chiang Kai-shek who was to be blamed for the disaster. Chiang Kai-shek, who left Nanking with most of the transport tools and communications equipment, ordered that Tang Shengzhi evacuate across the Yangtze. Gu Zhutong called Tang Shengzhi on the noon of December 11th with the order. Tang, who also received Chiang's order via telegraph, claimed that his troops were too closely engaged with the Japanese to evacuate in an orderly way. However, Gu Zhutong demanded that Tang must cross river to Pukou by the night. At night, Tang received a second telegraph from Chiang. By the early morning of December 12th, Tang assembled his generals and passed on Chiang's order which was relayed to subordinate officers by 1:00 pm on December 12th.
Before crossing the Yangtze, Tang Shengzhi was said to have asked a German [Eduard Sperling] relay a message of ceasefire to the Japanese commander. At the afternoon meeting on December 12th, Tang Shengzhi first ordered that the 36th Division cross river at Xiaguan while the rest of the army break through the Japanese siege for southern Anhui Prov. Later, Tang changed order to allow the 87th Division, the 88th Division, the 74th Corps and trainee soldiers to go north in crossing the Yangtze.
While Tang Shengzhi and corps/divsion commanders were preparing to cross the Yangtze, soldiers of the Central Lecturing Column and the 87th Division were still in bitter fightings with the Japanese without a slight clue of the evacuation. Some soldiers even fired upon retreating soldiers by accusing them of fleeing the battleground, and Iris Chang mentioned that a nationalist tank, in Nanking, intentionally ran against retreating soldiers for sake of stopping the evacuation.
Gui Yongqing, having left the meeting, went straight to the headquarters of the 1st brigade for relaying the order. Gui Yongqing issued an order that each brigade/regiment should immediately evacuate towards the Yangtze Bank for regrouping at Xiaguan, Sanyihe and Meitangang, respectively, and that after crossing the Yangtze, soldiers were to re-assemble at Chuzhou of Anhui Prov. In the underground bunker on Mt Fuguishan, Gui Yongqing ordered that important documents be destroyed and suggested to tactician Qiu Qingquan that they leave for Sanyihe on the Yangtze Bank together. Qiu Qingquan stayed on to contact the regiments, while Gui Yongqing left with his bodyguard. Later, Qiu Qingquan, together with Guo Qi and Liao Yaoxiang, hid themselves among civilians, witnessed the Japanese massacre, and escaped Nanking. After the war, the survivor officers returned to Nanking to inspect on the monastery which gave them protection, leaving a handwritten note "Victorious Rteurn [to Nanking]".
At Sanyihe, Gui Yongqing found out that all civilian-purpose ships he had prepared at three locations had already been confiscated by the 36th Division and sent to the upstream across the river. At nighttime, Gui Yongqing crossed the river on a raft that was made by the engineering regiment. When the raft arrived at the opposite bank, Gui Yongqing was almost buried alive by the soft mud. By the early morning of December 13th, Gui Yongqing arrived in Chuzhou and was ordered by Tang Shengzhi to re-group his soldiers at Kaifeng of Henan Prov. Shi Huaiyu stated that 2nd brigade chief Hu Qilu, who slipped across the river faster than anybody else, was seen boarding a train with his wife at Pukou on December 13th. And, Shi Huaiyu listed the names of Li Qingyun, Mi Jingru and Xu Guozhang et al who initially hid themselves among the civilians, were later hired by the Japanese for driving trucks, and then slipped free with the help of the civilians in the Xiaolingwei area.
Shi Huaiyu stated that communications company chief Shi Youren, who had recruited his soldiers in Anhui in Oct, received the evacuation order at 10:00 pm on December 12th. When approaching the Yijiang-men, Shi Youren was stopped by soldiers from the 36th Division. Not having slept for days, Shi Youren fell asleep at the street curb, only to wake up to see the heavy fire at Yijiang-men. Shi Youren and his company made cords out of bedsheets and jumped over the city wall. Later, Shi Youren took about 20 soldiers for the Jiangxinzhou Island on a raft, stayed on the island for his soldiers to fetch two boats from the north bank, and crossed the river to Beishahe Bank near Chuzhou where he was received by a Whampoa classmate from the 78th Division.
Note that Tang Shengzhi did orally order on December 9th that the 78th Corps be in charge of all ships and vessels for sake of stopping any army soldiers or officers from slipping across the river. Tang issued this order at the outrage over the Japanese leaflets' calling for a surrender within 24 hours. Shi Huaiyu claimed that soldiers of the Central Lecturing Column witnessed how Song Xilian/Hu Zongnan's soldiers stopped the soldiers of other units from passing the Yijiang-men gate under purportedly Tang Shengzhi's order. (It is now difficult to judge whether 36th Chief Song Xilian or Garrison Commander Tang Shengzhi had authorized this blockade at the Yijiang-men City Gate.)
Shi Huaiyu stated that the only troops that managed to break out of Nanking intact or relatively intact would be Song Xilian's 36th Division at Xiaguan and Xu Yuanquan's 41th & 48th Divisions at Shangxinhe. Part of Deng Longguang's 83rd Corps, and Ye Zhao's 66th Corps, with casualties from repeated skirmish battles with the Japanese, circumvented around the Yaohua-men gate for southern Anhui Prov. Shi Huaiyu listed the names of regiment commanders, battalion commanders, colonels, platoon chiefs, and captains who sacrificed their lives defending Nanking: Xie Chengrui, Qin Shiquan, Li Yibo, Luo Yuefeng, Zhou Shiquan, Fu Shouyi, Shen Boshi, Wen Bingduo, Liu Nanxi, Li Weizhou, Wang Eqian, Hu Ying, Zhang Zhongxian, Qiao Menghe, Shi Guofan, Shi Zhenqiang, Li Chengye, Jia Weishu, Liu Guanjun, Liu Xiaowu, Xu Qianying, Hua Yourui, Cui Guangming, Chen Sijian, Guo Maode, Yu Xiangsheng, and Wang Jun.
The Rape Of Nanking
The 'Rape Of Nanking' occurred in December 1937 under the authorization of Japanese commander Matsui Iwane (Songjing Shigeng) and lasted for six weeks. 340,000 Chinese civilians and soldiers were massacred on basis of the statistics from the Red Cross and other organizations which buried the dead bodies, with full set of evidence recorded by foreign journalists as well as Japanese newspapers. Witness accounts in the West include Martha Lund Smalley, ed, American Missionary Eyewitnesses To The Nanking Massacre, 1937-1938 (New Haven: Yale Divinity School Library Occasional Publication No. 9, 1997), John Robe's Diaries of a German in charge of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone, and the Bates' Papers. Among 340,000 victims, about 190,000 people were massacred in batches, and both the number and the cruelty far outweighed the Atomic bomb victims of 210,000. (Iris Chang, in The Rape Of Nanking - The Forgotton Holocaust of WWII, pointed out that the International Military Tribunal of the Far East determined that 260,000 Chinese fell victims to the Japanese, not counting those whose bodies floated on the Yangtze River.)
However, the Japanese have never repented over their war crimes in earnest, and time and again claimed that their invasion had helped Asian countries to get liberated from the colonialist rule of Western powers. Note the Japanese denied that the massacre ever happened. Professor Hata Ikuhiko, out of his limited conscience, estimated that about 38000 to 42000 Chinese were masacred in Nanking. http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~dyue/wiihist/njmassac/killcomp.htm carried pictures of two war criminals, 2nd Lieutenants Mukai Toshiaki and Noda Takeshi, who killed 105 and 106 Chinese people during a "100 kill contest". The two lieutenants, at the end of WWII, were arrested by the Nationalist Government and executed in Nanking for their war crimes. During post-war trials, judges from eleven allied countries sentenced 25 surviving A-class Japanese war criminals to death. Over 2000 Japanese war criminals caught in China had been spared life. Japan occupation commander-in-chief Okamura Yasuji (Gangchun Ningci in Chinese) reached a deal with the KMT government in having him spared the war crimes' punishment. Chiang Kai-shek's government, in its race against the communists for control of China, had mobilized thousands of ships, equiv to 300,000 tons, for dispatching well over 2 million Japanese occupation forces and their families back to Japan within ten months (Nov 1945-July 1946), while the Japanese criminals caught by the Chinese communists were mostly set free in the 1950s after a so-called repentance over the crimes, not to count those who were abosrbed into the people's liberation army to become the so-called "Japanese Eight Route Army Soldiers". In contrast, Stalin had forced the Japanese Kwangtung army troops into coolie labor in Siberia as retaliation for the Japanese live dissection of Soviet prisoners of war. Later, the Korean War of June 1950 would lead to the US initiation in having multiple countries sign the peace treaty with Japan on Sept 8th, 1951, a treaty which deliberately excluded the Republic of China [Taiwan]. Not to mention the U.S. government's harboring the Japanese guinea pig experts from the Unit 731, with today's multinational pharmaceutical companies the direct beneficiary of the Japanese medical research results. In today's China, communists, for sake of attracting the Japanese financial aid, had even allowed some criminals to come back to China as 'investors' or the so-called 'inverse teaching text'.
The Japanese soldiers and officers raped the Chinese women of all ages, including pregnant women, and moreover mutilated their bodies after their beastly acts like gang rape, cutting off nipples, peeling off breasts and piercing the vagina or abdomen. Victims numbered no less than 80,000, per Iris Chang. The Japanese soldiers took pleasure in bayoneting the foetus even. The Japanese soldiers were recorded by foreign diplomats to have broken into the neutrality or safety zones (set up by the Westerners), hospitals, churches and schools (such as Jingling Women's University) to abduct truck-loads of women for army brothels (i.e., the Japanese army "comfort stations" which usually were staffed with Korean and Taiwanese women; however, in later years, mainland Chinese women comprised more than 2/3rd of the total Japanese comfort women).
Sorted out of the neutrality zones would be hundreds of Chinese policemen in black uniforms who were later herded to the outskirts and all massacred on the outskirts.
The Nanking Massacre was not an isolated incident. I already mentioned earlier that the Japanese invasion forces, upon landing in Jinshanwei, had massacred all their way through the coastal villages and towns on the Hangzhou Bay, leaving "wan ren keng" or the pits of ten thousand corpses along their path. At a village called Yaojiaxiang, the Japanese army collected hordes of Chinese peasants, stacked them together, and massacred them by piercing their long blades from top to bottom. Humble peasants of the Hangzhou Bay, today, as usual, would merely curse 'dong [east] yang [ocean] ren [people]' whenever they recollected the barbarity of the Japanese [including the Japanese pirates who rampaged the area in history]. (How ironic it was that the Japanese for hundreds of years constantly rampaged against the Yangtze delta, the place of origin for the ancient Japanese who came to China 2000 years ago and claimed to be descendants of Count Tai-bo of the Wu Statelet.)
Iris Chang cited a British newspaper reporter who visited the Songjiang town nine weeks after the Japanese invasion in stating that this Britishman only found five old persons sobbing in a French church in a city which once possessed an original population of 100,000. Separately, Father Jacquinot de Besange, who set up the Nanshi Refugee Center, had trekked to Songjiang in the aftermath of the Japanese occupation, and reported to the U.S. consulate officials that he saw almost no live souls along the 40-50 kilometers road to Songjiang. As noted by Marcia R. Ristaino in "The Jacquinot Safe Zone: wartime refugees in Shanghai", Jacquinot told Nelson T. Johnson, which was relayed to Stanley Hornbeck (a disciple of Paul Reinsch, one of limited number of American officials who harbored sympathy with the Chinese in the last 150 years), that "along the way, he had seen almost no Chinese alive and noted that desperately needed rice crops were untended and rotting in the fields...Japanese troops had entered the [Nanshi] Zone to round up refugees, including women." Iris Chang also reminded us that at Suzhou, a garden watercourse city on the east bank of the Taihu Lake, Japanese soldiers intruded into the city gate with masks and reduced the population to 500 persons from the original number of 350,000. The Japanese raped and abducted tens of thousands of women as 'sex slaves' at Suzhou. (Iris Chang, however, listed some irrelevant incident as something that might possibly changed the picture of the Rape Of Nanking: Iris Chang stated that Tani Hisao fell sick and stayed behind at Suzhou on December 7th, something which propelled the Japanese emperor's uncle into the post of commanding three invasion columns against Nanking; that Tani Hisao, for fear of the imperial uncle's possibly abusing power, had ordered that Japanese soldiers should regroup outside of Nanking, with only desciplined columns allowed for entry into the capital; that it was the Japanese imperial uncle who, having returned to China from Tokyo on December 8th, issued a secret order of "killing all prisoners of war"; and that the idea of "killing all prisoners of war" was derived from the approach adopted by a Japanese Rentai (regiment-conglomerate) commander in solving the fate of about 300,000 Nationalist Army remnants [including of course civilians or non-combatants] from the Battle of Shanghai, who stranded behind the enemy line after the Japanese landing at the Jinshanwei Beach.)
More available at the linked pictures below: http://big5.showchina.org:81/gate/big5/www.showchina.org/rwysjxl/njdtstl/200710/t129620.htm
No Prisoners Taken at the Battle of Shanghai
Per Iris Chang, the idea of "killing all prisoners of war" was derived from the approach adopted by a Japanese Rentai commander in solving the fate of about 300,000 Nationalist Army remnants (with innocent Chinese male non-combat civilians included, of course) from the Battle of Shanghai, who stranded behind the enemy line after the Japanese landing at the Jinshanwei Beach. The massacre in Shanghai alone could be 300,000. The reduction of population for the locals (natives) in the area from Shanghai to Nanking was estimated to be 900,000.
Prisoner of war killed at the Battle of Xuzhou (i.e., the Japanese Dozan [Tongshan] Campaign --which was another ironic point to show that the islanders, who had to move to the seas from coastal China, still remembered the ancient Chinese designation of Tongshan [copper mountain] 4,000 years ago)
Prisoners of War - Chinese Teenager Soldiers During the Resistance War
This webmaster's grandfather, who was a medical college graduate at the time, joined the guerrila army together with his teenager brother who was about 13-14 years old, and fought against the Japanese from 1937 to 1940 along the communication line between Occupied China and Free China, i.e., the land of northern Hangzhou Bay and to the north of the Qiantangjiang River, where army officers from the Hunan provincial army took over country magistrate posts in the aftermath of the Shanghai Battle. After initial barbarity of indiscriminate killing, the Japanese apparently loosened their terror grip a bit 2-3 years later. When the teenager brother was caught by the Japanese during a battle to cross the highway blockade, he was sent to prison where he stayed for half a year instead of execution on the spot, and was later released after payment of ransom and mediation of his stepmother who was purportedly an adopted daughter from the family of former acting R.O.C. president Feng Guozhang (July 1917-October 1918).
Japanese commander Asama checking on the young Chinese soldier captured at the Battle of Shanghai before killing prisoners
15-year-old Ji Wanfang captured by the Japanese Army at the Battle of Zengcheng near Canton in 1938 - before being killed by the Japanese
Three teenage soldiers captured and killed by the Japanese near Changsha
How unfortunate it was for China, with Stalin and the Chinese Communists in collusion with the Comintern spies such as the son of Prince Saionji - who was beside the Japanese emperor Hirohito, and Ozaki - who served as secretary to the Japanese prime minister Konoye Fumimaro, as well as the full house of Comintern spies in Roosevelt's United States government, colluding together to communize both China and Japan: one stone, two birds. China's fate was forever doomed, and today there is no hope to reverse the fate of the billion Chinese serving as coolies and slaves for the whole world, with the Chinese Communists [national capitalists, to be exact] acting as the grand housekeeper for the multinational corporations and banksters.
The Nanking Massacre through the Oral Recitals of the Japanese Army Soldiers and Officers (in Japanese):
Documentary videos about China's Resistance War: 42 Video Series in Chinese
To view the real media videos, please use either Real Player or VLC Media Player or choose the youtube streaming linked by [1a; 1b; 1c, for example] (42 Videos in Chinese ranging from 30MB to 50 MB each; plug-in download might be needed)
The Great Rescue of 1937
In Nanking, quite some foreign teachers at both Nanking University and Nanking Women University changed their summer vacation plans in anticipation of the July 1937 Sino-Japanese War. After the Aug 13th outbreak of war in Shanghai, George A. Fitch of YMCA, who was once invited to be an adviser to the "New Life Movement Committee", went to Shanghai to organize the "Zhabei Service Team" as part of his YMCA Youth Society activities. Among young men and women employed by Magee would be Xu Qingliang who was spotted and recruited by the missionary inside of the refugee center when the Japanese drove the Shanghai civilians in the Yangshupu area across the Huangpu River during the Jan 28th, 1932 Incident. Xu Qingliang et al., retreated to Nanking in Nov after the Zhabei path of return from Baoshan to Shanghai was cut off. In Shanghai, Rev John G. Magee of the American Church Mission assisted Father Jacquinot de Besange in establishing a refugee center of 110,000 people in the Nanshi area. Rev John G. Magee returned to Nanking and took charge of providing service for refugees and wounded soldiers. At the suggestion of Nanking University board of director Hang Liwu, the International Safety Zone was proposed for covering an area of about 3.86 square kilometers, encapsulating the universities, consulates, German club and American Gulou Hospital. The International Safety Zone was both agreed upon by Nanking Mayor Ma Chaojun and acknowledged by the Japanese commander in Shanghai. George A. Fitch, after instructing Xu Qingliang in using the YMCA facilities for receiving refugees and wounded, took a trip to seeing his family members depart via American warship Chautomont in Qingdao but missed them by one day late when he arrived on Nov 16th by changing trains and buses due to the Japanese bombing along the railway line north of the Yangtze.
By December 10th, 1937, the majority of foreigners had fled Nanking. Remnants would board American Warship Panay on the evening of the 11th. (The next day, i.e., the afternoon of December 12th, Panay was sunken by Japanese bombers about 50 kilometers upstream of Nanking; however, the Americans continued the appeasement policy well into the Pearl Harbor attack four years later. (In the opinion of the American government, this webmaster believes, the Japanese could alway take half of China, but not the whole of China - an admonition to be remembered by today's Japanese.) Back on February 10th, 1932, per Donald Jordan, the Japanese ronin-police attacked the U.S. vice-consul Arthur Ringwalt who accompanied a Chinese-American mother on a return trip to the Hongkou District in search of her child, which came to be called the "gravest incident" by secretary of state Stimson. Later on July 26th, 1939, the U.S. announced the annulment of the "commerce act with Japan" within 6 months in protest of the Japanese encirclement of Tianjin's settlement and insulting the British & American citizens.) Those who remained to be eyewitnesses to the fall of Nanking on December 13th would include Archibold T Steele of "Chicago Daily News", L G Smith of "Reuters", C Yates McDaniel of "Associated Press", Tillman Durdin of "New York Times", and Arthur Mencken of "Paramount Pictures". At the demand of the Japanese military, foreign reporters left Nanking on the 15th. On the 17th, Tillman Durdin of "New York Times", on board a ship at the mouth of Wusongkou & Yangtze, announced the "Nanking Atrocity" to the world, with description of about 200 men being gun down within 10 minutes near the dock where the reporters boarded the ship on the 15th. Three months later, on March 16th, George A. Fitch of the YMCA published a report on the atrocities in HK's "South China Morning Post". In July 1938, Harold J. Timberley of "Manchester Guardian Weekly", on basis of MS Bates & George A Fitch accounts, wrote a comprehensive report entitled "What War Means: The Japanese Terror In China: A Documentary Record".
Written by Ah Xiang
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